Kōrero: Te hī ika

Whārangi 6. Te whakahaere rawa hao ika

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā whakatau: 1989 me 1992

Ko te iwi Māori te tōpūtanga tāngata nui rawa i roto i ngā mahi hao ika ki Aotearoa. Neke atu i te hautoru o te ahumahi hao ika kei roto i ngā ringaringa o te Māori. I hua mai tēnei āhuatanga i ngā whakataunga a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, arā:

  • i te tau 1989 e 10% o ngā rawa hao ika o Aotearoa i tāpaea ki te Māori, tae atu ki tētahi tahua moni
  • i te tau 1992 ko te whakataunga whakamutunga o ngā tono a te iwi Māori mō ngā rawa hao ika. Kīia ai tēnei whakataunga, ko te whakataunga o Sealord. Ko Sealord Products te kamupene hao ika nui rawa ki Aotearoa. E 50% o Sealord Products i tukuna e te kāwanatanga ki te iwi Māori.

Ka puritia e Sealord Products e 22% o ngā roherohenga hao ika katoa i raro i te tikanga Quota Management System, arā, te tikanga whakahaere i ngā rawa hao ika o Aotearoa. I tua atu, ka whakaritea mā te Māori te e 20% o ngā haonga momo ika hōu ka kuhuna ki te Quota Management System.

Nō te tau 1989 ka whakatūria te Kōmihana Hao Ika Māori (Māori Fisheries Commission); nā te taunga whakamutunga ka puea ake ko Te Ohu Kaimoana (Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission). Ko te kaupapa a Te Ohu Kaimoana, ko te whakatenatena i te Māori ki ngā mahi hī ika, ko te tohatoha i ngā rawa hao ika ki ngā iwi. Kei te haere tonu ngā whakawākanga ki roto whare kōti mō te tikanga tohatoha i ngā rawa hao ika.

Ture Hī Ika Māori 2004

Nā te Ture Hī Ika Māori 2004 te kaupapa nei i whakatau. Ko te tikanga ka tohaina te haurua o te e $750 miriona o ngā rawa whakatau ki ngā iwi Māori.

Nā tēnei ture i turaki te Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission, ā, ko āna rawa i tukuna ki a Aotearoa Fisheries Limited me tōna kaipupuri hea, a Te Ohu Kaimoana. Ko ngā kawenga o tēnei rōpū tuarua mō:

  • Aotearoa Fisheries
  • Te Pūtea Whakatupu Trust (e tautoko ana i ngā hiahia Māori i roto i ngā kaupapa hao ika)
  • Te Wai Māori Trust (e whakatairanga ana i ngā hiahia Māori i roto i ngā haonga ika waimāori)
  • Te toha i ngā rawa hao ika ki ngā iwi.

Te hī ika a ngā iwi i ēnei rā

Kua hou kē ētahi iwi ki roto i ngā haonga ika arumoni, pērā i ngā iwi o Tainui, a Ngāti Maniapoto, a Ngāti Raukawa, a Waikato. He hoa tahi rātou i roto i a Raukura Moana, he kamupene hī ika ki moana uriuri. Whāia, ko Ngāi Tahu ngā rangatira o Ngāi Tahu Seafood Group, tētahi o ngā kamupene rawa hao ika nui ki Aotearoa.

Kei te hao ika tonu te Māori i raro i ngā tikanga mai anō, hei whāngai i te whānau, hei taka kai ki ngā huihui. Tērā tētahi hui ka tū ki te marae o Ōkahu ki Kāwhia, ka hora ngā kai reka rawa a te Māori, pērā i te pātiki maroke, te kōkī (tōtiti mai te ate o te mango). I mahia ngā ika nei i te whanga o Aotea. E ngana ana te iwi kāinga a Ngāti Te Wehi ki te pupuri i ngā tikanga mahi kai tūturu, ki te tiaki hoki i te moana me āna rawa.

Nā te whakataunga o te tau 1992 ka arongia nuitia ngā tikanga me ngā mahi hao ika a te Māori mai anō. Kua tū ētahi kaupapa arumoni i raro i te Fisheries Act 1996, pērā i ngā taiapure me ngā mahinga mātaitai. Whāia, i te tau 2000 ka whakatūria te taiapure o Kāwhia–Aotea. Mā ēnei kaupapa ka whai wāhi te Māori ki ngā mahinga ika me te tū hei kaitiaki.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith, 'Te hī ika - Te whakahaere rawa hao ika', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hi-ika/page-6 (accessed 16 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 12 Jun 2006