Kōrero: Royal, Te Rangiātaahua Kiniwē

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Royal, Te Rangiataahua Kiniwe

1896–1965

Nō Ngāti Raukawa, nō Ngāti Tamaterā; he kaihautū, he āpiha whenua, he āpiha Māori toko i te ora, he hōia, he kaitākaro

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Te Ahukaramu Charles Royal and Tom Jamison,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

Nō te 23 o Ākuhata o te tau 1896 i whānau ai a Te Rangiātaahua Kiniwē Royal (Roera) i Muhunoa, he wāhi kei Ōhau kei te takiwā o Horowhenua. Ko ia te tuawhitu o ngā tamariki tekau a Te Kiniwē Roera Te Ahukaramū rāua ko tana wahine, ko Kēriata Hūnia Te Weu Tukukino. Ko Rangi tōna īngoa kārangaranga, he whakapotonga nō Te Rangiātaahua, he īngoa tipuna nō Ngāti Kikopiri, he hapū nō Ngāti Raukawa. Ko tana taha ure tārewa i heke iho ia i a Ngāti Raukawa rāua ko Ngāti Huia. Ka noho mokopuna a Rangi ki a Hūkiki Te Ahukaramū, tētehi o ngā rangatira i te wā o ngā heke a Ngāti Raukawa. Nā tana ūkaipō i pā ia ki a Ngāti Tamaterā rātou ko Ngāti Maru, e kā mai rā ngā ahi i Hauraki. Kei tēnei tātai ka noho ia hei mokopuna mā Tukukino Te Ahiātaewa o Ngāti Tamaterā. He pānga anō hoki ōna ki a Te Whatanui o Ngāti Raukawa rāua ko Te Rauparaha o Ngāti Toa, me Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia anō o Ngāti Tamaterā.

Ko ōna tau taiohi i Muhunoa me Ōtaki, ā, i Ōtaki hoki e kura ana. Nō muri mai, ka nuku te whānau ki Kōmata e tata ana ki Paeroa, kuraina hoki ia ki te kura tuarua o Pārāwai (Thames High School) me te kura tuarua ā-rohe o Paeroa (Paeroa District High Scool). I te tau 1912 ko ia te Māori tuatahi i puta hei kaihautū mō ngā matataua. I te mutunga o te kura i te tau 1916, ka haere ia ki te Tari Māori, mahi ai. I te Pakanga Tuatahi i te tau 1917 ko tana hainatanga tēnā hei hōia, ā, kotahi te tau a ia ki Aotearoa nei, ka whakawhiti atu ia ki te mura o te ahi i Parani; e waru marama ia ki reira. Nō te tau 1919 i whakamutua ai te mahi hōia, ā, i tana putanga mai he kāpara nei tōna tūnga.

I tae atu a Rangi Roera ki te hui pōwhiri i te Piriniha o Wēra i Rotorua i te tau 1920. I reira ka tūtaki ia ki a Irihāpeti (Elizabeth) Te Puhi-o-Rākaiora Taiaroa (ko Puhi te īngoa kārangaranga), hei tamāhine mā Hōri Kerei Taiaroa rāua ko Mākereti Parata o Ngāi Tahu. Ina koa rā, mārena ana rāua i te 3 o Ākuhata i te tau 1921 ki Ōhinemutu. Koinei tētehi o ngā moenga whakamāuru i te mate o Ngāi Tahu i te rau o te patu a ngā iwi e taki noho ana i Te Ūpoko o te Ika-a-Māui i ngā rua tekau tau atu i te tau 1820.

