Kōrero: Te hī ika

Whārangi 2. Ngā taputapu, ngā tauranga, ngā tikanga hī ika

Ngā whakaahua

He maha ngā taputapu mahi ika o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i auahatia kia hāngai ki te hī ika ki Aotearoa: te kupenga, te aho, te matau, te matira, te pātia, te tāruke, te hīnaki, te pā tuna.

Ngā kupenga

He nui te tapu i runga i te mahi hanga kupenga, ā, he maha ngā tikanga, ture hoki. I mahia te nuinga o ngā kupenga i te harakeke māota, atu i te tītoko ika (hand net), ki te kaharoa (seine net). He māhē (stone sinkers) hei whakatau i te kupenga ki roto i te wai; ko ngā tahā hei pōito (floats).

I te tau 1886 ka mahia he kupenga nui whakaharahara ki Maketū i Te Moana-a-Toi e Te Pōkiha Taranui (Major Fox rānei) me tana rahi o Ngāti Pikiao. E 400 rātou. E 1.6 kiromita te roa o te kupenga rā. Kotahi anake te wā i whakamahia te kupenga nei, mō tētahi hui nui. Me mahi te iwi katoa ki te tuku kupenga pērā rawa te rahi.

Aho (lines), matau (sinkers), pātia (spears)

Mahia nuitia ai te aho me te matau ki te hopu hāpuku, kahawai hoki. He kaha ngā aho, he mea hanga i te muka harakeke.

Ka mahia te matau mai te rākau, te kōiwi rānei, te kōhatu rānei, te anga rānei. Hei ētahi wā ka whakamahia he pito kōiwi koikoi rawa hei matau; ina naomia atu e te ika, ka mau te poroiwi rā ki te korokoro, kūmea ana. He anga pāua pīataata hei maimoa (lure).

Ko te kāniwha (barbed spear) hei wero pātiki; he rite tēnei momo pātia ki ērā mō te mahi manu.

Ngā tāruke (pots)

Whakakīia ai ngā tāruke ki te mōunu hei hopu kōura. Hangaia ai te tāruke i ngā tātā mānuka ka pōkaia ki tētahi anga pirita, mānuka rānei, kātahi ka herea katoatia ki te harakeke me te pirita.

Ngā tauranga ika

He ingoa tō tērā tauranga ika, he ingoa tō tērā pari, he ingoa tō tērā toka. Kei waho rawa atu i te moana ētahi o ēnei tauranga ika. Hei tā Rēweti Kōhere o Ngāti Porou ko Hapurapoi te tino tauranga ika o ōna tūpuna, e 12 kiromita ki waho atu o Whanga-o-keno (East Cape). Ka whakahāngai ngā kaihī i ngā tohu o te whenua pērā i te maunga, te kūrae rānei hei tohu ko hea te tauranga ika:

Ki te moana ka titiro atu ki ngā pari tea ki uta. Kei reira tētahi papa matā e kōrekoreko mai ana ngā kōhatu. Tēnā tahuri tō titiro ki te mauī, ka pōhēhētia e piri ana te moutere o Murimotu ki te taiwhenua. Kāore e kitea te moana ki waenganui i a rāua. Koinei tō tauranga. 1

He mea nui rawa atu ki tēnā, ki tēnā iwi ō rātou ake tauranga ika, inarā, he taonga tuku iho i ngā whakatipuranga. Hei tohu ki te mahinga ika o tēnā whānau, o tēnā hapū, ka tokona he pou ki te wai - ngā roto, wahapū, aha atu.

Ngā wā mahi ika

I mōhio ngā mātanga ki ngā tohutohu mō te mahi ika, tae atu ki te maramataka whakaatu ko hea ngā rā pai. Whakamahia tonutia ana ēnei tohutohu i ēnei rā. Hei ētahi o ngā mahinga ika nui rawa atu, ko te rangatira tonu o te iwi ka whakahaere i ngā mahi, mai i tētahi tirohanga mātārae, e pā ai tana tohutohu ko hea ngā wāhi pai hei mahinga ika.

Waihoki, ka mōhio ngā tohunga ki ngā nekeneke me ngā marama hī i tēnā ika, i tēnā ika. E ai ki a Tāmati Poata o Ngāti Porou, ko te Māehe, te Āperira me te Mei ngā marama pai mō te hī tāmure ki Te Tai Rāwhiti; hei te Hune me te Hūrae ko te warehou me te moki. Hei ngā marama o Ākuhata me Hepetema ka haongia ko te tarakihi, te pōrae (trumpeter), te rāwaru te taipua (blue cod) rānei, te kehe (granite trout) tae atu ki te kumukumu (gurnard).

I Te Wai Pounamu ka hopukina te mangā (barracouta) mā te pōhau (large wooden hook with bone barb); ka haongia te mango nohinohi ki roto kupenga rarahi; ka mau te mango rarahi i ngā matau kua pōtaea ki te mōunu. Ka hopukina te ngōiro (conger eel) me te whakapuku mā te puru mōunu ki tētahi rau kua whiriwhiria ki te harakeke. Ka taea te kōura mā te poraka (he kupenga ka rite ki te pūkoro, ka tuwhera te waha), ka haongia te īnanga mā te koko, he kupenga whiri ita.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Report of the Waitangi Tribunal on the Muriwhenua fishing claim (Wai 22). Wellington: The Tribunal, 1989, w. 35. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith, 'Te hī ika - Ngā taputapu, ngā tauranga, ngā tikanga hī ika', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hi-ika/page-2 (accessed 21 June 2019)

Story by Paul Meredith, published 12 Jun 2006