Kōrero: Ngā mātua

Whārangi 4. Te tūkino me te whakawhiu

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

He pai tonu te manaaki o ngā whānau i ā rātou tamariki, ā, e ora tonu ana ētahi tikanga manaaki, haumaru hoki i te hunga tamariki mai i te tūkino me te takawarehanga. Hāunga tonu nā te āhua noho o ētahi whānau Māori ka tere te mōrearea ki ā rātou tamariki.

Whaiaro o mua

Ko tā Anne Salmond mō te ao Māori, ‘Kore rawa i patua ngā tamariki, ā, ki te rere te ringa a tētahi ki te patu, kua tauātia ia e ōna whanaunga ki te muru.’1

Heoi nō te tekau tau 1950, kua pau monemone ēnei tikanga, ā, ka tahuri ki te tikanga o te whakawhiu. E whakapae ana ngā kaiwhakamana hunga tamariki a Amster Reedy rāua ko Hone Kaa, kāre he wāhi tō te whakawhiu me te tūkino tamariki i roto i te tikanga Māori.

Te tūkino me te whakarere

Atu i te tau 1978 ki te tau 1987, 1.15 wā te rahi ake o te auau o ngā kōhuru tamariki Māori i ērā o tauiwi. Engari i waenganui i ngā tau o te 1991 me te 2000, ka piki te auau o ngā tamariki Māori i kōhuruhia ki te 3.5 wā te rahi ake i te auau o tauiwi – o ngā tamariki e 91 i kōhuruhia, e 47 he Māori. I waenganui i ngā tau o te 2001 me te 2005, e 2.4 wā te kaha ake o te auau kōhuru tamariki a te Māori i ō Tauiwi.

Nā te whakaahua o te ao pāpāho i ngā tamariki Māori i kōhuruhia, i tūkinohia rānei, ka āta tirohia anō te whakatipu tamariki a te Māori. Nā te tūngoutanga ki te rerekē mārika o ngā tatauranga kōhuru, tūkino, whakarere tamariki hoki a te Māori ki ērā o tauiwi i tahuri ai ētahi ki te kimi rongoā.

Ahakoa he take mamae, mā te arotake i te take o te tūkino tamariki Māori ka tūhurahia ake ētahi āhuatanga nui e whakakaha ai te karo i ngā mōrearea ka puta ki ētahi tamariki Māori.

Ngā whanonga

Ko ētahi āhuatanga e whai pānga ana ki te hunga tūkino tamariki ko te rawakore me te kore tohu mātauranga. Ko te nuinga he taiohi, he mate hinengaro i te inu waipiro me te kai tarutaru, he ika rānei nā te riri tara ā-whare i a ia e nohinohi ana, he kaihara rānei o mua. Ko te Māori ka whakawhiua ki ēnei mate o te pāpori me te ōhanga i hua ake i te tikanga takirua mā te Māori me tauiwi.

Te piripono

Kei runga anō te taiohi Māori i ngā tatauranga whakawhānau – neke atu i te toru te kaha ake i te taiohi Pākehā i ngā tau o te 2000-2. Ka taka tonu he hua ki ngā māmā taiohi me ā rātou tamariki mēnā ka whiwhi tautoko anō rātou, i ngā pūtea āwhina rānei mai i ō rātou whānau, mātua mai, hoa noho tata mai, hapori mai rānei. Hāunga nā te tamarikitanga tonu o ngā mātua me te iti o ngā pūtea tautoko hapori ka hua ko te rawakore ki a rātou me ā rātou tamariki.

He āhuatanga pū tonu te hononga i waenganui i te māmā me tana pēpi me te hononga hoki o pāpā me tana pēpi, e oha, e hōkai ai te tamariki Māori. He āhuatanga pū tēnei e kite nuitia ana mēnā kei waenganui pū tonu ngā mātua i te pā harakeke o te whānau.

Te auaha whānau ora

Aronui anō ai ngā whakapau kaha a te Māori ki ngā āhuatanga rawe e taea ai e ngā whānau Māori. He whakapikinga ora tēnei e koa ake ai, e mauritau ake anō ai te hunga tamariki. Hei tauira, i te tau 2009 ko Whānau Ora tērā ka whakatūhia ki te whakawhanake i te tikanga mahi e anga nui ana ki te noho ora me te tipu ora mai o te tamariki Māori. Kua tūtohu rātou i tētahi angaanga mahi e rima ōna huapae: ko te mahi me te whakawhitiwhiti me ngā whānau; kia pū anō ai te auaha me te tītaringa o ngā ratonga ki ngā whānau Māori; kia rangatira mai ngā iwi; kia pukumahi, kia whakawhiti kōrero ki te kāwanatanga; ā, ko te pūtea.

Te whaiaro me te kore papaki

I te tau 2008 ka whakatūria Te Kāhui Mana Ririki. He rōpū ā-motu tēnei e whakatairanga ana i te hunga nohinohi Māori. Kei te ihu o tēnei waka ko Hone Kaa. Ko tā te rōpū nei he whakahau i ngā hiahia o te hunga tamariki me te rangatahi huri noa te motu. Ko rātou anō te kanohi o te mau tohe papaki kore. I roto i tōna mau tohe ka whakapae a Minita Kaa kia pūmau tonu ngā kaiārahi Māori ki te take o te tūkino tamariki, ā, kia whakamanahia te tūranga whakahirahira o te whānau whānui kia noho haumaru ai te hunga tamariki, me te whakatairanga i te kore papaki tamariki me te hē o tēnei ki roto i te ao Māori. Ki tā Kaa anō, mā te Māori anō tonu e huhuti ake te tamariki Māori i te kino, ahakoa ko wai ia, ā, mā te whānau whānui, ngā hapū me te iwi e matapopore te hunga tamariki Māori.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Anne Salmond, Two worlds: first meetings between Maori and Europeans, 1642–1772. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Viking, 1993, wh. 422. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Cindy Kiro, 'Ngā mātua - Te tūkino me te whakawhiu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-matua/page-4 (accessed 16 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Cindy Kiro, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017