Kōrero: Ngā tuakiri hōu

Whārangi 4. Te aranga hou o te tikanga whakaaro

Ngā whakaahua

I te tau 1975 ka waihangatia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ā, nō te tau 1984 ka timata ngā mahi tirotiro ki ngā kerēme whenua, nō ngā tau o te 1980 me te 1990 ka tīmata ngā whakataunga o aua kerēme. Ko ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi ka whakauruhia ki ngā ture o te motu.

Whakaakoranga Māori

Nō te pokapū o te tekau tau 1980 ka puta mai te kōhanga reo, te kura kaupapa, te tikanga reo rua, te whare kura me te whare wānanga.

Reo Māori

I te tau 1987 ka whakatūhia te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori, ngā reo irirangi Māori puta noa i te motu me Whakaata Māori (2004). Ko te whakatūnga hoki tērā o Te Panekiretanga i te reo Māori, e aratakina mai ana ngā mahi whakarauora reo e Katerina Mataira mā rātou ko Pou Temara, ko Wharehuia Milroy, ko Timoti Karetu me Taiarahia Black.

Whakakorenga Nazis

I te whakanuitanga o te whakarewanga o Whakaata Māori i te tau 2004, ka whakamahi te mema paremata Māori a John Tamihere i te kīanga ‘language Nazis’ me tana whakatau. ‘Māori television will be a bilingual channel with subtitles, and therefore not held hostage by the language Nazis. That is hugely important because the vast majority of Māori are not fluent Māori speakers, and a Māori language-only channel would have shut them out' (Ko Whakaata Māori he hongere reo rua ka whai kupu hauraro – kāore e whītikia e ngā “language Nazis”. He mea nui tēnei nā te mea ko te nuinga o te iwi Māori kāore i te mōhio ki te reo. Ā, ka kore rātou e aro ki te hongene reo Māori anake).1

Nō te whakarauoratanga o te reo Māori ka puta hoki ngā tohe a te hunga kore reo ki te hunga pūmau ki te reo. Ko ētahi kupu whiua e te hunga kore reo he ‘language fascists’ he ‘language nazis’ rānei te hunga pūmau I te reo.

Te whakaara i ngā tūranga tikanga

Nō te aranga hōu o te ao Māori kua whānui anō ngā mahi mō te hunga kaumātua – ngā koroua, ngā kuia. Ka whai mana te hunga pakeke mō ō rātou whakapau kaha, ā, ka tauawhitia te hunga rangatahi me ngā mokopuna i te mea ko rātou ngā whakatipuranga kei te heke mai. Ko te kīanga ‘rangatakapū’ ka pā ki te hunga rangatahi e puea mai ana i ngā kura me te mātauranga, reo Māori hoki.

Ngā toa kaporeihana

Nō te kakenga o te ōhanga o te ao i ngā tau o te 1990 me te whai wāhi atu a te Māori, ka tipu mai te kīanga ‘muppies’ mō ērā Māori kua whai hua. Ka kīia hoki rātou ko te rangapū parāone.

Nā ngā whakataunga kerēme tiriti ka whānui anō ngā rūnanga me ngā rōpū ā-iwi me ka puta hoki he momo rangatira hōu. Ko ēnei hunga ko Tau Henare rātou ko Tukoroirangi Morgan, ko Tuariki Delamere mā, arā ngā mema paremata Māori o Aotearoa Tuatahi i te tau 1996.

Ko te ‘Wellington brigade’ ko ngā kaimahi kāwanatanga Māori kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara e tohutohu i te kāwanatanga ki ngā tikanga Māori. Ko ‘Ngāti Hūtu’ e pā ana ki te hunga tōrangapū Māori nei e whakawhitiwhiti tari, kaupapa hoki hei tohutohu hei whaiwhai kirimana hoki.

Kūpapa

Kua arā anō mai te kupu kūpapa mō ērā Māori tou areare kāore e whai painga mō te iwi Māori. Ko te tikanga ake o tēnei kupu ko ērā Māori i whawhai i te taha o te kāwanatanga i ngā pakanga whenua o te rautau 1800.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. ‘A window on a Māori world.’ http://www.beehive.govt.nz/node/19232 (i tirohia i te 1 Whiringa-ā-nuku 2010). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawiri Taonui, 'Ngā tuakiri hōu - Te aranga hou o te tikanga whakaaro', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tuakiri-hou/page-4 (accessed 24 August 2019)

Story by Rawiri Taonui, published 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017