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Ahuwhenua – Māori land and agriculture

by  Tanira Kingi

Kāore noa iho i roa te wā, ka ako te Māori mō ngā tipu me ngā kararehe nā te Pākehā i mau ki Aotearoa, ko te otinga, ka whai hua i ngā tauhokohoko ahuwhenua. Heoi, nā ētahi ture hou i unu te mana o ngā iwi ki ō rātou whenua, ka whakawhiwhi kē ki tēnā tangata takitahi, ki tēnā tangata takitahi. Nō konei ka uaua ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua a ngā iwi. I whakatenatena a Āpirana Ngata i ngā iwi kia whakatū rōpū kaitiaki, kaporeihana hoki hei whakahaere i ngā pāmu. Ahakoa tini ngā tāngata kīhai i te noho i runga ō rātou whenua papatipu, ka hiahia tonu rātou kia whai wāhi ki ngā kaupapa me ngā whakahaere o te whenua.


Changes to Māori agriculture

Ngā kai onamata

I mua i te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, ko te kai a te Māori, ko te manu (ki-tai, ki-uta hoki), te aruhe, tae atu ki ngā tipu i mauria mai i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, arā, te kūmara, te taro, te hue, te uwhi. Nāwai, nā te mea he makariri ake a Aotearoa tērā ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka ako te Māori me pēhea te whakatipu me te tiaki i ēnei tūmomo kai. Nā ēnei mōhiotanga, ka taea noatia ai e te Māori ngā ahuwhenua arumoni i tōna wā.

Te rīwai, te poaka me te pī

Nō te tōmuritanga o te rau tau atu i 1700 tae atu ki te tōmuatanga o te rau tau atu i 1800, ka taetae ngā kararehe, ngā tipu me ngā taputapu rino ki Aotearoa. Kīhai i ārikarika te hopu a te Māori ki ēnei mea hou, ā, taro ake ka nui atu ngā ahuwhenua me te pāmu kararehe.

I te taenga o Kāpene Kuki ki Aotearoa i te tau 1769, ka hoatu (hoko rānei) e ia he kāpeti, he kotami, he rīwai ki a Ngāti Porou ki Ūawa. I taua tau anō ka whakataka e Jean Francis Marie de Surville he witi, he raihi, he pī ki Taipā i Te Tai Tokerau. Nō te tau 1773 ka hoki anō a Kāpene Kuki ki Aotearoa, ka tau ki Ūawa, ka whakataka he poaka, he rīwai. Mai i te tau 1803 ka tīmata ngā tauhokohoko a te Māori i te rīwai, te poaka, te kānga me ētahi atu kai.

Te parau me te whakapono Karaitiana

Ko te kō me te timo ngā taputapu kerikeri i te oneone mō te whakatō kai. Hāunga te pai o ēnei taputapu ki ngā wāhi tipu ririki, kāore he take ki ngā māra nui.

Nō te tau 1814, nā Te Mātenga ngā hōiho me ngā kau tuatahi ki Aotearoa. Nō te tau 1820, nā te mihinare rā a John Butler te parau tuatahi ki Aotearoa. Nā ēnei kararehe, nā ēnei taputapu hou ka māmā atu te whakataka i te whenua hei whakatipu kai.

Nō te whakawhitinga o te tangata Māori ki tāwāhi, ka akona ngā tikanga ahuwhenua hou. Nō te hokinga o Ruatara ki Aotearoa, ka whakahau ia i tōna iwi o Ngāpuhi kia ako i ngā tikanga ahuwhenua a te Pākehā.

Te whakatipu me te kawe witi

Tino kaha te whanaketanga o te ahuwhenua Māori i ngā tau 1830 ki te tekau tau atu i 1850. Nō te Māori te nuinga o ngā kaipuke i Te Ika-a-Māui, me te aha, ko te rahi o ngā kai i hokona ki Aotearoa tae rawa atu ki Ahitereiria nā te Māori i whakatipu. Kia tae ki te tekau tau atu i 1850, kua hōrapa te whakatipu witi, kua tūtū ngā mira pana wai puta noa i Aotearoa. Kei waenganui i ngā tau 1846 me 1860 e 37 ngā mira puehu parāoa nō te Māori ki te porowini o Ākarana.

