Kōrero: Kaihau, Hēnare

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Kaihau, Henare

1854–1860?–1920

Nō Ngāti Te Ata; he kaingārahu, he kaitōrangapū, he kaiwhakamāherehere ki te Kīngi Māori.

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e DNZB, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga, 1993.

Ko Waiuku, ki te taha tonga o te whanga o Manukau, te wāhi i whānau ai a Hēnare Kaihau. Ko te whakaaro ko tētahi o ngā tau mai i 1854 ki 1860 te wā o tōna putanga ki te ao mārama. He tama nā Aihepene (Ahipene rānei) Kaihau, he manukura nō Ngāti Te Ata. He hononga nō tōna matua ki a Ngāti Urupikia, Ngāti Kahukōkā me Ngāti Tīpā. Ko Rangipūkoru tōna whaea. Ko Aihipene te kaiwhakahaere o ngā pirihimana a te rūnanga o te Kīngitanga i te tau 1858. I waenga i ngā tau o 1862 ki 1880 he āteha ia mō te Tari Māori i Waiuku. He iti nei ngā kōrero kei te mōhiotia mō ngā take noho tapu mōna. E ai ki te kōrero, e rua, e ono rānei, ōna moumouranga. Nā te tuarua o ēnei ka puta ngā tamāhine tokoono me ngā tama tokorua. Ko Ruiha (Louisa) Flavell tana wahine tuarua, ā, ko tētahi o ōna īngoa kārangaranga ko Maewa. He wahine tito waiata, ā, kei te whakaaro, ko ia te kaitito o ngā kupu mō 'Haere rā', te waiata poroporoaki e mōhiotia nei e te ao whānui, ko 'Now is the hour'.

I haere a Hēnare ki te kura a Te Mānihera (Robert Maunsell) rāua ko tana wahine, ko Beatrice i Te Kōhanga mō te wā poto. Nō muri mai a ia i whakaakona ai ki te hōhonutanga o ngā tāhuhu kōrero me ngā whakapapa o tōna iwi. I tana urutanga atu ki te pāremata i ngā tau i muri mai, ko te reo Māori anake tōna reo kōrero i reira. I a ia ka eke ki ōna tau pokapū mai i te 20, kua tahuri kē a Kaihau ki ngā mahi tōrangapū Māori. I uru atu a ia ki te kaupapa pāremata Māori, ā, he kaitautoko pirihongo nā te Kīngitanga. I noho ko Kaihau te kaiwhakamāherehere matua ki a Mahuta, te Kīngi Māori.

I ngā tau o 1884 me 1886 ka tū ia hei māngai ki te Pāremata mō te rohe pōti Māori o Te Tai Hauāuru, ēngari i tiki. Nō te tau 1896 rā anō ia ka momoho. Ko ia te whakatūranga tuatahi nā te Kīngitanga i tautoko, i uru atu ai hei mema pāremata mō te rohe Māori o Te Tai Hauāuru. Ko tētahi o ana take matua i whakatakoto ai ki te aroaro o te Pāremata i Ākuhata o 1898, ko te Pire Kaupapa Ture Kaunihera Māori (Māori Council Constitution Bill). He kaupapa e tuku ana i tētahi momo kāwanatanga mana motuhake ki te Māori. E 56 ngā mema mō taua kaunihera, ā, ka riro i a rātou te katoa o te mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori e pā ana ki te whenua, ki ngā tauranga ika me te whakatau i ngā tautohe whenua Māori. I tautokona anō e ērā atu o ngā mema Māori o te Whare Pāremata te tikanga pū o te pire, heoti, kīhai rātou i whakaae ki te rārangi e kī ana me tuku te mana o te Kaunihera ki a Mahuta i a ia e ora ana, ā, hei muri iho ki ōna whakakapi. I mua i te whakatakotoranga tuaruatanga o te pire, ka whakakāhoretia.

He maha ngā take e pā ana ki te Māori nā Kaihau i kōkiri i ōna tau 15 i te Pāremata. Rite tonu tana hoki ki te kī ko te Tiriti o Waitangi te tumu o te mana Māori. I tohea e ia kia tohua te mana hī i ngā tauranga ika nō mai rā anō me te noho wātea ki te whaiwhai manu māori, he kai taketake hoki ēnei nā te Māori. He take nui ki a ia kia whiwhi te Māori i te whakaakoranga pērā i tō te Pākehā rā, ā, mā te kaiwhakaako kua oti pai te tohutohu e ako. Hei tāna, mā tēnei e ōrite ai te āhei atu o te Māori ki ngā mahi kei ngā tari kāwanatanga.

