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Ngā tuakiri hōu – new Māori identities

by Rawiri Taonui

I ngā tau tōmua o te 2000 ko te hōtaka take mohoa rongonui o Whakaata Māori ko Native affairs, arā he whakamahinga koi o te kupu ‘native’. Ki Ahitereiria ka karangahia te hunga Māori e rātou tonu he ‘Maussies’, ā, kei Rānana ko Ngāti Rānana. Ko te hunga urukēhu Māori, ka kīia he ‘waka blonde’, he ‘kōtuku mā’ rānei.


Early Māori identities

Ngā ingoa mō te Māori nā te Māori

E whakaarotia ana i takea mai te kupu Māori i te pānga tuatahi o te Pākehā ki te tangata whenua o Aotearoa. Ko tōna tikanga ake ko te mea tūturu ko te māori. Nō te taenga mai o tauiwi ki tēnei whenua, kātahi anō ka rapu ingoa motuhake te tangata whenua hei ingoa mōna, kia wehe kē hoki rātou i ngā tauhou. Ka urutaungia te kupu tāngata whenua kia pā ki ngā iwi me ngā hapū, e whai kanohi ake ai rātou i te manene. Ko ētahi anō aronga o tēnei kupu ko te iwi tuatahi, ko te iwi manaaki hoki.

Ka mutu he karangatanga anō ā te iwi Māori mōna anō whakawhanaunga ai tētahi ki tētahi. Ka mutu e whakamahia ana aua kupu i ēnei rā pērā ki te whānau, te hapū me te iwi. Kei tēnā iwi kei tēnā iwi hoki ōna karangatanga hapū. Ka whai tuakiri anō te Māori ki ōna marae, maunga, awa, waka hoki ā tae noa mai ki ēnei rā.

Kupu Pākehā mō te Māori

He maha tonu ngā ingoa a ngā tauiwi tuatahi mō te tangata whenua ake o Aotearoa. Ka mutu, he Iniana, he ‘aborigine’ (tāngata whenua), he New Zealander, ā, he Māori hoki. Nō te roa haeretanga o te noho mai a tauiwi ka mahue ētahi o ā rātou ingoa tuatahi mō te Māori, nā te Māori rānei rātou i whakatika. Nō te waipuke mai o ngā iwi katoa o te ao ki konei, kāore i whai take te karangatanga ingoa o te New Zealander ki te Māori anake. Whāia ka whakawhiti kōrero te kāwanatanga ki ngā iwi, ā, kaua ki ngā hapū, nā reira i whirinaki ai te Māori ki ngā karangatanga o te iwi.

Ngā tāngata iwi maha

Nō ngā whakamoemoe a te Māori ki ngā tauiwi, ka puea ake te ingoa o te ‘hawhe kaihe’ mō te hunga he taha Māori, he taha tauiwi hoki nō rātou. Nō te hounga mai o te whakapono hōu me ōna peka katoa ka puea anō mai tētahi āhuatanga whai tuakiri anō mō te Māori i ōna tumomo hāhi katoa.

Mai i te ‘native’ ki te Māori

Taka rawa mai ki waenga o te rautau 1900 ka kīia tonu e te kāwanatanga te ingoa ‘native’ mō te Māori. Ko te nuinga o te iwi Māori ka whakahē ki tēnei ingoa. Ka huri te kāwanatanga i te ingoa ki te Māori i muri mai i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. He pēnei ko te Department of Native Affairs ka huri hei Department of Māori Affairs.


Urban identifiers

Noho tāone

I waenganui i ngā tau o te 1950 me te 1960, e 60 ōrau o te iwi Māori ka neke mai i ngā taiwhenua ki te tāone noho ai. Hīkaka tonu tēnei hunga te neke mai i te rawakore o ngā papakāinga. Mai i te tau 1840 ki te tau 1950, e 95 ōrau o ngā whenua Māori ka riro, ā, ko ngā mahi whai utu iti anake kei ngā takiwā papakāinga ko ngā mahi ihu oneone me ngā mahi ā-marama. Ahakoa hūnuku mai ki tāone, tokomaha ka noho pōhara tonu, he ahakoa anō tēnā he pai ake te noho pōhara tāone mō te whai mahi tēnā i te noho pōhara ki ngā papakāinga.