Te whirinakitanga ki te Maori

Ka tipu te ahuwhenua Māori i ngā tau pokapū o te rau tau atu i 1800, he āwhina ki te māeatanga o Aotearoa hei whenua ahuwhenua. I tēnei wā ka nui haere, ka nui haere te taupori Pākehā. I te tīmatanga, nā te kūare ki ngā oneone me te āhuarangi, ka whirinaki ngā tāngata whai ki te Māori me āna kai. I te tau 1842, ka kōrero a Pīhopa Herewini mō ngā tāngata whai o Whakatū i whakawhirinaki ki te iwi o reira me āna kai. I puta ngā kōrero o te wā mō te pai o ngā mahi ahuwhenua a te Māori.

Ngā ahuwhenua kaitā

I te tau 1859, ka takoto i a William Swainson ngā kōrero mō ngā mahi ahuwhenua o Te Arawa, o Tūwharetoa, o Mataatua. Ka hia mano eka i whakatipuria ki te witi, te rīwai, te kānga, te kūmara; ka hia mano ngā poaka, ka hia rau hōiho, kau hoki, tāpiri atu ngā mira puehu parāoa me ‘ngā kaipuke iti e 43 e 20 tana te taumaha, ngā waka māori neke atu i te e 900’.1

Ka piki, ka heke te ahuwhenua Māori

E 30 tau whai muri i te taenga o te parau ki Aotearoa, ka huri te Māori mai i ngā ahuwhenua tūturu ki te ahuwhenua arumoni, me te whai hua o ngā mahi. Nō te tau 1865 ka puta he kōrero i te New Zealander mō te tūranga o te Māori ‘hei rangatira, kaipāmu, kaitiaki kararehe, kaumoana, kaiwhakahaere kaipuke, ihu oneone, kaimahi taunga hoki’.2

Kia tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1850, kei roto tonu i ngā ringaringa o te Māori te nuinga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Heoi, nā te whakatau a te kāwana o ngā tāngata whai kia whakatakitahi i ngā taitara whenua, tāpiri atu ki ngā raupatu whenua o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka huri wawe tēnei.

Footnotes
  1. William Swainson. New Zealand and its colonization. Christchurch: Kiwi, 1997, p. 65 (originally published 1859). › Back
  2. Quoted in G. T. Alley and D. O. W. Hall, The farmer in New Zealand. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs, 1941, p. 22. › Back

Land ownership and Māori agriculture

Te raupatu whenua

Whai muri i ngā riri i waenganui i ētahi iwi me te kāwanatanga, ka raupatungia ngā whenua mōmona ki Taranaki, Waikato me Te Moana-a-Toi.

Te whakatakitahi

Nā ngā whakarerekētanga o te rau tau 1800 me te rau tau 1900 ki te mana whenua, ka paheke te ahuwhenua Māori. Nā te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1862, ka takitahitia, ka rēhitatia te whenua Māori kia arongia ai i raro i te ture nō Ingarihi kia aha ai, kia ngāwari ai te hoko atu.

I raro i ngā tikanga a te Māori, ka noho ko te whānau, hapū, iwi ngā rangatira o te whenua, kāpā ko te tangata kotahi. Nā te ture ka rerekē katoa, ka ngaro ngā kawenga ki te iwi.

Nō te whakatūnga o te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1865, tāpiri atu ki te maha noa atu o ngā hanganga ture i ngā e 50 tau ka whai, ka ngaro te nui whenua Māori.

Te wāwāhi i te whenua

Ka whakakorengia ngā kerēme tōpū me te take ahi kā a te Māori ki te whenua, kia noho mai ko te tangata kotahi, ko te whānau rānei ngā rangatira i runga i te taitara whenua. Ka maranga mai tēnā whakatipuranga, tēnā whakatipuranga (hāunga te mea kei te nōhia te whenua kāore rānei), ka tokomaha atu te hunga whai mana ki tēnā whenua, ki tēnā whenua, ko te mutunga ka maramara ngā taitara whenua. Kāore he huringa ki te whakapai i te whenua.

I te ngaronga o ngā whenua, ka rapu huarahi te Māori ki te pupuri i ngā toenga me te whakatū hanganga kia pai ake te tiaki whenua. Me tū ēnei momo hanganga ka tika hei aha, hei tiaki i ngā pānga whenua o te tangata ki tēnā poraka whenua, ki tēnā poraka whenua.

Ka ririki haere, ka ririki haere

Tatū ki te tau 2008, e 26,480 ngā tiwhikete whenua Māori, ā, e 59 heketea te rahinga toharite o ia pihi whenua, e 73 hoki te toharite o ngā tāngata me ngā rōpū kei ia pihi whenua (e 425 te tokomaha rawa atu ka taea). Ka taea e te tangata kotahi te whai pānga ki ngā poraka whenua maha; whāia, i te tau 2008 neke atu i te e rua miriona ngā pānga, ā, ka piki tēnei rahinga mā te e 185,000 ia tau.

