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Kaihau, Henare

by DNZB

Biography

Ko Waiuku, ki te taha tonga o te whanga o Manukau, te wāhi i whānau ai a Hēnare Kaihau. Ko te whakaaro ko tētahi o ngā tau mai i 1854 ki 1860 te wā o tōna putanga ki te ao mārama. He tama nā Aihepene (Ahipene rānei) Kaihau, he manukura nō Ngāti Te Ata. He hononga nō tōna matua ki a Ngāti Urupikia, Ngāti Kahukōkā me Ngāti Tīpā. Ko Rangipūkoru tōna whaea. Ko Aihipene te kaiwhakahaere o ngā pirihimana a te rūnanga o te Kīngitanga i te tau 1858. I waenga i ngā tau o 1862 ki 1880 he āteha ia mō te Tari Māori i Waiuku. He iti nei ngā kōrero kei te mōhiotia mō ngā take noho tapu mōna. E ai ki te kōrero, e rua, e ono rānei, ōna moumouranga. Nā te tuarua o ēnei ka puta ngā tamāhine tokoono me ngā tama tokorua. Ko Ruiha (Louisa) Flavell tana wahine tuarua, ā, ko tētahi o ōna īngoa kārangaranga ko Maewa. He wahine tito waiata, ā, kei te whakaaro, ko ia te kaitito o ngā kupu mō 'Haere rā', te waiata poroporoaki e mōhiotia nei e te ao whānui, ko 'Now is the hour'.

I haere a Hēnare ki te kura a Te Mānihera (Robert Maunsell) rāua ko tana wahine, ko Beatrice i Te Kōhanga mō te wā poto. Nō muri mai a ia i whakaakona ai ki te hōhonutanga o ngā tāhuhu kōrero me ngā whakapapa o tōna iwi. I tana urutanga atu ki te pāremata i ngā tau i muri mai, ko te reo Māori anake tōna reo kōrero i reira. I a ia ka eke ki ōna tau pokapū mai i te 20, kua tahuri kē a Kaihau ki ngā mahi tōrangapū Māori. I uru atu a ia ki te kaupapa pāremata Māori, ā, he kaitautoko pirihongo nā te Kīngitanga. I noho ko Kaihau te kaiwhakamāherehere matua ki a Mahuta, te Kīngi Māori.

I ngā tau o 1884 me 1886 ka tū ia hei māngai ki te Pāremata mō te rohe pōti Māori o Te Tai Hauāuru, ēngari i tiki. Nō te tau 1896 rā anō ia ka momoho. Ko ia te whakatūranga tuatahi nā te Kīngitanga i tautoko, i uru atu ai hei mema pāremata mō te rohe Māori o Te Tai Hauāuru. Ko tētahi o ana take matua i whakatakoto ai ki te aroaro o te Pāremata i Ākuhata o 1898, ko te Pire Kaupapa Ture Kaunihera Māori (Māori Council Constitution Bill). He kaupapa e tuku ana i tētahi momo kāwanatanga mana motuhake ki te Māori. E 56 ngā mema mō taua kaunihera, ā, ka riro i a rātou te katoa o te mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori e pā ana ki te whenua, ki ngā tauranga ika me te whakatau i ngā tautohe whenua Māori. I tautokona anō e ērā atu o ngā mema Māori o te Whare Pāremata te tikanga pū o te pire, heoti, kīhai rātou i whakaae ki te rārangi e kī ana me tuku te mana o te Kaunihera ki a Mahuta i a ia e ora ana, ā, hei muri iho ki ōna whakakapi. I mua i te whakatakotoranga tuaruatanga o te pire, ka whakakāhoretia.

He maha ngā take e pā ana ki te Māori nā Kaihau i kōkiri i ōna tau 15 i te Pāremata. Rite tonu tana hoki ki te kī ko te Tiriti o Waitangi te tumu o te mana Māori. I tohea e ia kia tohua te mana hī i ngā tauranga ika nō mai rā anō me te noho wātea ki te whaiwhai manu māori, he kai taketake hoki ēnei nā te Māori. He take nui ki a ia kia whiwhi te Māori i te whakaakoranga pērā i tō te Pākehā rā, ā, mā te kaiwhakaako kua oti pai te tohutohu e ako. Hei tāna, mā tēnei e ōrite ai te āhei atu o te Māori ki ngā mahi kei ngā tari kāwanatanga.