He tangata toa a Rangi Roera ki ngā mahi tākaro. I roto ia i te tīma whutupaoro Māori i ngā kakari i Parani me Ingarangi i te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. I mua atu, i roto ia i te tīma o Ākarana (Auckland). I whakatūria anō ia mō te tīma whutupaoro o te motu, arā, ngā All Blacks i te tau 1922, ēngari nā te whara i kore ai ia i purei. Nāna i whakahaere te tīma Māori tuatahi mō te tākaro kirikiti karaehe tuatahi nei, tū mai ana hoki ia hei toa mō te tīma o Rotorua me Ākarana ki te tonga (South Auckland). Ehara koinei anake, uru atu ana hoki hei kaihoe mō te rohe ki ngā whakataetae hoe waka. Nāwai rā, eke atu ana ia ki te poari tohutohu Māori (Māori Advisory Board) o te Kotahitanga Whakahaere o ngā Mahi Whutupaoro Rakapī o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Rugby Football Union), ā, eke atu anō hoki ki ngā rōpū whakahaere Māori o te motu mō ngā tākaro hōkī, tēnehi me te korowha. Hei tumuaki tuarua anō hoki ia mō te karapu rērehi hōiho Māori o Ōtaki (Ōtaki-Māori Racing Club), ā, noho ake ana ko ia hoki hei kaiwhakahaere mō te komiti ture whakawā o taua karapu.

I te tekau tau atu i 1920, ka riro ko ia hei pīkau i te mahi a tana matua kēkē a Kerēhi Roera Te Ahukaramū, ki te whakahaere i ngā take whenua a tō rātou whānau i Muhunoa me Kōmata. Tata atu pea ki te tau 1931, te whakanohoanga a Rangi Roera ki Rūātoki hei kaiwhakahaere mā te Tari Māori mō te rohe atu i Whakatāne ki Whangaparāoa (Cape Runaway). Piri tonu tā rāua mahi ko Āpirana Ngata ki te hurahura me te whakatōpū i ngā taitara whenua tuku iho, me te āwhina hoki i te mahi ki te ahu i aua whenua. I te hokinga atu o Rangi Roera ki te Tari Māori i Rotorua i te tau 1935, meinga ana ia hei karaka mō te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Poari Takiwā Whenua Māori o Waiariki (Waiariki District Māori Land Board). Arā atu anō āna mahi: he āpiha whakatōpū, he āpiha ahu whenua, he kaiwhakamārama reo.

Nō te pakarutanga mai o te Pakanga Tuarua i te tau 1939, ka haina anō a Rangi Roera ki te whakauru anō ki te puni hōia, tū ana hei kāpene i roto i te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion). Ko ia te āpiha rangatira mō te Kamupene B, ā, pau anō ai hoki tōna kaha ki te whakauru tāngata ki te hokowhitu Māori. Nāna i āwhina a Haihana Meiha Frank Rennie – he Pākehā kāore nei e mōhio ki te kōrero Māori – ki te whakaraupapa i ngā toa o te hokowhitu Māori, tae atu ki te whakatika anō i te mahi whakaako. Uru kau ana a Rangi Roera ki te mura o te ahi i Kariki, i Kariti, i Rīpia hoki, ā, i konei whakawhiwhia ana ia ki te Rīpeka mō te Toa (Military Cross) mōna i ārahi i tana waitaua, karawhiua ana ngā hōia Tiamana heke rangi ki te mata o te pēneti i te kokoru o Suda (Suda Bay) i Kariti i Mei o te tau 1941. I muri iho, ka puta anō tōna rongo toa mō te whawhai whakatautopenga āna, tiaki mai i te hokinga whakamuri o āna hōia. Ka tāpiritia atu anō he tohu mō tana MC mō tōna toa i Gazala i te pakanga i Rīpia i te whakapaunga o te tau 1941. I Gazala hoki i taotū a Rangi, ā, heria ana ki te hōhipera mō ētehi wiki nei. Nō te painga ake i Pēpuere 1942 ka whakahokia mai ki Aotearoa hei kaiwhakaako mō ngā hōia mō tētehi hokowhitu Māori tuarua, kāore nei i whakatūria. Ko tōna hokinga tērā ki te Tari Māori i Rotorua.

I muri o te pakanga, nā te mahi whakatikatika i ngā whakahaere kāwanatanga, i riro iho te rōpū tautoko i ngā Mahi Māori mō te Whawhai (Māori War Effort Organisation) i te Tari Māori, kia kaha atu ai te hohou i te toko i te ora me te whakawhiwhi i te Māori ki te whare. Nō te tau 1944 i whakatūria ai a Rangi hei āpiha matua toko i te ora, ā, ka taka mai ki te tau 1946 whakanōhia ana a ia ki Pōneke (Wellington) hei tumuaki mō te toko i te ora Māori (Controller of Māori Welfare). Nō te tau 1944 i tuhia e ia tana pūrongo mō te tino hē o te āhua o ngā whare noho o ngā Māori i Ākarana. Mārama ana tana kite i te tino hē o ngā āhuatanga, kite kanohi tonu ia i ngā whakarerekētanga o te momo noho o te Māori.

