Kōrero: Te ture – Māori and legislation

Whārangi 2. Ngā ture e pā ana ki te whenua

Ngā whakaahua

Ahi kā

E ai ki ngā tikanga Māori tuku iho, nō te hapū me te iwi te whenua, ā, ko te huarahi matua mai tēnei o te mana whenua o te tangata. He mea tahutahu e rātou ngā ahikā kia kore ai e mātao. Ko ētahi he roharohai, he whenua noho pupuni rānei.

Te ahi tere

E ai ki a Tākuta Douglas Sinclair: ‘Ki te whakarere te wahine i tōna kāinga kia moe ki roto ki tētahi atu iwi, ka kīia tōna noho kua ahi tere. Ki te hoki mai rātou ko ana tamariki, kua kā anō te ahi. Nā konei kua tāmautia anō tērā hononga. Ki te kore e manaakitia e ngā whakatipuranga tērā ahi, ka poko, ka noho hei ahi mātaotao’.1

Ko te tikanga Māori mō te noho tūturu ki tētahi wāhi ko te ahi kā. Mēnā ka whakarerea e tētahi tōna anō kāinga, ka tāmōmō tōna ahi kā. Ki te kore e manaakitia e ngā whakatipuranga e toru, e whā rānei ki muri ka kīia kua weto te ahi.

Ngā take whenua o mua

Nā runga i ēnei take ka whai mana te iwi ki te whenua. Ko ngā take ēnei:

  • take taunaha, take kite rānei
  • take raupatu
  • take tukua
  • take tīpuna.

Te tautohu i ngā mana whenua

Ko ngā tikanga Māori ēnei mō te tautohu i  te whenua:

  • he tūāhu
  • he tohu – ngā tohu tangata, tohu rākau, tohu kōhatu, ngā rākau tanu iho, me ngā rua kōiwi
  • he mātauranga mahi tuna, mahi ika, mahi kai hoki
  • he ātete – te tutetute i te hoariri mai i ngā whenua

Nē hā?

1,200 ngā kerēme i rangona e te Land Claims Commission, e pā ana ki ngā hoko i mua i te hainatanga o te tiriti. E whai ake nei ko ētahi kaikēreme: he tuakana he teina  tokorua, nā rāua i kokoraho te 1.3 miriona heketea ki te wāhi kei reira anō te tāone o Tāmaki; ko tētahi tangata o Ahitereiria i kokoraho i te 8.1 miriona heketea ki Te Waipounamu; me te Kamupene Niu Tīreni. I kerēme rātou i ngā whenua katoa i Ngāmotu ki Ōtautahi.

Land Claims Ordinance 1841

Ko te nuinga o ngā ture e pā ana ki te Māori i pā hoki ki te whenua. Nā runga i te ture Land Claims Ordinance 1841 ka whakatūria te Tari Tiaki Iwi Taketake hei aukati i ngā mahi whānako whenua a ngā manene hou ki Aotearoa. I raro i tēnei Ture ka hangā anō hoki te Old Land Claims Commission, hei tirotiro i ngā hoko whenua i mua i te hainatanga o te tiriti o te tau 1840.

Ka whakataha te Karauna i ngā kereme whai wāriu a ngā tāngata whai, ā, ka whakaitia te nui o nga whenua ka hokona i ētahi atu kereme. Ka mutu mā te ture o te tau 1841 ka mau tonu i te Karauna ērā whenua kāore i eke ngā keremehia.

Ka puta te kī a te hēkeretari koroni a Willoughby Shortland kāore tonu ēnei kaupapa i te taupatupatu ki te Tiriti o Waitangi. Koia tētahi o te hunga Pākehā i whakaaro ko ngā whenua mō ngā whare me ngā māra kāore e whakamahia anake ngā whenua e whai take ai te Māori. 

Native Land Purchase Ordinance 1846

Mai i te tau 1840 ka tīmata te waipuke o te motu e ngā manene mai i Peretānia. I raro i te wāhanga tuarua o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ko te Karauna anake te kaihoko i te whenua Māori.