Heoti, i whakapaua e ia te nuinga o tōna kaha ki ngā take whenua Māori. Nā ngā hua o ngā mahi raupatu whenua ka tino pōuri rawa atu tōna ngākau; ko tō mua tonu ko ngā whenua o Waikato. Ki a Kaihau, kāhore i tutuki i te pirimia, i a Te Hētana (Richard Seddon), rāua ko te minita mō ngā take Māori, i a Timi Kara (James Carroll), ā rāua kī taurangi ki te whakatau i ēnei take whenua. Tino hinapōuri rawa atu ia i tēnei, ā, hoki atu, hoki atu tana whakamahara i te kāwanatanga ki tā rātou takohanga. I tautohea kahatia e ia te nui noa atu o ngā pire whenua Māori i whakatakotoria i te Whare Pāremata, atu i te tau 1897 ki 1910. Ko te pire i tino mautohea nuitia o aua pire ko tērā i whakaturea i te Oketopa o 1900, arā, ko te Pire Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori (Māori Lands Administration Bill). Ko te whakapono o Kaihau i te tīmatanga he hua tō te pire nei mō te Māori. Arā, mā ngā kaunihera whenua ā-rohe e tuku ki a rātou te mana whakahaere o ō rātou whenua. Ēngari, kāore i roa kua mārama ki a ia he here anō te mahi a taua ture i te mana o te Māori ki te whakahaere i ōna whenua, ā, nā reira i tohe ai ia kia whakakāhoretia.

I te tau 1903, nā runga i te whakakīkī a Timi Kara ka uru atu ia ki te Kaunihera Whenua Māori ā-rohe o Waikato. Heoti, nā ngā hua o te Ture Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori o 1900 i puta, me te korongatā o te kāwanatanga ki te mea i ngā whenua ture kia tika, i whakaio tōna ngākau ki ngā mahi hanga ture whenua mō āmua atu. He remurere tana mautohe ki te mahi takatakahi a ngā ture nei i te mana me ngā tikanga Māori i whakamautia mai rā ki a rātou i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Tae rawa atu ki 1910 kua tino ngaro mārika aua tikanga. He whakahinapōuri, he taupare i a Kaihau te tū here kore a te kāwanatanga ki ngā take Māori. Ka tae ki 1905 ko ngā pire whenua Māori te nuinga o ngā pire i whaikupu a Kaihau. Nā te whakatakoto rā anō o ēnei momo hanganga ture kātahi anō ia ka whakawheta i tana nohoanga i te Whare Pāremata. I ngā tau 1906, 1908 me 1909, kore rawa ia i whai kōrero ki reira.

I te mea kua tārure te kaupapa Kotahitanga o te tekau atu i 1890, i tahuri ai ōna whakaaro i taua wā ki te whakaara mai anō i tētahi pāremata Māori. Ko Mahuta me tōna pā i Waahi hei pokapū mō te pāremata hou. Ko te uaratanga he karanga katoa i ngā amorangi Māori, he whakangārahu i tētahi tātai kāwanatanga mana motuhake me te ātete i ngā ture whenua hē. Nō te tau 1907 ka tū ngā hui nui. Heoti, kāhore i taea e aua hui te where ngā raruraru o roto tonu mai i te Kīngitanga me ngā rerenga kētanga i waenga i ngā iwi i waho i te Kīngitanga.

I te tau 1908, ka riro nā ngā ariki o Waikato anake i kawe te kaupapa. Ko te hiahia o Mahuta he hoko mai i ngā whenua raupatu i Taupiri, i Ngāruawāhia, ā, ki te pou i tētahi tāone me te pāremata ki te mātāmuri o aua wāhi. Ka kohia mai he moni i ngā hokonga whenua me ngā mahi rīhi whenua. He wāhanga he mea whakangao e Kaihau ki ētahi kamupene hoko whenua i Ākarana, he wāhanga anō he mea waiho ki tētahi pūtea tiaki moni i raro i tōna īngoa. Tau rawa ki 1911 kua hinga katoa aua kamupene, ā, neke atu i te £50,000 te moni a te Kīngitanga i ngaro.

