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Ngā mātua – Māori parenting

by Cindy Kiro

I mātai ake ngā Pākehā o mua ki te nānāhia o ngā tamariki Māori e ō rātou mātua, ā, he oranga kore here noa tō rātou. Ki tā te Māori titiro, i taka mai ngā tamariki i raro i te manaakitanga o te whānau katoa, kaua noa iho i ōna mātua ake. Taka rawa mai ki te tau 2000, e whakamāui ake ana ngā tikanga poipoi tamariki, pērā i te oriori me te mirimiri.


Parenting in tradition and history

Ko Ranginui me Papatūānuku

Ko ngā mātua tuatahi o te ao Māori ko Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku. Kei ngā kōrero mō te orokohanga, ka tauawhitia e rāua ā rāua tamariki ki roto i te pōuri kenekene. Ko te otinga ko te wehenga o ngā mātua e ā rāua tamariki – ki tā ētahi koinei te hara tuatahi.

Ko Tāne me Hineahuone

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, ka heke te tangata i te ira atua. Heoi ka whakatika ngā atua ki te rangahau i tēnei mea te ira tangata. Nā Tāne i hanga te wahine tuatahi i te one, ka puta ko Hineahuone. Ka moea e Tāne, kia rere ki waho ko Hine-tītama.

Tērā anō te kōrero mō te pūtakenga mai i a Tiki. Ki ētahi kōrero, hei tuakana, teina rānei a Tiki ki a Tāne rāua ko Tūmatauenga, ki ētahi atu kōrero, nā rāua a Tiki i hanga. I moe ia i a Marikoriko kia puta tā rāua tamāhine ko Kauataata.

Ko Taranga rāua ko Makeatūtara

I tapaina te tipua a Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga i tōna whānau kahu mai, i tōna tākaia mai ki te tikitiki o tōna whaea a Taranga, me tōna whiunga atu ki te moana. Nā tōna koroua nā Tamanuikiterangi a Māui i whāngai. Nāwai ka tūtaki a Māui ki tōna whāea. Hāunga, tērā tōna kare ā-roto he rangahau i te nōhanga o tōna matua. Nā tōna whakamomoka i tōna whāea, ka tūtaki mai ia ki tōna matua ko Makea-tūtara.

He whakaatu tēnei kōrero i tētahi āhuatanga nui o roto i ngā kōrero, arā mō ngā tamatāne i puta atu ki te rapu i ō rātou pāpā. Ko ngā tīpuna kāore i mōhio ki ō rātou matua i te wā e tamariki ana ko Uenuku, tama a te tipuna taketake o Ngāpuhi i a Rāhiri; ko Rangiteaorere o Te Arawa; ko Tamainupō o Waikato.

Tūnga: Ruatapu me Paikea

I ō nehe rā, ka heke mai te mana rangatira o te tamaiti i ōna mātua.

I tua whakarerē, i Hawaiki, ka hopukina a Paimahutonga e Uenuku, ā, kātahi ka aitia kia rere ki waho, he tamatāne. He mea kanga a Ruatapu e Uenuku ki te kōrero tama meamea, ā, ko tōna tuakana ko Kahutiaterangi kē tōna i tūmanako ai, tā te mea, he wahine rangatira kē tōna whaea nō te iwi o Uenuku. Hei utu, ka takoto te mahere a Ruatapu, ka patua ngā tama a Uenuku. Ko Kahutiaterangi (ko Paikea rānei) anake te rerenga.

Hītori tōmua

Kei ngā tuhituhi a ngā Pākehā tauiwi tuatahi e kī ana i whakapuhingia te tamariki Māori, ā, he ao kore herenga noa tōna. Ki tā te kaihōpara tauiwi tuatahi o Wīwī a Julien Crozet, ‘ko te āhua tonu he whaea manaaki, tiaki te whaea Māori. He rite tonu te wā ka kitea rātou e tākaro ana, e romiromi ana, e ngaungau ana i te aruhe hei mānga kai ki te waha o tāna tamaiti.’1

I te tau 1844 ka tuhi te mihinare Wīwī a Jean-Simon Bernard, ‘E wātea kau ana te mahi a te tamariki; kāre rātou e patungia. Kore rawa rātou e pāngia ki te ringa, kore rawa e whakaaengia kia tukuna mā tētahi atu rātou e patu.’2 Ka tiro tītaha te ao Pākehā ki tēnei tikanga i tērā wā.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Anne Salmond, Two worlds: first meetings between Maori and Europeans, 1642–1772. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Viking, 1993, wh. 422. Back
    • Two worlds, wh. 422. Back