Ka tōpū te noho a te Māori ki ngā takiwā whare pōhara pērā i Aranui ki Ōtautahi, Porirua ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara tae atu ki Ōtara, Ōtāhuhu me Ponsonby ki Tāmaki-makaurau. He rite tonu ka pēhia ka tāmia rātou ki ngā kaupapa mātauranga, hauora, whare, mahi hoki. Kātahi ka hē ruatia ina ia noho momotu te Māori i te Pākehā ki ngā tāone ka mutu ka momotu hoki te Māori i ō rātou papakāinga.

Ngā whakaaro Pākehā

He nui ngā whakaatu kaikiri nā te Pākehā ki te Māori. Tērā ia he māngere. Ko tētahi ingoa whakaiti i whiua ai ki te Māori he ‘Hōri’. Ko tētahi pōhēhē mō te Māori kāre rawa ia e mahi pūkenga, he takaroa hoki i ngā wā katoa. Ka kangaia hoki ērā Māori noho tāone ki ngā ingoa o te ‘boonga’ (he kanga ki te tangata whenua o Ahitereiria) me te poronika (mō te hunga mangumangu).

Nga kēnge me ngā Rastas

Nā ngā auheke o te noho tāone i ngā tekau tau o te 1960 me te 1970 ka tahuri te Māori ki ngā kēnge pērā i te Mangaru me te Mangu Kaha. Ki tā ngā kēnge, me pūmau, me mārō, me ū tonu te tangata ki ngā kara o te kēnge. Mai i te tekau tau 1980 ka whaiwhai te Māori i te whakapono Rastafarian (i ahu mai i ngā uri o ngā mauhere mangumangu o Karipia). Nō muri rawa mai ka whaiwhaihia te ia o ngā kēnge mangumangu o Amerika pērā i te Crips me ngā Bloods o Los Angeles, arā ngā ‘gangstas’.

He ihu oneone, he makau, he kaiwhakaaro

Ka whakahē te kaiako mātauranga Māori a Irihapeti Ramsden ki te kīanga tērā he ‘toa’ whawhai anake te Māori o mua, hāunga ko tāna he toa anō ki te māra, ki te tātai arorangi, ki te whakaniko kōrero, ki te moenga anō hoki.1

Tikanga whakaaro ‘bro’

Nō te noho tāone ka whānui ake te āria o te whānau, ka mutu i te whakakotahitanga o ngā iwi Māori katoa ki te hapori kotahi. Nō konei ka maharatia he uri katoa te Māori, ahakoa nō hea ake ia ka huaina hoki he ‘cuzzies’. Ko ngā tāne Māori hoki ka karanga i a rātou he ‘bro’ ā kīia ake tēnei tū tikanga tāone ko te ‘bro culture’.

Ka whai pānga te tikanga whakaaro ‘bro’ ki tērā o te tūranga ‘toa’ me te ‘sport warrior’. He āhuatanga hoki tēnei hei whakahē i ngā mahi kaikiri a te Pākehā me te whakaihi anō i te Māori. Nā te pueatanga mai anō o te haka i roto i ngā hākinakina, me ngā tū whakahirahira a te hunga pērā i te kāpene o mua o te Kapa o Pango ko Buck Shelford ka tauiratia te toa i ēnei rā.

Footnotes

Māori renaissance

Nō te paunga rā anō o te rautau 1900 ka whanaketia te taha mātauranga o te Māori ā, ka whakatairangatia te Tiriti o Waitangi me ētahi atu kaupapa hapori. Ko te aranga hou hoki tērā o ngā tuakiri Māori. Ina hoki rā i te tau 1992, ka whakaingoahoutia te Tari Māori ko Te Puni Kōkiri. He āhuatanga whakamana tēnei i te Māori kia tapa i ngā whakahaerenga e whai wāhi ana ki a rātou, ka mutu kia whai ingoa Māori anō hoki ngā tari kāwanatanga.

Ngā kaimautohe Māori

Hāunga anō te noho tōpū o te Māori ki ngā wāhi pōhara tāone, ka ara tonu ētahi huarahi hou ki ēnei wāhi. I ngā tekau tau o te 1960 me te 1970 ka kite te Māori ki ngā mautohe mana tangata o te hunga mangumangu i Amerika, me ngā mautohe whakahē i te pakanga ki Whitinamu. Arā anō ngā mautohe ki te whakahētanga o ngā kaitākaro Māori ki te tākaro ki Awherika ki te Tonga. Ko ērā atu mautohe nui ko te Hīkoi Whenua Māori i te tau 1875, ko te noho whenua ki te papa hahaupōro o Whangaroa me Takaparawha i te tau 1978. Nō taua tau anō ka pakaru mai te riri i te āraitanga o te rōpū o He Taua i ngā mahi whakaiti a ngā tauira Pākehā i te haka. Whāia rawa ka tū te Rā o Waitangi ki Pēwhairangi me ōna porotēhi katoa.

