Kōrero: Te ture – Māori and legislation

Whārangi 4. Te whakariterite whenua Māori

Ngā whakaahua

West Coast Reserves Settlement Act 1881

I te tau 1880 ka tono te kōmihana Karauna e karangatia ana ko te Kōmihana Tai Hauāuru kia tirotiro i te whenua i whakahokia ki a Taranaki e te Kōti Kāpeneheihana. Ko te māngai Māori ko Mohi Tāwhai tētahi o ngā māngai Māori, ā, ka wehe ia i te kōmihana i te kanohirua o ana hoa Pākehā ki te kaupapa. Ko rāua tonu i whiwhi whenua raupatu.

Ko te whakatau a te kōmihana ka mau tonu i te Māori te mana whenua ahakoa kāore taua whenua i te nōhia e ia. Nō konei ka whakamanaia te West Coast Reserves Settlement Act 1881 e te Public Trustee. I raro i tēnei ture ka āhei ngā kaiahuwhenua Pākehā te rīhi i te whenua mō te pīnati noa iho (iti rawa iho i te uara mākete). Ka rīhi whenua hoki ētahi Maori, engari he nui noa ake te utu i ērā ki ngā Pākehā. Nō te tu 1998 kātahi ka panonitia tēnei ture.

Native Lands Rating Act 1882

Nā runga i te Native Land Rating Act 1882 ka tau ngā reiti ki runga i te whenua Māori (i kīia ai he whenua Māori e puritia ana e te tokomaha). He 300 ōrau te nui atu o ngā rēti mō te whenua Māori i ērā kei te Pākeha. Kātahi ka uaua te utu i ēnei reiti nā te mea kāore te kaipupuri Māori i tuku ōkawa i ōna whenua ki āna uri, ā, he uaua hoki ki ngā mea kei te ora ki te whaiwhai i ngā utu mai i ētahi kei wāhi kē e noho ana. Nāwai ka riro ngā utu rēti ki ngā kaunihera, ā, i mua i te tau 1978, i āhei ngā kaunihera te tango i ngā whenua kāore anō kia utu rēti.

Engari mō te hoko

I ngā tau 2006 me 2007 ka nōhia e Ngati Tūwharetoa te Teihana o Taurewa, he pāmu kei raro i te mana o Landcorp e tūtata ana ki Taupō. I te porotū rātou ki te kore whakamana a te kāwanatanga i ngā wāhanga o te ture Public Works Act 1908. I te tau 1913 ka tangohia e te Karauna taua whenua mō ngā mahi whakangungu hōia. Nō te tau 2006 ka pīrangitia e te kāwanatanga kia hoko i te pāmu mō rātou anō. I te otinga ka mutu te noho i te whakakorenga o ngā hoko, ā, ka whakawhiti ngā whenua rā ki tētahi kamupene pupuri.

Public Works act 1864

Mai i te whakamananga o te Public Works act tuatahi o te tau 1864, ka taea te tango ngā whenua Māori mō ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga pērā i te hanga rori, hanga rerewe me te hanga taunga rererangi. He pai ake ki te Karauna te muru i ngā whenua Māori mō ēnei momo mahi, nā te mea he iti noa iho ngā utu kāpeneheihana, kāore rānei he utu. I raro i te wāhanga 40 o te ture, ko ngā whenua i tangohia kāore tonu e whakamahia ana me whakahoki ki ngā tāngata nō rātou ake te whenua. Kīhai te Karauna i whakamana i tēnei wāhanga o te ture.

Maori Lands Administration Act 1900

Nā runga i te ture Maori Lands Administration Act 1900 ka whakamātau te kāwanatanga ki te whakamoe i ngā porotēhi whenua. Ko te whakatūnga tērā o ngā Kaunihera Whenua Māori. E rima ki te whitu ngā mema o ngā kōmihana nei, ā, ko te nuinga o ngā mema he Māori, engari ko te tiamana me Pākehā. I te tau 1905 ka panonitia ngā kōmihana hei poari kē, e toru ngā mema, engari kia kotahi anake te Māori. Mai i te tau 1913 e rua noa iho ōna mema; ko te kaiwhakawā me te kai rēhita o te Kōti Whenua. Mai i te tau 1928 kei ngā poari whenua Māori ngā mana katoa o ngā kaipupuri tonu. I te tau 1952, ka whakakorea ngā poari, ā, ka hoki te mana ki ngā iwi me ngā hapori. I tū tēnei āhuatanga hei whakanui i ngā mahi Māori i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. Heoi, i tērā wā kua kua riro kē atu e 90 ōrau o ngā whenua Māori o Aotearoa.

Te Kaitiaki Māori

Mai i te tau 1920 ka riro te whakahaerenga o ngā whenua rāhui Māori mai i te Public Trustee ki te Native Trustee. I muri i te Pakanga Tuarua ka karangatia ko te Maori Trustee. Nō raro i te ture Maori Land Amendment Act 1952, ka whakahaere anō te kaitiakitanga i ngā whenua rīhi a te Māori. I runga i te ture Maori Affairs Act 1953 me hoko ngā whenua kaipupuri tokomaha (iti iho i te 25 pauna) ki ētahi atu kaipupuri, ki te kāwanatanga rānei. I te tau 1967 e 50 tāra te pae o te hea kore whai hua. He nui ngā whakahē a te Māori ki tēnei tūāhua.

Ngā tikanga whakaheke

He rerekē ngā tikanga Māori mō te whāngai, mō te mārena me te whakaheke i ā te Pākeha. I te rautau whai muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, arā tonu ngā tikanga Māori mō te whenua ka whakamanaia e te kōti. Heoi nō ngā tau 1950 ka whakamanaia ētahi ture i tāmia ai ngā tikanga Māori. Nā konei ka kore e āhei te tuku i nga whenua o ētahi ki ā rātou tamariki whāngai.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāwiri Taonui, 'Te ture – Māori and legislation - Te whakariterite whenua Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ture-maori-and-legislation/page-4 (accessed 20 July 2019)

Story by Rāwiri Taonui, published 20 Jun 2012