Whānau and whāngai

Whānau

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, ka pū anō ai te whānau i te hunga kaumātua, ngā pakeke (mātua, kōkara, pāpara), te rangatahi me ngā tamariki hoki. I te takiwā o te 20-30 te nui o ia whānau Māori, ā, ka wāhia he wāhanga o roto i te papakāinga mō rātou. He māra anō tā rātou i roto i ngā mahinga kai a te iwi, ā, he wāhi motuhake anō tō rātou mō te tiki kai. Ka taunahatia anō ngā rākau hei whakamahi mō rātou. He mana motuhake tō te whānau i roto i ngā take huhua noa.

Nāwai rā kua huri tēnei mea te whānau. Kua whāiti ngā whare, kua kore e mahitahi. Kua marara anō te noho a te iwi Māori nō te wā o te noho tāone i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.

Ahakoa he ōritenga o te manaaki a ngā mātua Māori i ā rātou tamariki i ā tauiwi, he maha anō ngā rerekētanga. Ka paiherea ia te tamaiti Māori kia pūmau ki tōna whānau whānui, kaua noa iho ki ōna whanaunga tata anake. Kei roto i tēnei kōtuinga ko ngā uri, ngā kaumātua, te hapū me te marae.

Kanorau

Mai anō i ngā rā kua pahure ā tae noa mai ki ēnei rā, he hihiri nui, he huhua noa ngā whānau i roto i ngā huringa o te ao me ngā tītakatakanga o tēnei mea te whānau. Ka taea te whānau te whakawhanake me te whakarerekē i roto i te momo mahi e mahi nuitia ana e taua whānau.

He maha anō ngā āhuatanga ki te whakapakeke tamariki Māori. He maha anō hoki ngā rerekētanga mai o ia whānau, me ngā tini rerekētanga i waenganui i te Māori me Tauiwi.

Whāngai

He āria nui te whāngai i ngā wā o mua, ā, e whai hīranga tonu ana i ngā whānau Māori. He āhuatanga whakapakeke tēnei i te tamaiti irāmutu, anō nei he tamaiti ake nā ngā mātua. Ka whāngaihia te whāngai rite tonu ia hei tungāne, tuahine rānei.

He rite tonu te wā ka riro te whāngai ki raro i ngā tohutohu o te whānau, tae rawa ake ki te wā o te noho tāone. Ka whiwhi mahi e tata ana ki ngā tāone nunui, ā, ka noho tahi me ngā whanaunga. I ētahi wā ko tā te whāngai he tiaki whare, tamariki rānei – hei tautoko i te whānau. Kāore e ōrite te tūnga whānau ki ngā tamariki ake o te whānau, he tūnga epeepe i ētahi wā. Ko ētahi ka whakamahia hei hāwini i ngā mahi whakapai whare, ihu oneone hoki e ora ai te whānau.


Influences on parenting

Ngā rerekētanga

Kua ōrite haere te manaaki tamariki a te whānau Māori ki ō tauiwi. Nā te noho taone, te rerekē haere o te whānau, te pupū ake o te mahi a te wahine whai mahi me te roa ake o te wā mahi a te hunga pēperekōu, rerekē ai te manaakitanga a te whānau.

Ōrua mai i te whāititanga o te pā harakeke, kua kore te haere a ngā mātua kia whai tohutohu mai i ōna kaumātua, tungāne, whaea kēkē, mātua kēkē rānei. I mua ko te noho tahi. Nō konei tahuri ai te mātinitini ki te whai rauemi, mōhiohio hoki mō te whakatipu tamariki.

Ngā putanga ā-hanga, ā-hapori

Ka hua mai te āhua o te whakatipu tamariki a te Māori i te āhua o tōna moemoe me tōna makarutanga.

Taipakeke whānau tamariki

Otirā he tōmua ake te whakawhānau tamariki a te wahine Māori i tērā o tauiwi. I te tekau tau mai i te tau 1950 ki te 1960, he tōmua anō te whakawhānau tamariki a te hunga wāhine o Aotearoa. Hāunga rā te kaha rerekē o te whānau tamariki a tauiwi, kāore i ōrite te rerekētanga mō te Māori.