Ka rongo whānuitia te hunga mautohe o te Māori. Ka mutu ko tērā hunga rangatahi Māori i ārahi i ngā mautohe o ngā tekau tau mai o te 1960 ki te 1980 ka kīia ko te reanga rangatiratanga, arā, he kupu i ahu mai anō i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Mana wahine

Ko ngā wāhine toa Māori tērā ko Whina Cooper rātou ko Eva Rickard, ko Ripeka Evans, ko Donna Awatere ērā i arataki i ngā mautohe. Whai atu i a rātou ko ngā rangatira pērā i a Georgina Te Heuheu (te rōia wahine Māori tuatahi) rātou ko Whetū Tirikātene-Sullivan (te wahine Māori tuatahi kia tū hei minita matua o te kāwanatanga), ko Ngāpare Hopa (te wahine Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi tohu kairangi).

Mai i tērā ka tīmata te tāia anō o ngā moko kauae ki te hunga wahine Māori, ā, ko ētahi karangatanga mō tēnei hunga ko te ‘moko kauae’, ko te ‘wahine mau moko’, ko te ‘kuia mau moko’ rānei. Hei whakanui I te mahi o ngā wāhine rangatira, ā, hei whakarewa I ō rātou tūranga rangatira o mua. E ai ki ētahi Māori kore moko, ko te moko he tuhituhi kōkau.


Cultural revival

I te tau 1975 ka waihangatia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ā, nō te tau 1984 ka timata ngā mahi tirotiro ki ngā kerēme whenua, nō ngā tau o te 1980 me te 1990 ka tīmata ngā whakataunga o aua kerēme. Ko ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi ka whakauruhia ki ngā ture o te motu.

Whakaakoranga Māori

Nō te pokapū o te tekau tau 1980 ka puta mai te kōhanga reo, te kura kaupapa, te tikanga reo rua, te whare kura me te whare wānanga.

Reo Māori

I te tau 1987 ka whakatūhia te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori, ngā reo irirangi Māori puta noa i te motu me Whakaata Māori (2004). Ko te whakatūnga hoki tērā o Te Panekiretanga i te reo Māori, e aratakina mai ana ngā mahi whakarauora reo e Katerina Mataira mā rātou ko Pou Temara, ko Wharehuia Milroy, ko Timoti Karetu me Taiarahia Black.

Whakakorenga Nazis

I te whakanuitanga o te whakarewanga o Whakaata Māori i te tau 2004, ka whakamahi te mema paremata Māori a John Tamihere i te kīanga ‘language Nazis’ me tana whakatau. ‘Māori television will be a bilingual channel with subtitles, and therefore not held hostage by the language Nazis. That is hugely important because the vast majority of Māori are not fluent Māori speakers, and a Māori language-only channel would have shut them out' (Ko Whakaata Māori he hongere reo rua ka whai kupu hauraro – kāore e whītikia e ngā “language Nazis”. He mea nui tēnei nā te mea ko te nuinga o te iwi Māori kāore i te mōhio ki te reo. Ā, ka kore rātou e aro ki te hongene reo Māori anake).1

Nō te whakarauoratanga o te reo Māori ka puta hoki ngā tohe a te hunga kore reo ki te hunga pūmau ki te reo. Ko ētahi kupu whiua e te hunga kore reo he ‘language fascists’ he ‘language nazis’ rānei te hunga pūmau I te reo.

Te whakaara i ngā tūranga tikanga

Nō te aranga hōu o te ao Māori kua whānui anō ngā mahi mō te hunga kaumātua – ngā koroua, ngā kuia. Ka whai mana te hunga pakeke mō ō rātou whakapau kaha, ā, ka tauawhitia te hunga rangatahi me ngā mokopuna i te mea ko rātou ngā whakatipuranga kei te heke mai. Ko te kīanga ‘rangatakapū’ ka pā ki te hunga rangatahi e puea mai ana i ngā kura me te mātauranga, reo Māori hoki.

Ngā toa kaporeihana

Nō te kakenga o te ōhanga o te ao i ngā tau o te 1990 me te whai wāhi atu a te Māori, ka tipu mai te kīanga ‘muppies’ mō ērā Māori kua whai hua. Ka kīia hoki rātou ko te rangapū parāone.

