Kōrero: Dennan, Rangitīaria

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Dennan, Rangitiaria

1897–1970

Nō Ngāti Tarāwhai; he wahine whai mana, he kura māhita, he kaiārahi tūruhi

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Cushla Parekowhai,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga 4, 1998.

Hora whānui ana te rongo o Rangitīaria Dennan, arā, ko 'Guide Rangi' tōna īngoa i mōhiotia whānuitia, hei kaiwhakaatu rā i ngā tikanga Māori ki te ao. He whakahoahoa, he mātau, he atamai nōna, i māmā noa ki a ia te whakamōhio atu i ngā kiko o ngā kōrero tuku iho a te iwi Māori ki ngā tūruhi e ārahina haeretia ana e ia huri noa i ngā ngāwhā i Te Whakarewarewa, i Rotorua.

I whānau a Rangitīaria ki Ngāpuna, e tata ana ki Rotorua, i te 14 o Hūrae o te tau 1897. Ko ia te mea tuawhā o ngā tamariki a Te Mango Ratema o Ngāti Hinekura, he hapū nō Ngāti Pikiao, rāua ko Tuhipō Tene (Rimupae rānei) o Ngāti Tarāwhai me Tūhourangi. Kāre anō a Rangitīaria kia whānau noa, ka whakapā atu tōna whānau ki te tohunga kia āraia atu te mate i whakahemohemo ai ana muanga, i taki ngaro katoa i te wā e tino tamariki tonu ana. Tīmata kau ngā karakia, kāre noa iho i oti pai ka mate te tohunga rā, mahue ake ana a Rangitīaria mō tētehi wā e mau tonu ana te tapu. Nā tōna tapu i ana tau tōmua he mea wehe kē mai ia i ērā o ngā tamariki. I pūkengatia ia ki ngā tikanga o te ngahere, tae atu hoki ki ngā akoranga a ōna pakeke e pā ana ki ngā tikanga tawhito, whakaatu i te ao tūturu.

I whakaurutia a Rangitīaria ki te Kura Māori o Te Whakarewarewa i te tau 1903, ā, nō te tau 1910, ka whakawhiti rātau ko ētehi o tōna whānau ki Ahitereiria i roto i te rōpū kapa haka a Mākereti Papakura. Nō te paunga o taua tau, ka hoki anō ia ki te kura, arā, ki Hukarere (Hukarere Native Girls' School) i Ahuriri (Napier, arā, ko Nēpia te īngoa o nāianei), i runga i te āwhina a te karahipi. Ka puta ki reira ōna toa ki ana mahi kura, toa hoki ki ngā tākaro, arā, ki te hōkī me te kauhoe hoki. Uaua ana ki a ia te kore e whakaaetia o te kōrero Māori i te kura, ā, whiuwhiua tonutia ia he hanga hokihoki nōna ki tōna ake reo.

I runga anō hoki i te karanga a Āpirana Ngata kia apohia ngā taonga a te Pākehā hei whakatikatika i te iwi me ngā tohutohu anō o Hukarere, whai ana a Rangitīaria i te mahi kura māhita hei mahi māna i te tau 1914. I te tīmatanga noho ake ana ia hei kura māhita whakamātautau i te Kura Māori o Te Whakarewarewa tae rawa atu ki te tau 1915, kātahi anō ia ka tango ake i te tūranga kaiako i te Kura Māori o Tōrere, i te taha rāwhiti o Te Moana-a-Toi-te-huatahi (Bay of Plenty). E rua tau i muri mai, ka haere ia ki te Kura Māori o Rūātoki ako ai i Te Urewera. Kāti, i a ia i reira ka pā mai tētehi mate ki tana korokoro, mutu tonu atu tana kaha ki te ako. Nō te tau 1918, ka hoki ia ki Rotorua ki te whakatā i runga tonu i ngā tohutohu mai me mutu tana mahi kura māhita. Ka uru mai te whakaaro ki a Rangitīaria, tērā pea me whakamātau ia hei nēhi, mā tērā huarahi me kore pea e taea e ia tōna iwi te āwhina. Ora rawa ake te tinana i te māuiui, ka whakauru atu ia ki tētehi tūranga nēhi hei ākonga i te Hōhipera o Nēpia. Nō te pai o tana āhua i ngākaunuitia ia e ngā tūroro, ēngari kāre i roa i muri i tana tīmata ki te mahi i ngā riu hōhipera, ka heke anō te hauora. Hoki rawa ake ia ki te kāinga i te tau 1920, e ngenge, e māuiuitia ana te tinana, ā, kāore hoki he mahi.

Nō te tipuranga mai o te mahi tūruhi i taua wā, maha ake ana te mahi mā te kaiārahi Māori whiwhi raihana, arā, te tangata pai te āhua, e āhei ana ki te kōrero Pākehā, me te mōhio hoki ki te ārahi haere i ngā tūruhi haere ki Te Whakarewarewa i runga anō i te tūpato. Kitea ana e ia te karangatanga mōna, nā te tono mai a te kaiārahi, a Hūhana i te marama o Tīhema i te tau 1921 ki a Rangitīaria ki te āwhina i a ia ki te manaaki i tētehi rōpū tūruhi. Ki te whakaaro o Rangitīaria, nā te mahi ārahi tūruhi i wātea ia ki te whakaatu i te whakaaro o te Māori mō te ao. I roto i te poto o te wā i a rātau e haere tahi ana, kaha ana te tohutohu a Rangitīaria i āna manuhiri. Ko tāna i ngana ai me tīmata ake tana whakamōhio atu i ngā whakaaro me ngā uaratanga o te Māori, he whakapono nōna mā te āta whakaako i te Pākehā, kātahi anō ka tōtika ake te noho a tōna iwi Māori. Whakahauhau tonu ia i te tangata kia patapatai, ā, matawhāiti noa ana tana whakatau i ngā tauwhāinga i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā. Kitea ana tōna āhei kia noho te rā haere atu o ngā tūruhi ki ngā papa ngāwhā anō nei he rā e motuhake ana ki ia tūruhi. Ko te āhua o tana whakakata i te tangata me te whiu noa i te kōrero anō nei he kore noa iho ngā tino tohu o roto i ana kōrero arataki tūruhi. Ina hoki tētehi kōrero āna mō tētehi o ngā ngāwhā, arā, nō te tangata tōrangapū kē tērā ngāwhā, ko te take he puhapuha, he korowhiu poharu, he hau wera tonu te mahi.