I te tau 2006, e 26 tau te toharite o te wahine Māori mō te whānau tamariki. Ko te tauritenga atu ki te Pākehā, e 31 tau. Kei runga ake anō te taiohi Māori i ngā tatauranga whānau tamariki. Nā reira kāre ngā whaea Māori e whiwhi tohu mātauranga teitei, kāre rānei e whai hoa piripono. He taero nui tēnei hei whakauaua i te taumaha o te whakatipu tamariki. Hāunga he painga anō tō te whakawhānau mai i te wā taikaha, arā he poto noa te wā whakamamae i ngā hapūtanga, i ngā whakawhānautanga rānei; me te waimeha iho o ngā mōrearea hauātanga.

Te pā harakeke

Nā te panonitanga o te whānau Māori ka rerekē anō te ako a ngā mātua i ā rātou tamariki. Atu i te tau 1981 ki te tau 2006, ka piki te rahi o ngā whare mātua takakau Māori mai i te 13 ōrau ki te 24.4 ōrau. Ka piki anō te mōrahi o ngā whare whānau maha o te Māori mai i te 4.7 ōrau ki te 8.3 ōrau. He nui ngā painga ka heke ki ēnei tamariki, nā te mea kua whai hua rātou i ngā pākeke katoa o te whare.

Ngā pānga ōhanga

Nā ngā panonitanga ki te ōhanga me te pāpori i te tekau tau 1980 me te tekau tau 1990 ka taka te hunga rawakore ki roto i te puranga paru, i pāpāngia te hunga tamariki tauiwi mai, Māori mai hoki. Whai atu i ngā māharahara o te hunga mahi ko te memehatia o te utu ki ngā whānau mahi. Mohoa nei kua puta ngā pūtea āwhina noho me te pūtea tāke mō te hunga mahi me ngā whānau.

I te tau 2006 e 73.2 ōrau te tau toharite utu a te Māori i ō te 100 ōrau o Tauiwi. I roto i te tatauranga whai toiora i te tau 2008, kō ake i te 11 ōrau o te Pākehā, 17 ōrau o te Māori me te 23 ōrau o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i whakaae kāre i a rātou te pūtea hei whakatutuki i ā rātou utu ia rā. Nō konā ka puta ko te rawakore, tērā ko te mate ahotea me te huri kōaro i ā rātou tamariki. E whakangāwarihia ana ētahi o ngā raruraru ōhanga i te tītaringa o ētahi pūtea tautoko mō ngā whānau utu-iti me ngā whānau mata iti, pērā i te Māori.


Abuse and discipline

He pai tonu te manaaki o ngā whānau i ā rātou tamariki, ā, e ora tonu ana ētahi tikanga manaaki, haumaru hoki i te hunga tamariki mai i te tūkino me te takawarehanga. Hāunga tonu nā te āhua noho o ētahi whānau Māori ka tere te mōrearea ki ā rātou tamariki.

Whaiaro o mua

Ko tā Anne Salmond mō te ao Māori, ‘Kore rawa i patua ngā tamariki, ā, ki te rere te ringa a tētahi ki te patu, kua tauātia ia e ōna whanaunga ki te muru.’1

Heoi nō te tekau tau 1950, kua pau monemone ēnei tikanga, ā, ka tahuri ki te tikanga o te whakawhiu. E whakapae ana ngā kaiwhakamana hunga tamariki a Amster Reedy rāua ko Hone Kaa, kāre he wāhi tō te whakawhiu me te tūkino tamariki i roto i te tikanga Māori.

Te tūkino me te whakarere

Atu i te tau 1978 ki te tau 1987, 1.15 wā te rahi ake o te auau o ngā kōhuru tamariki Māori i ērā o tauiwi. Engari i waenganui i ngā tau o te 1991 me te 2000, ka piki te auau o ngā tamariki Māori i kōhuruhia ki te 3.5 wā te rahi ake i te auau o tauiwi – o ngā tamariki e 91 i kōhuruhia, e 47 he Māori. I waenganui i ngā tau o te 2001 me te 2005, e 2.4 wā te kaha ake o te auau kōhuru tamariki a te Māori i ō Tauiwi.

Nā te whakaahua o te ao pāpāho i ngā tamariki Māori i kōhuruhia, i tūkinohia rānei, ka āta tirohia anō te whakatipu tamariki a te Māori. Nā te tūngoutanga ki te rerekē mārika o ngā tatauranga kōhuru, tūkino, whakarere tamariki hoki a te Māori ki ērā o tauiwi i tahuri ai ētahi ki te kimi rongoā.