Nā tōna ekenga ki ngā tūranga matua o te Tari Māori – rāua tahi ko Tipi Rōpiha, hēkeretari-o-raro – ka rerekē haere ake ngā tikanga whakahaere a te tari. I mua atu hoki, kore rawa he Māori i ngā tūranga matua. I a ia ka noho hei tumuaki toko i te ora Māori, maha ana ngā kaupapa i pīkauria e ia hei ahu whakamua i te noho a te iwi Māori. Nōna tētehi o ngā ringa kaha ki te whakatinana i te Ture Toko i te Ora me te Pai mō te Iwi Māori (Māori Social and Economic Advancement Act) o 1945, ā, nāna anō i tū ai ngā komiti ā-iwi 500 te maha, hei whiriwhiri i ngā kaupapa mātauranga, hauora, whakawhiwhi mahi hoki. Ko te hokinga tēnei o te mana whakahaere ki ngā iwi. Nō te tūnga o te Rōpū Nāhinara hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1949, ka taka ngā āpiha Māori toko i te ora ki raro i te mana o ngā āpiha ā-rohe Pākehā o te Tari Māori. Ko te whakaaro o Rangi ki tēnei tikanga, he mahi whakatekoteko noa iho nei tēnei i a ia. Hei aha koa, ko tana huringa tērā i te motu ki te kauhau i ngā take hauora, toko hoki i te ora. I te tau 1955, e toru rawa ngā marama e haeretia ana e ia te motu ki tēnā marae, ki tēnā marae, ki te kōrero i ngā kino o te kai waipiro, ki te whakaoho hoki i te iwi kia āta wānangatia tēnei kaupapa.

Nā Rangi i whakatakoto te tāhū i puta ai te ihu o te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora (Māori Women's Welfare League) i te tau 1951. He mōhio nōna ki te kaha o te rōpū nei ki te whakatutuki i ngā hiahiatanga o ngā wāhine Māori, i pau katoa ai te kaha o tana tari ki te tautoko i te take nei. He maha hoki ōna whanaunga i uru ki tēnei rōpū. I te tau 1955 riro ana i tana wahine, i a Puhi tētehi o ngā tūranga tumuaki āwhina e rua. He mema anō hoki tana tuahine, a Naki Swainson nō te rōpū whakahaere tuatahi, ā, pōtitia ana hoki tana tuahine tūranga whānau a Ruiha Sage hei perehitini i te tau 1964.

Nā tōna tautōhito ki te reo Māori, i karangatia a ia ki te komiti whakahou i te pukapuka kupu Māori a Te Hāpata (H. W. Williams), arā, te Dictionary of the Māori language. I whai wāhi anō ia ki Ngā mōteatea, te whakaemitanga o ngā waiata Māori tino whakamīharo nei a Āpirana Ngata.

He rite tonu te tauira mahi a Rangi ki tā Āpirana, arā, whai tonu tana kite kanohi i te tangata, mau tonu hoki tana piri ki ngā wāhanga tikanga tuku iho o te ao Māori. Nō te tau 1956 ka whakawātea mai ia i ana tūranga kātipa, ā, i te tau 1964 i whakawhiwhia a ia ki te tohu OBE mō āna mahi mā te iwi Māori. Nō te 8 o Hūrae i te tau 1965, ka mate a Rangi Roera ki Rotorua, ka nehua ki te urupā o ngā hōia i Muruika, i Ōhinemutu. Mahue iho ana i a ia tana hoa wahine me ā rāua tamariki tokorima, tokotoru ngā tamāhine, tokorua ngā tama.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Te Ahukaramu Charles Royal and Tom Jamison. 'Royal, Te Rangiātaahua Kiniwē - Royal, Te Rangiataahua Kiniwe', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4r29/royal-te-rangiataahua-kiniwe (accessed 21 October 2019)