Kōrero: Ngā whakahaerenga ā-iwi

Whārangi 6. Te hītori o ngā whakahaere hapori o te Māori

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800

Nō te taenga mai o te Pākehā ka huri te noho a te Māori. Ka hūnuku ētahi iwi ki tai kia tata ki ngā mahi tauhokohoko. Ko ngā iwi ka whiwhi ngā taonga nei, ko rātou ngā iwi i whakawhiu i ētahi atu. Ka kino ake te pakanga i ngā riri pū o ngā tekau tau 1820 me 1830. Koinei te take i heke ētahi iwi ki whenua tawhiti noho ai, me te pana i ngā iwi nō rātou te whenua. Ko te tauira, ko te heke a Ngāti Toarangatira, Ngāti Raukawa, Ngāti Mutunga, Te Āti Awa me Ngāti Tama i ngā rohe o Waikato me Taranaki kia noho ki ngā whenua o Te Moana-o-Raukawa.

Te awe o te Pākehā

I te taenga mai o ngā tāngata whai Pākehā ki Aotearoa i muri i te tau 1840, ka rerekē anō te āhua ki ngā hapū me ngā iwi. Nā runga i ngā whakatenatena a ngā mihinare, ka kohia ngā maramara o ētahi iwi ka whakanohoia ki ētahi kāinga e whai hua ai rātou i te noho tata ki te Pākehā. Heoi i waenganui i ngā tau 1840 ki 1900 ka riro te rahi o ngā whenua o te Māori – nā ngā hoko rūkahu a te kāwanatanga, ngā pakanga mō te whenua, te raupatu whenua, me ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ka paheke te noho a te Māori. Ka marara ētahi iwi, hapū, ka wehe atu rānei i ō rātou whenua. Ka heke te kaha o te iwi Māori nā te tahumaero, te pāhua, me te whakamomori. I waenganui i ngā tau 1840 ki 1891 ka heke te tokomaha mai i te e 80,000 ki te e 42,000. Kātahi ka hē kē ake ngā hapori. Ka ngaro ētahi iwi, hapū, ka ngoikore ētahi.

Te kaha haere o ngā iwi

I ngā rau tau 1800 me 1900 ka kapi e te iwi ngā kaupapa tōrangapū a te hapū i mua. Atu i te pokapū o te rau tau 1800 ki tōna mutunga, ka whakakotahi ngā iwi Māori ki te ātete i ngā ture whakararu a te Pākehā. Ka tautoko te kāwanatanga i ngā iwi hei māngai kōrero i te mea he pai ake te whiriwhiri kaupapa me ngā māngai o ngā iwi tērā i te kōrero ki te maha o ngā hapū. Nō muri i te tau 1945, ka whakatūria ngā poari kaitiaki ā-iwi, e tau ai ngā kerēme a te Māori i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kei te haere tonu tēnei mahi i tēnei wā. Kua kohikohi ētahi iwi ki te whakatakoto kerēme ki Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I te whakataunga o te kerēme mō ngā rawa hao ika i te tau 1992, ka kōrero te kāwanatanga ki ngā iwi, kāpā ngā hapū. I ēnei rā, ko te nuinga o ngā whakahaere a te Māori kei te taumata o te iwi, kāore i te tūranga hapū. Ko te nuinga o ngā poari kaitiaki me ngā rūnanga nā te ture i tū.

Te noho tāone

Nā te noho tāone kua takahuri te āhua o te whakahaere i nga hapori Māori. I te tau 1936, e 83 ōrau te nui o te iwi Māori e noho ana ki ngā taiwhenua, e 17 ōrau anake i ngā tāone. Nāwai ā, kua mātotoru te noho a te Māori ki ngā tāone: i te tau 1945 e 36 ōrau te nui; i te tau 1986 e 80 ōrau te nui. Ko te rangatahi, te hunga takitahi e kimi oranga ana i te kore whenua, te rawakore me te huakore te nuinga o te hunga ka heke ki ngā tāone. I ngā tekau tau 1950 me 1960 nā te iwi nei ngā mahi ihu oneone i whakakī.

Nā te noho tāone anō hoki ka raru te tuakiri Māori. Tini te Māori e kūare ana ki ō rātou hapū, iwi. E ai ki ngā tatauranga o te tau 2001, e 20 ōrau o ngā tāngata Māori kīhai i mōhio nō tēhea iwi rātou. Ko ētahi tāngata e mōhio ana ki ō rātou iwi, heoi, kāore e mōhio ki ō rātou hapū. Ahakoa ēnei, e noho ora tonu ana te mana o te whānau. He maha ngā Māori noho tāone e pupuri tonu ana i ō rātou herenga ki te wā kāinga. Kei ētahi iwi ō rātou ake marae kei tāone, tae atu ki ngā taura here. Kua tīmata ētahi iwi ki te hono i ngā rangatahi kei ngā tāone ki ō rātou marae, hapū, iwi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāwiri Taonui, 'Ngā whakahaerenga ā-iwi - Te hītori o ngā whakahaere hapori o te Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-whakahaerenga-a-iwi/page-6 (accessed 21 April 2019)

Story by Rāwiri Taonui, published 8 Feb 2005