Kōrero: Te hī ika

Whārangi 5. Te taenga o te Pākehā

Ngā whakaahua

Kōrero ai ngā Pākehā tōmua mō te nui o te ika, mō te tino mōhio o te Māori ki te hao. E ai ki a Kāpene Kuki i te tau 1773, ‘He mōhio atu rātou i a mātou ki te mahi ika, tae rawa ki ā rātou tikanga hao’. 1

Kupenga nui whakaharahara

He nui whakaharahara ngā kupenga a te Māori. I te 4 o Tīhema i te tau 1769, ka tuhi a Joseph Banks mō ngā Māori o Pēwhairangi e kata ana i a rātou mō te pakupaku o tō rātou kupenga i te Endeavour: ‘Ka mutu tā rātou kata i te pakupaku o tā mātou kupenga, ka whakaaturia mai tō rātou kupenga, e 9 mita te hōhonu, me te roa! E hika! Kāore e paku iho i te e 720-900 mita tōna roa ina tautau ana taua kupenga i te ika. 2

Ngā tauhokohoko me te Pākehā

Ka tipu ngā tāone, ka haere tonu ngā mahi hī ika a te Māori. I te tīmatanga, nā te Māori ngā ika whāngai i a Tāmaki, i a Te Whanganui-a-Tara, i a Ōtākou. E ai ki a William Swainson te rōia matua, i te tau 1852, e 1,792 ngā waka Māori i tomo ki te whanga o Tāmaki, e kawe ana i te e 45 tana ika me ētahi atu kai.

Te paheketanga o ngā mahi hao ika a te Māori

Ka pakari haere te noho a te Pākehā, ka paheke haere te noho a te Māori. Nā te rironga o ngā whenua tata ki ngā tauranga ika me te tuwhera mai o ētahi atu mahi, kua kore ngā haerenga ā-iwi ki te hao ika. Nā te aro o te Pākehā ki te hao ika hei kaupapa arumoni, tāpae atu ki te memeha haere o te ika me ngā ture i utaina ki runga i te hao ika, ka paheke te hao ika a te Māori. Kāore i whai hua te Māori i te hao ika hei kaupapa arumoni; i te nuinga o te wā, he mahi te hī ika hei tāpiri i ngā mahi ahuwhenua.

Ka noho tonu te ika hei tino kai mā te Māori – kainga tonutia i ngā tangihanga me ngā hui nui. Ahakoa te paheketanga o ngā mahi hī ika a te Māori, i whāia tonutia e ia āna tikanga hao ika tuku iho. Nāwai ā, ka hōhā te Māori mō te korenga o ngā rawa hao ika. I te tau 1991 ka kōrero a Mere Hutcheson o Pōrangahau mō te wā i a ia e tamariki ana, mō te kohi mātaitai - te pūpū, te kina, te pāua, te kuku:

Ka tonoa mātou ngā tamariki e ō mātou kaumātua kia haere ki tātahi…He nui te kai i aua rā, kāore i pēnei i ēnei rā. Kua kore te karengo, me uaua ka taea he kōura. I ngā rā ki mua ka whakahokia e mātou ngā mātaitai ki te kāinga, ka akona mātou e tō mātou whāea kia tākai i te mātaitai ki te rau karamu ka tao ki te hāngī. Koirā te mahi i ngā rā ki mua, he pāwhara tuna, he pāwhara ika; engari anō ēnei rā. Ka hipa ngā tau, ka rerekē te titiro ki tēnei mea te mahi ika.
Kupu tāpiri
  1. J. C. Beaglehole, ed., The journals of Captain James Cook on his voyages of discovery. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1961, w. 169. › Back
  2. Hautaka a Banks: kōrero ia rā: 4 Tīhema 1769. http://southseas.nla.gov.au/journals/banks/17691204.html (nō te 12 Hanuere 2006 te toronga mutunga). › Back
  3. Kei te kōrero a Mira Szaszy, Te tīmatanga tātau tātau: early stories from founding members of the Māori Women’s Welfare League, nā Anna Rogers rāua ko Miria Simpson i ētita. Wellington: Māori Women’s Welfare League and Bridget Williams, 1993, w. 55. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith, 'Te hī ika - Te taenga o te Pākehā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hi-ika/page-5 (accessed 25 March 2019)

Story by Paul Meredith, published 12 Jun 2006