I roto i ngā tau 40 i a Rangitīaria e mahi ana, he maha te hunga rongonui i ārahina e ia, arā, ngā tīma tākaro, ngā tumuaki o whenua kē, tae atu ki ngā manuhiri rangatira. Ahakoa pēhea te tūranga teitei o te tangata, te mana rānei, kore rawa ia i wehi. Nō te taenga mai o Eleanor Roosevelt ki Te Whakarewarewa i te tau 1943, he mea pōwhiri tonu e Rangitīaria ki te hongi; i tērā wā, he mahi āhuaatua te hongi ki te Pākehā. Ko te whakaahuatanga i mau i taua wā tonu kitea mai ana i ngā whārangi tuatahi i ngā nūpepa huri noa i te ao. Tērā anō tētehi hara anō ōna, i te wā i tae mai a Kuini Riripeti Te Tuarua rātau ko tana rōpū i te tau 1953–54. Arā rā i a ia kei mua kē e ārahi haere ana i te Kuini, e taiohi ana i tērā wā, me tana tira i ngā ngāwhā. Arā anō tētehi haranga ōna: he mataku nōna kei hinga a Riripeti i te wāhi uaua nei o te huarahi, i rere atu ai te ringa o Rangitīaria ki tērā. Nō muri tae ake ai te pānui kātipa e whakahē ana i a Rangitīaria mō te take 'he hoahoa rawa' nōna. Me kāre mai tāna, kei raro kē pea te Kuini e putu ana, ā, ko te hē rawa atu tērā, koirā kāre ia i tino aro atu ki tā rātau nei.

Ka moe a Rangitīaria i a William Francis Te Aonui Dennan i te 11 o Hepetema i te tau 1938, he pouaru, he tangata whakamahi mīhini, ā, hei huatahi hoki mā Mākereti Papakura. I mārena rāua i Te Rotoiti i mua i tētehi huihuinga iti noa nei o ōna hoa me ōna whanaunga. I mate a Te Aonui i te tau 1942 i te mate pukupuku, kāre tonu rāua i whiwhi uri.

Pārekareka ana ki a Rangitīaria i ngā wā e wātea ana ia ki te whakatikatika haere i ngā mahi o tōna kāinga me tana kāri; i reira pōwhiritia ai e ia ana hoa i tūtakitaki ai kia haere ake hei manuhiri māna ki tōna kāinga. Ko tōna whare he mea hanga ki tā te tikanga whare Māori tuku iho, ā, nā tana koroua, nā Tene Waitere i whakairo, e kī katoa ana hoki i ngā taonga a ngā iwi o tāwāhi, taonga Māori hoki. Kāore i mahue i a ia te āwhina i tana hunga kāinga, arā, te mahi hauhake rīwai, te kohikohi mātaitai me te hopu kererū hei tahu, tuku atu hoki mā rātau ki te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion) i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua. I te tau 1937 ko ia tētehi o ngā mema nā rātau i tīmata te Rōpū o te Ora (Māori Women's Health League), ā, i te tau 1949 i whakaīngoatia a ia hei nēhi whakaapa mō te Kāhui o Hoani (Order of St John). Noho ake ana ia i roto i tōna iwi kāinga, e kōrero Māori tonu ana ia i ngā wā katoa. Arā tonu hoki tāna ki a rātau, ahakoa noho ake i te ao Pākehā, me mau tonu ki tō rātau taha Māori, kia kore ai e riro, kia kore ai e ngaro.

Pārekareka ana hoki ki a Rangitīaria te kaipāwe haere ki tāwāhi, inarā, he momo tūruhi tonu ia. I roto i te tekau tau atu i 1950, e hia kē nei ōna haerenga tokonga ki Ahitereiria me Āhia ki te tonga-mā-rāwhiti, he hua tino pai te hua. Haere ia ki hea i ngā tuawhenua o te ao, e muia tonutia ana ia e ngā kaihopu kōrero me te ātaahua o te manaaki a ngā iwi maioha i a ia i ana haere katoa. Nō te tau 1957 i ūwhia ki a ia te tohu MBE mō āna mahi ārahi tūruhi, ā, nō te tau 1965, ka mutu tana mahi. E toru tau i muri mai, ka tāia tana pukapuka mō āna mahi, nāna ake i tuhi. Mate kē mai ana a Rangitiaria i te kāinga kē o tētehi o ōna hoa i Te Whakarewarewa, i te 13 o Ākuhata 1970, ā, tanumia ana ki te urupā i Te Whakarewarewa, i Rotorua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Cushla Parekowhai. 'Dennan, Rangitīaria - Dennan, Rangitiaria', first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol. 4, 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4d12/dennan-rangitiaria (accessed 18 October 2017)