Ahakoa he take mamae, mā te arotake i te take o te tūkino tamariki Māori ka tūhurahia ake ētahi āhuatanga nui e whakakaha ai te karo i ngā mōrearea ka puta ki ētahi tamariki Māori.

Ngā whanonga

Ko ētahi āhuatanga e whai pānga ana ki te hunga tūkino tamariki ko te rawakore me te kore tohu mātauranga. Ko te nuinga he taiohi, he mate hinengaro i te inu waipiro me te kai tarutaru, he ika rānei nā te riri tara ā-whare i a ia e nohinohi ana, he kaihara rānei o mua. Ko te Māori ka whakawhiua ki ēnei mate o te pāpori me te ōhanga i hua ake i te tikanga takirua mā te Māori me tauiwi.

Te piripono

Kei runga anō te taiohi Māori i ngā tatauranga whakawhānau – neke atu i te toru te kaha ake i te taiohi Pākehā i ngā tau o te 2000-2. Ka taka tonu he hua ki ngā māmā taiohi me ā rātou tamariki mēnā ka whiwhi tautoko anō rātou, i ngā pūtea āwhina rānei mai i ō rātou whānau, mātua mai, hoa noho tata mai, hapori mai rānei. Hāunga nā te tamarikitanga tonu o ngā mātua me te iti o ngā pūtea tautoko hapori ka hua ko te rawakore ki a rātou me ā rātou tamariki.

He āhuatanga pū tonu te hononga i waenganui i te māmā me tana pēpi me te hononga hoki o pāpā me tana pēpi, e oha, e hōkai ai te tamariki Māori. He āhuatanga pū tēnei e kite nuitia ana mēnā kei waenganui pū tonu ngā mātua i te pā harakeke o te whānau.

Te auaha whānau ora

Aronui anō ai ngā whakapau kaha a te Māori ki ngā āhuatanga rawe e taea ai e ngā whānau Māori. He whakapikinga ora tēnei e koa ake ai, e mauritau ake anō ai te hunga tamariki. Hei tauira, i te tau 2009 ko Whānau Ora tērā ka whakatūhia ki te whakawhanake i te tikanga mahi e anga nui ana ki te noho ora me te tipu ora mai o te tamariki Māori. Kua tūtohu rātou i tētahi angaanga mahi e rima ōna huapae: ko te mahi me te whakawhitiwhiti me ngā whānau; kia pū anō ai te auaha me te tītaringa o ngā ratonga ki ngā whānau Māori; kia rangatira mai ngā iwi; kia pukumahi, kia whakawhiti kōrero ki te kāwanatanga; ā, ko te pūtea.

Te whaiaro me te kore papaki

I te tau 2008 ka whakatūria Te Kāhui Mana Ririki. He rōpū ā-motu tēnei e whakatairanga ana i te hunga nohinohi Māori. Kei te ihu o tēnei waka ko Hone Kaa. Ko tā te rōpū nei he whakahau i ngā hiahia o te hunga tamariki me te rangatahi huri noa te motu. Ko rātou anō te kanohi o te mau tohe papaki kore. I roto i tōna mau tohe ka whakapae a Minita Kaa kia pūmau tonu ngā kaiārahi Māori ki te take o te tūkino tamariki, ā, kia whakamanahia te tūranga whakahirahira o te whānau whānui kia noho haumaru ai te hunga tamariki, me te whakatairanga i te kore papaki tamariki me te hē o tēnei ki roto i te ao Māori. Ki tā Kaa anō, mā te Māori anō tonu e huhuti ake te tamariki Māori i te kino, ahakoa ko wai ia, ā, mā te whānau whānui, ngā hapū me te iwi e matapopore te hunga tamariki Māori.

Footnotes
    • Anne Salmond, Two worlds: first meetings between Maori and Europeans, 1642–1772. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Viking, 1993, wh. 422. Back

Types of parenting

Mā te katoa e te whakatipu tamariki

I ngā wā o mua, nā te whānau katoa tēnei mea te tamariki – ehara i ōna mātua ake anake. Ka whakamahia anō te kupu whaea me te kupu matua mō te hunga mātua kēkē. I whakatipuhia te tamariki, ā, i poipoia rātou e te whānau whānui, kaumātua mai, kōkara mai, pāpara mai, mātua mai.