Nā ngā whakataunga kerēme tiriti ka whānui anō ngā rūnanga me ngā rōpū ā-iwi me ka puta hoki he momo rangatira hōu. Ko ēnei hunga ko Tau Henare rātou ko Tukoroirangi Morgan, ko Tuariki Delamere mā, arā ngā mema paremata Māori o Aotearoa Tuatahi i te tau 1996.

Ko te ‘Wellington brigade’ ko ngā kaimahi kāwanatanga Māori kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara e tohutohu i te kāwanatanga ki ngā tikanga Māori. Ko ‘Ngāti Hūtu’ e pā ana ki te hunga tōrangapū Māori nei e whakawhitiwhiti tari, kaupapa hoki hei tohutohu hei whaiwhai kirimana hoki.

Kūpapa

Kua arā anō mai te kupu kūpapa mō ērā Māori tou areare kāore e whai painga mō te iwi Māori. Ko te tikanga ake o tēnei kupu ko ērā Māori i whawhai i te taha o te kāwanatanga i ngā pakanga whenua o te rautau 1800.

Footnotes

New terms for a new world

Māori kirihou

Nō ēnei rangi whakaaraara tikanga Māori nei kātahi rawa ka whai taha Māori ētahi tangata. Nō konei ka tipu te kīanga he Māori whānau hōu ‘born again Māori’, he Māori parakiti rānei ‘plastic Māori’, koia rānei ko te ‘waka blonde’ me te ‘kōtuku mā’.

Ao pāpāho

Nō te whanaketanga o ngā whakaata Māori, ngā reo irirangi me ngā kiriata Māori ka puea mai ngā whakaaturanga pērā i a Mauri (1978), Once were warriors (1994) me Whale rider (2002). Ko te huanga ake tērā o ngā kupu ‘Mollywood’, ‘Horiwood’ me ‘mana media’.

Māori ki tāwāhi

Ko ngā ‘Maussies’, ‘Mozzies’ rānei, ko ‘Ngāti Rānana’ hoki tērā ētahi ingoa kārangaranga mo ngā hapori Māori kei Ahieteriria me Rānana e noho ana.

Takatāpui

Nō te whanaketanga o ngā rōpū mana takatāpui o te ao, te pāhitanga o te Ture Takatāpui Hanganga Hou (1986) me te Ture Mana Tangata (1993) me te kowhiringa mai o Georgina Bayer hei mema paremata hinehua tuatahi o te ao, ka whakamāori haere te noho mai o te hunga takatāpui Māori.

Ko Native affairs

Ko tētahi hua o te whakaaranga tikanga Māori ko te mana tapa. I te tau 2006 ka whakaingoa a Whakaata Māori i tōna hōtaka take mohoa ko Native affairs, ā, ka tapaina ki te kupu ‘native’ hei whakaatua mana tapa ingoa. Ko tētahi atu kupu i hua ko te ‘indigenous’, hei paihere ki ērā atu (Iwi Tuatahi) puta noa i te ao.

Ko Cultural transvestites

Arā atu anō ngā karangatanga mō te Pākehā, pērā i te ‘colonialist’, te imperialist’ me tauiwi. Kua manaaki hoki te Māori i te āria o te iwi ruatanga mēnā ka kore e tukituki ki te mana o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kua rangona hoki te kīanga o te ‘cultural transvestite’ mō ngā Pākehā whakaputa mōhio mō te ao Māori. Nō nā tata nei, kua whakamahia te kupu ‘tāwāhi’ mō te hunga manene kua haramai i ngā whenua pērā i Āhia.

Ngā tatauranga tāngata

Kei ngā tatauranga tāngata Māori e tohu ana hoki i te huringa o te tūranga Māori. Tae rawa ki te tau 1986, ka uia te Māori i ngā tatauranga ā-motu kia whakatau mēnā he Māori katoa, ‘he Māori hautoru’ rānei he aha atu hoki. mai i taua wā kua whakakorehia tērā. E ai ki te tatauranga o 2006 e 644,000 ngā uri whakaheke Māori, heoi e 565,000 i kīia ai he Māori rātou. O ēnei, e 42 ōrau i kī he Pākehā hoki rātou, e 7 ōrau he taha Moananui-a-Kiwa, ā 1.5 ōrau he taha Āhia, ka mutu e 2.3 ōrau ka kī he tangata Niu Tireni rātou.


How to cite this page: Rawiri Taonui, 'Ngā tuakiri hōu – new Māori identities', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tuakiri-hou/print (accessed 1 October 2020)

He kōrero nā Rawiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017