Heoti, i whakapaua e ia te nuinga o tōna kaha ki ngā take whenua Māori. Nā ngā hua o ngā mahi raupatu whenua ka tino pōuri rawa atu tōna ngākau; ko tō mua tonu ko ngā whenua o Waikato. Ki a Kaihau, kāhore i tutuki i te pirimia, i a Te Hētana (Richard Seddon), rāua ko te minita mō ngā take Māori, i a Timi Kara (James Carroll), ā rāua kī taurangi ki te whakatau i ēnei take whenua. Tino hinapōuri rawa atu ia i tēnei, ā, hoki atu, hoki atu tana whakamahara i te kāwanatanga ki tā rātou takohanga. I tautohea kahatia e ia te nui noa atu o ngā pire whenua Māori i whakatakotoria i te Whare Pāremata, atu i te tau 1897 ki 1910. Ko te pire i tino mautohea nuitia o aua pire ko tērā i whakaturea i te Oketopa o 1900, arā, ko te Pire Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori (Māori Lands Administration Bill). Ko te whakapono o Kaihau i te tīmatanga he hua tō te pire nei mō te Māori. Arā, mā ngā kaunihera whenua ā-rohe e tuku ki a rātou te mana whakahaere o ō rātou whenua. Ēngari, kāore i roa kua mārama ki a ia he here anō te mahi a taua ture i te mana o te Māori ki te whakahaere i ōna whenua, ā, nā reira i tohe ai ia kia whakakāhoretia.

I te tau 1903, nā runga i te whakakīkī a Timi Kara ka uru atu ia ki te Kaunihera Whenua Māori ā-rohe o Waikato. Heoti, nā ngā hua o te Ture Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori o 1900 i puta, me te korongatā o te kāwanatanga ki te mea i ngā whenua ture kia tika, i whakaio tōna ngākau ki ngā mahi hanga ture whenua mō āmua atu. He remurere tana mautohe ki te mahi takatakahi a ngā ture nei i te mana me ngā tikanga Māori i whakamautia mai rā ki a rātou i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Tae rawa atu ki 1910 kua tino ngaro mārika aua tikanga. He whakahinapōuri, he taupare i a Kaihau te tū here kore a te kāwanatanga ki ngā take Māori. Ka tae ki 1905 ko ngā pire whenua Māori te nuinga o ngā pire i whaikupu a Kaihau. Nā te whakatakoto rā anō o ēnei momo hanganga ture kātahi anō ia ka whakawheta i tana nohoanga i te Whare Pāremata. I ngā tau 1906, 1908 me 1909, kore rawa ia i whai kōrero ki reira.

I te mea kua tārure te kaupapa Kotahitanga o te tekau atu i 1890, i tahuri ai ōna whakaaro i taua wā ki te whakaara mai anō i tētahi pāremata Māori. Ko Mahuta me tōna pā i Waahi hei pokapū mō te pāremata hou. Ko te uaratanga he karanga katoa i ngā amorangi Māori, he whakangārahu i tētahi tātai kāwanatanga mana motuhake me te ātete i ngā ture whenua hē. Nō te tau 1907 ka tū ngā hui nui. Heoti, kāhore i taea e aua hui te where ngā raruraru o roto tonu mai i te Kīngitanga me ngā rerenga kētanga i waenga i ngā iwi i waho i te Kīngitanga.

I te tau 1908, ka riro nā ngā ariki o Waikato anake i kawe te kaupapa. Ko te hiahia o Mahuta he hoko mai i ngā whenua raupatu i Taupiri, i Ngāruawāhia, ā, ki te pou i tētahi tāone me te pāremata ki te mātāmuri o aua wāhi. Ka kohia mai he moni i ngā hokonga whenua me ngā mahi rīhi whenua. He wāhanga he mea whakangao e Kaihau ki ētahi kamupene hoko whenua i Ākarana, he wāhanga anō he mea waiho ki tētahi pūtea tiaki moni i raro i tōna īngoa. Tau rawa ki 1911 kua hinga katoa aua kamupene, ā, neke atu i te £50,000 te moni a te Kīngitanga i ngaro.

