Kōrero: Ahuwhenua

Whārangi 2. Te mana whenua me te ahuwhenua Māori

Ngā whakaahua

Te raupatu whenua

Whai muri i ngā riri i waenganui i ētahi iwi me te kāwanatanga, ka raupatungia ngā whenua mōmona ki Taranaki, Waikato me Te Moana-a-Toi.

Te whakatakitahi

Nā ngā whakarerekētanga o te rau tau 1800 me te rau tau 1900 ki te mana whenua, ka paheke te ahuwhenua Māori. Nā te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1862, ka takitahitia, ka rēhitatia te whenua Māori kia arongia ai i raro i te ture nō Ingarihi kia aha ai, kia ngāwari ai te hoko atu.

I raro i ngā tikanga a te Māori, ka noho ko te whānau, hapū, iwi ngā rangatira o te whenua, kāpā ko te tangata kotahi. Nā te ture ka rerekē katoa, ka ngaro ngā kawenga ki te iwi.

Nō te whakatūnga o te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1865, tāpiri atu ki te maha noa atu o ngā hanganga ture i ngā e 50 tau ka whai, ka ngaro te nui whenua Māori.

Te wāwāhi i te whenua

Ka whakakorengia ngā kerēme tōpū me te take ahi kā a te Māori ki te whenua, kia noho mai ko te tangata kotahi, ko te whānau rānei ngā rangatira i runga i te taitara whenua. Ka maranga mai tēnā whakatipuranga, tēnā whakatipuranga (hāunga te mea kei te nōhia te whenua kāore rānei), ka tokomaha atu te hunga whai mana ki tēnā whenua, ki tēnā whenua, ko te mutunga ka maramara ngā taitara whenua. Kāore he huringa ki te whakapai i te whenua.

I te ngaronga o ngā whenua, ka rapu huarahi te Māori ki te pupuri i ngā toenga me te whakatū hanganga kia pai ake te tiaki whenua. Me tū ēnei momo hanganga ka tika hei aha, hei tiaki i ngā pānga whenua o te tangata ki tēnā poraka whenua, ki tēnā poraka whenua.

Ka ririki haere, ka ririki haere

Tatū ki te tau 2008, e 26,480 ngā tiwhikete whenua Māori, ā, e 59 heketea te rahinga toharite o ia pihi whenua, e 73 hoki te toharite o ngā tāngata me ngā rōpū kei ia pihi whenua (e 425 te tokomaha rawa atu ka taea). Ka taea e te tangata kotahi te whai pānga ki ngā poraka whenua maha; whāia, i te tau 2008 neke atu i te e rua miriona ngā pānga, ā, ka piki tēnei rahinga mā te e 185,000 ia tau.

He putanga i te wāwāhi mana whenua

Ko te whakatōpū i ngā pānga whenua ki raro i te whakahaere kotahi tētahi putanga i te wāwāhi taitara. Hāunga te mea i tuwhera tēnei huarahi i te tau 1894, nō te tau 1929 rā anō ka hāpaitia, i te whakaterenga o te kaupapa whanake whenua Māori e Tā Āpirana Ngata o Ngāti Porou.

Nā tēnei kaupapa ka āhei ngā Māori ki ngā pūtea āwhina a te kāwanatanga hei whakapai i ō rātou pāmu. Nā ēnei āwhina hoki i whakatenatena te whakatōpūtanga o ngā taitara whenua maha ki raro i te whakahaere kotahi.

Nā te Ture Whenua Māori i te tau 1953, ka whakatūria ngā hanganga whakahaere whenua, arā, ngā kaitiaki tekiona 438 me ngā kaporeihana whenua Māori. Waihoki, nā te Ture Whenua Māori i te tau 1993, ka huri ngā kaitiaki tekiona 438 hei kaitiaki ahuwhenua; kāore i raweketia ngā kaporeihana Māori.

Ngā kaitiaki whenua Māori me ngā kaporeihana

Āwhiwhi e 1.5 miriona heketea te whenua kei roto i ngā ringaringa o te Māori (āwhiwhi e 5% o ngā whenua katoa o Aotearoa). O tēnei rahinga, e 750,187 heketea (e 49% rānei o ngā whenua Māori) kei raro i ngā whakahaere o ngā kaporeihana Māori. Tata ki te katoa o ngā kaporeihana me te rahinga o ngā rōpū kaitiaki ahuwhenua kei roto i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua.

Ngā kaipāmu takitahi

Tata ki te e 300,000 heketea (e 20% o ngā whenua Māori) kīhai i raro i ngā whakahaere o ngā rōpū kaitiaki, o ngā kaporeihana rānei. Ki te hiahia tētahi o te hunga whai pānga ki te noho me te mahi i runga i ngā whenua, e ai ki te ture, me whakaae te nuinga o te hunga whai pānga, arā, te hunga nō rātou te whenua. Ka tukuna ōkawatia mā roto i te Kōti Whenua Māori kia puta he rīhi. Mō ngā whenua he tokoiti te hunga whai pānga, he māmā noa te whai whakaaetanga i a rātou. Heoi, mō ngā whenua ka hia rau, ka hia mano rānei te nui o te hunga whai pānga, he uaua rawa atu, whai anō te whakatūnga o ngā rōpū kaitiaki me ngā kaporeihana.

Te whakamahi i te whenua

Nō te tau 1997 whakahaerengia ai he rangahau o ngā kaporeihana me ngā rōpū kaitiaki Māori e 633; e 1.21 miriona heketea o ngā whenua Māori kei ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua (e 80% o ngā whenua Māori), 0.267 miriona heketea kua tipuria ki te paina (e 18%), ko te toenga (e 28,000 heketea) kei raro i ngā kaupapa haumi kei ngā tāone.

Te ao ōhanga

He wāhi nui tō te Māori ki te ōhanga ahuwhenua o Aotearoa. I te tau 2003, e $750 miriona (e 5% o te katoa o Aotearoa) te uara o ngā hua ka puta i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua, whakatipu rākau kei ngā whenua tōpū Māori. I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 2000, e 15% o ngā hoko hipi, kiko kau ki tāwāhi i ahu mai i ngā pāmu Māori, ā, e $100 miriona te nui o ngā hea a te Māori i te kamupene nui whakaharahara a Fonterra. I taua tau anō, e 720,000 heketea ngā whenua Māori i te pāmu i te hipi me te kau.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Tanira Kingi, 'Ahuwhenua - Te mana whenua me te ahuwhenua Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ahuwhenua/page-2 (accessed 26 June 2019)

Story by Tanira Kingi, published 24 Nov 2008