I te tau 1844 ka whakamāmā a Kāwana Pitiroi i tēnei ture, ā, ka āheitia te hoko tōtika e ngā manene. Heoi, i te ture Native Land Ordinance 1846 ka aukati a Kāwana Kerei i aua hoko. Kātahi ka kaha ake ngā hoko a ngā kaihoko o te kōmihana whenua (Native Land Purchase Commission) i te whenua Māori mā te Karauna. He mūrere ētahi o ngā rautaki i whakamahia e rātou, pērā i te:

  • aro ki ngā tūtūā o te iwi
  • te whakaweti i ētahi ki te pakanga
  • te hoko mai i te tangata kotahi
  • te hoko whenua mai i te tangata ehara nōna te whenua
  • te oati whenua rāhui i muri i ngā hoko. He wā kua tukuna he whenua rāhui, engari kei ngā ururua me ngā whenua torehape kē.

Ngā matikara hao 

Ko Thomas Randall tētahi kaiwhakaū i te Pēke o Aotearoa. Ko Frederick Whitaker te rōia. He minita hoki rāua i te wā i tonoa e te kāwanatanga te toru miriona pāuna mai i Peretānia ki te tautoko i ngā riri whenua, me te whanaketanga o ngā whenua raupatu. E ai ki te niupepa The New Zealander ‘ko tā te roia o te pēke a Wītaka ki te pēke, me kōrero atu ki a Pirimia Wītaka, ā, nāna a Wītaka te rōia o te pēke i whakatūtaki ki a Wītaka te Rōia Matua. Nā Witaka te Roia Matua i tuku te mahi Minita Pakanga Kairīwhi ki a Witaka i te korenga atu o Rusell o te kamupene Whitaker and Russell.’

New Zealand Settlements Act 1863

I raro i te ture New Zealand Settlements Act o 1863 i āhei te kawanatanga te raupatu whenua mai i te tangata, mai i te iwi rānei “e whakaarotia ana kei te totohe”. Ki ngā kupu o te ture ko te Māori kore whakaae he Māori kino.

1.3 miriona heketea ngā whenua Māori i raupatuhia, me te kore e ōrite te tikanga. Tata ki te nuinga o ngā whenua o Waikato, otirā o te Kingitanga i riro atu, engari iti noa iho ngā whenua o te iwi totohe, o Ngāti Maniapoto ki roto i ngā pakanga ki Taranaki me Waikato, kāore i riro.  Ko te rerekētanga nā te mea he matomato ake ngā whenua o Waikato, otirā he pai ake ki te hunga pākehā.

Ngā kōti kāpeneheihana

I taea e te Māori te whakatakoto kereme mo ngā whenua i raupatuhia ki te aroaro o te kōti kāpeneheihana i roto i te ono marama. Otirā, i ētahi wā i whakaae te kōti ki te kereme Māori, engari kua hokona kētia ō rātou whenua raupatu. Heoi anō tā te koōti he whakawhiwhi whenua koraha, he whenua kē noa atu rānei hei utu mo ngā whenua i raupatuhia. Ko ētahi whenua i hē te raupatu i whakahokia ki iwi kē, kīhai ki ngā iwi nō rātou ake.

I te mutunga iho, 530,000 heketea ngā whenua raupatu i whakahokia e te kōti kāpeneheihana. I whakahokia ki raro i te taitara o te tangata kotahi, whai muri ka raru te mana o te iwi mo ngā whenua i hokona. I ētahi wā nā te mahi whakatumatuma a te Pākeha mau pū ka hokona atu e te Māori tōna taitara kotahi. Koinei te take i riro ai te 20,000 heketea i tētahi Pākeha, nō Matamata.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Douglas Sinclair, ‘Land: Maori view and European response’. In Te ao hurihuri: the world moves on: aspects of Maoritanga. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Hicks Smith, 1975. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāwiri Taonui, 'Te ture – Māori and legislation - Ngā ture e pā ana ki te whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ture-maori-and-legislation/page-2 (accessed 21 October 2017)

Story by Rāwiri Taonui, published 20 Jun 2012