I orua te paheketanga o aua whakangaotanga ki ngā whakapae ā-pāremata, ā, arā atu anō ngā mahi hē a Kaihau. I te 12 Oketopa 1910, nā te mema mō Stratford, nā John Hine i whakapae ki ngā mahi tinihanga a ngā mema e whia kē nei. I whakapaea e ia nā Kaihau i tango mai he moni i ngā kaipōti mō ana mahi pitihana. Ā, kō atu i tēnā i utua ia mō te whakataka whenua hei hoko; ēngari, ahakoa tana kī ki tōna iwi kia mau ake tonu ki te whenua, ka āwhinatia e ia te hunga e hiahia ana ki te hokohoko. Hei whakangungu i a ia ka kī a Kaihau he rite āna mahi ki ērā a te kanohi mau raihana. Arā, he mahi e ōrite ana ki ngā mahi a ngā rōia mā ā rātou tāngata rato, me ngā mahi a ētahi tonu o te Whare Pāremata mā ā rātou kaipōti. Ko te whakataunga i whakaritea mōna he mau tangetange mō te mahi hē i a ia i tōna tūranga. Heoti, i kī pēnei te Kaiwhakahaere i te Whare Pāremata; nā te mea pea ko Kaihau he tangata whenua i kore mōhio ki te reo Pākehā, ā, kīhai hoki ngā Tikanga Whakahaere i whakamāoritia, koirā te take i kore ai ia i mārama e mahi hē ana ia. Ka mutu, kāore i whiua.

Nā te manauhea o Kaihau i te Hepetema o 1911 ka tukua ia kia tū wātea i te Pāremata mō ngā rā 14. Kua roa kē ia e pāngia ana e te kaute me te rūmātiki pīwa. Nō mua tata tonu mai i te pōti whānui o te motu i 1911 ka rongo a Mahuta i ngā whakangao hē a Kaihau. I puta anō hoki ngā whakapae nāna i nopenope ētahi o ngā moni a te pūtea tiaki moni mō āna mahi ake. Nō muri mai i tēnei ka whakarērea a Kaihau e Mahuta, riro kē ana tana ngākau pono i a Māui Pōmare. I te pōtitanga ka hinga a Kaihau. E 565 te nui atu o ngā pōti i riro i a Pōmare. Ka tae ki te wā pōti o te tau 1919 ka whakamātau a Kaihau kia riro mai anō i a ia te tūru, ēngari kīhai ia i momoho. Nō te 20 o Mei o te tau i muri mai ka hemo mai ia i Waiuku.

Anō te marutuna o te tangata nei o Kaihau. He tangata rahi te hanga (e 20 tōne te toimaha). E ai ki a Te Maahi (William Massey), te pirimia, he tangata tino koi rawa atu te hinengaro o Kaihau, ā, ko tōna pakari me tōna whakatupu, ko Hēkuri (Hercules) tonu te rite. He tohunga, ā, he rawe ki te whakatakoto kōrero tōrangapū. Heoti, ko tētahi kōrero anō mōna e kī ana, he tangata hūmārika, he tangata manahau. Ko ngā take e tino maumaharatia ana ia ko ērā e pā ana ki te ngaronga o ngā moni a te Kīngitanga, me te whakapae i taka ia ki te hē i roto i āna mahi tōrangapū. Heoti, kaua e tukua kia whakaitihia ōna tūmanakotanga ki te kaupapa whakatū mana motuhake i te Māori, me tōna kaha hoki ki te whakatōpū i te Kīngitanga me te Kotahitanga kia tutuki ai tana kaupapa tū mana motuhake nei. E tika ana ko tana karanga, 'Hoatu te mana ki te iwi Māori kia riro mā rātou anō ā rātou take e whakahaere; kāti te here i ngā waewae me ngā ringa o te hunga nō rātou te whenua', kia takoto hei tūāpapa whai tikanga mō ngā tono ā muri mai kia tū motuhake te Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

DNZB. 'Kaihau, Hēnare', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2k3/kaihau-henare (accessed 11 August 2020)