I orua te paheketanga o aua whakangaotanga ki ngā whakapae ā-pāremata, ā, arā atu anō ngā mahi hē a Kaihau. I te 12 Oketopa 1910, nā te mema mō Stratford, nā John Hine i whakapae ki ngā mahi tinihanga a ngā mema e whia kē nei. I whakapaea e ia nā Kaihau i tango mai he moni i ngā kaipōti mō ana mahi pitihana. Ā, kō atu i tēnā i utua ia mō te whakataka whenua hei hoko; ēngari, ahakoa tana kī ki tōna iwi kia mau ake tonu ki te whenua, ka āwhinatia e ia te hunga e hiahia ana ki te hokohoko. Hei whakangungu i a ia ka kī a Kaihau he rite āna mahi ki ērā a te kanohi mau raihana. Arā, he mahi e ōrite ana ki ngā mahi a ngā rōia mā ā rātou tāngata rato, me ngā mahi a ētahi tonu o te Whare Pāremata mā ā rātou kaipōti. Ko te whakataunga i whakaritea mōna he mau tangetange mō te mahi hē i a ia i tōna tūranga. Heoti, i kī pēnei te Kaiwhakahaere i te Whare Pāremata; nā te mea pea ko Kaihau he tangata whenua i kore mōhio ki te reo Pākehā, ā, kīhai hoki ngā Tikanga Whakahaere i whakamāoritia, koirā te take i kore ai ia i mārama e mahi hē ana ia. Ka mutu, kāore i whiua.

Nā te manauhea o Kaihau i te Hepetema o 1911 ka tukua ia kia tū wātea i te Pāremata mō ngā rā 14. Kua roa kē ia e pāngia ana e te kaute me te rūmātiki pīwa. Nō mua tata tonu mai i te pōti whānui o te motu i 1911 ka rongo a Mahuta i ngā whakangao hē a Kaihau. I puta anō hoki ngā whakapae nāna i nopenope ētahi o ngā moni a te pūtea tiaki moni mō āna mahi ake. Nō muri mai i tēnei ka whakarērea a Kaihau e Mahuta, riro kē ana tana ngākau pono i a Māui Pōmare. I te pōtitanga ka hinga a Kaihau. E 565 te nui atu o ngā pōti i riro i a Pōmare. Ka tae ki te wā pōti o te tau 1919 ka whakamātau a Kaihau kia riro mai anō i a ia te tūru, ēngari kīhai ia i momoho. Nō te 20 o Mei o te tau i muri mai ka hemo mai ia i Waiuku.

Anō te marutuna o te tangata nei o Kaihau. He tangata rahi te hanga (e 20 tōne te toimaha). E ai ki a Te Maahi (William Massey), te pirimia, he tangata tino koi rawa atu te hinengaro o Kaihau, ā, ko tōna pakari me tōna whakatupu, ko Hēkuri (Hercules) tonu te rite. He tohunga, ā, he rawe ki te whakatakoto kōrero tōrangapū. Heoti, ko tētahi kōrero anō mōna e kī ana, he tangata hūmārika, he tangata manahau. Ko ngā take e tino maumaharatia ana ia ko ērā e pā ana ki te ngaronga o ngā moni a te Kīngitanga, me te whakapae i taka ia ki te hē i roto i āna mahi tōrangapū. Heoti, kaua e tukua kia whakaitihia ōna tūmanakotanga ki te kaupapa whakatū mana motuhake i te Māori, me tōna kaha hoki ki te whakatōpū i te Kīngitanga me te Kotahitanga kia tutuki ai tana kaupapa tū mana motuhake nei. E tika ana ko tana karanga, 'Hoatu te mana ki te iwi Māori kia riro mā rātou anō ā rātou take e whakahaere; kāti te here i ngā waewae me ngā ringa o te hunga nō rātou te whenua', kia takoto hei tūāpapa whai tikanga mō ngā tono ā muri mai kia tū motuhake te Māori.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    The cyclopedia of New Zealand. Vol. 2. Christchurch, 1902

    King, M. Te Puea. Auckland, 1977

    New Zealand Parliamentary Debates. House of Representatives, 29 June 1920

    Williams, J. A. Politics of the New Zealand Maori. Seattle, 1969


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

DNZB. 'Kaihau, Henare', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2k3/kaihau-henare (accessed 8 July 2020)