Nā mātou katoa

I te tuhi a Joan Metge, ‘Pēnā ka tū he hui whānau kua mahi tahi te whānau, kua kōrero ngā pākeke mō “ā mātou tamariki”, ehara mō “ā māua tamariki”. Ka whai wāhi anō rātou ki te whakatipunga o ngā tamariki katoa’.1 Ki tā tētahi kaituhi anō, ‘Ka noho matua anō ahau ki ngā tamariki a ōku tuāhine me ōku tuākana, waihoki ka noho matua anō rātou ki āku tamariki ake. He whānau anō ērā mātua, ā, mā rātou anō e manaaki e whakatika, e tauawhi hoki ngā tamariki katoa i tōna tūranga hei matua.’2

Ngā mātua takakau, me ngā pakeke tokomaha

Arā anō ngā uauatanga o te whakatipu tamariki ki ngā kāinga matua takitahi ki ngā whare rānei e nōhia ana e ngā mātua tokomaha. Ka takaware tonutia ēnei tamariki.

Tautoko whānau

E whai hua ana hoki ngā whānau me te pāpori Māori i ngā whakapau kaha kia tautoko i ngā whānau mō ā rātou tamariki. Me tautoko ā-tinana, ā-rauemi hoki te whakatipu tamariki ki ngā whare matua takitahi. Mā ngā tikanga whāngai, me te uru mai o ngā whāea kēkē, matua kēkē, pakeke, kuia me ngā kaumātua ka tutuki te tipunga ora o ngā tamariki Māori.

Ehara mā te pūmau anake o ngā mātua Māori ki te manaaki i ā rātou tamariki ka tipu ora anō ai, engari me tautoko anō hoki e te hapori whānui,. He tika pū anō tēnei i ngā whānau e ngaua ana e te rawakore, e parea ana rānei ki tahaki e te hapori.

Tā te kaumātua mō te whakatipu tamariki

He hononga pūmau anō tērā tō te kuia, koroua rānei ki tāna mokopuna. Heoi kua panoni te wāhi ki ngā tīpuna, kuia, kaumātua, whaea, mātua hoki mō te whakatipu tamariki. Kua kore e rite ki ngā rā o mua. Kua tōroahia kētia ngā haora mahi i ēnei wā me te mahi tonu kaumātua noa ai.

Nā whai atu ka pā tēnei āhua ki te tiaki mokopuna a ngā kaumātua, kua kore haere kē hoki i te rapu mahi kē. Tērā rānei he tawhiti rawa te noho o ngā kaumātua. Hāunga tēnei, ka kaha tonu te āhua o te whānau Māori ki te torotoro i ngā kuia, whaea, kaumātua hoki. I ētahi wā ka noho rātou mō te wā roa. Kua tere kapo anō hoki te hunga pākeke ināianei ki ngā hangarau ao hurihuri hei wāhie mō te ahi kā – arā mā te waea pūkoro, te ī-mēra me te Skype.

Tikanga mahi

Ko te oriori tētahi tikanga poipoi, ako hoki i te tamaiti ki ōna kōrero tuku iho. E whakapae ana a Amster Reedy, he taonga tuku iho tēnei nā te Māori, arā, kia whakahokia mai ngā tikanga whakatipu tamariki, e ora ake ai, e koa ake ai te hunga tamariki i te whai mārama ki tōna tuakiri ake me tērā o tōna whānau. Mā te whakaoriori i te tamaiti kua mārama ia ki ngā kōrero tīpuna, ā, kua ako anō ia ki ngā tikanga o te whakatau, te riri me te whakaea, tae atu ki ngā kōrero mahi kai, hekenga waka hoki.

E haere tonu ana ētahi tikanga whakatipu tamariki pērā i te mirimiri me te karakia pure ora i ngā tamariki. He tūranga nui tonu tō ngā kaumātua me ngā kuia hei ārahi i te whānau. He wāhi nui tō rātou ki te manaaki me te whāngai i te matū o te kōrero ki ā rātou mokopuna.

Footnotes
    • Joan Metge, New growth from old: the whanau in the modern world. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Victoria University Press, 1995. Back
    • R. Selby, ‘My whānau.’ Kei Social work in action, ētita Robyn Munford me Mary Nash. Te Papaioea: Dunmore Press, 1994. Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Cindy Kiro, 'Ngā mātua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-matua/print (accessed 23 September 2019)

Story by Cindy Kiro, published 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017