He putanga i te wāwāhi mana whenua

Ko te whakatōpū i ngā pānga whenua ki raro i te whakahaere kotahi tētahi putanga i te wāwāhi taitara. Hāunga te mea i tuwhera tēnei huarahi i te tau 1894, nō te tau 1929 rā anō ka hāpaitia, i te whakaterenga o te kaupapa whanake whenua Māori e Tā Āpirana Ngata o Ngāti Porou.

Nā tēnei kaupapa ka āhei ngā Māori ki ngā pūtea āwhina a te kāwanatanga hei whakapai i ō rātou pāmu. Nā ēnei āwhina hoki i whakatenatena te whakatōpūtanga o ngā taitara whenua maha ki raro i te whakahaere kotahi.

Nā te Ture Whenua Māori i te tau 1953, ka whakatūria ngā hanganga whakahaere whenua, arā, ngā kaitiaki tekiona 438 me ngā kaporeihana whenua Māori. Waihoki, nā te Ture Whenua Māori i te tau 1993, ka huri ngā kaitiaki tekiona 438 hei kaitiaki ahuwhenua; kāore i raweketia ngā kaporeihana Māori.

Ngā kaitiaki whenua Māori me ngā kaporeihana

Āwhiwhi e 1.5 miriona heketea te whenua kei roto i ngā ringaringa o te Māori (āwhiwhi e 5% o ngā whenua katoa o Aotearoa). O tēnei rahinga, e 750,187 heketea (e 49% rānei o ngā whenua Māori) kei raro i ngā whakahaere o ngā kaporeihana Māori. Tata ki te katoa o ngā kaporeihana me te rahinga o ngā rōpū kaitiaki ahuwhenua kei roto i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua.

Ngā kaipāmu takitahi

Tata ki te e 300,000 heketea (e 20% o ngā whenua Māori) kīhai i raro i ngā whakahaere o ngā rōpū kaitiaki, o ngā kaporeihana rānei. Ki te hiahia tētahi o te hunga whai pānga ki te noho me te mahi i runga i ngā whenua, e ai ki te ture, me whakaae te nuinga o te hunga whai pānga, arā, te hunga nō rātou te whenua. Ka tukuna ōkawatia mā roto i te Kōti Whenua Māori kia puta he rīhi. Mō ngā whenua he tokoiti te hunga whai pānga, he māmā noa te whai whakaaetanga i a rātou. Heoi, mō ngā whenua ka hia rau, ka hia mano rānei te nui o te hunga whai pānga, he uaua rawa atu, whai anō te whakatūnga o ngā rōpū kaitiaki me ngā kaporeihana.

Te whakamahi i te whenua

Nō te tau 1997 whakahaerengia ai he rangahau o ngā kaporeihana me ngā rōpū kaitiaki Māori e 633; e 1.21 miriona heketea o ngā whenua Māori kei ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua (e 80% o ngā whenua Māori), 0.267 miriona heketea kua tipuria ki te paina (e 18%), ko te toenga (e 28,000 heketea) kei raro i ngā kaupapa haumi kei ngā tāone.

Te ao ōhanga

He wāhi nui tō te Māori ki te ōhanga ahuwhenua o Aotearoa. I te tau 2003, e $750 miriona (e 5% o te katoa o Aotearoa) te uara o ngā hua ka puta i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua, whakatipu rākau kei ngā whenua tōpū Māori. I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 2000, e 15% o ngā hoko hipi, kiko kau ki tāwāhi i ahu mai i ngā pāmu Māori, ā, e $100 miriona te nui o ngā hea a te Māori i te kamupene nui whakaharahara a Fonterra. I taua tau anō, e 720,000 heketea ngā whenua Māori i te pāmu i te hipi me te kau.


Trusts and incorporations

Ngā kaitiaki ahuwhenua me ngā kaporeihana Māori

Ko ngā kaitiaki whenua me ngā kaporeihana Māori ngā hanganga whakahaere i ngā pānga whenua o te Māori. I te tau 2008, e 129 ngā kaporeihana Māori, e 5,201 ngā rōpū kaitiaki ahuwhenua, ka whakahaere i te e 66% o ngā whenua Māori.

Rawea ai ngā rōpū kaitiaki ahuwhenua, nā te mea ka puritia e te hunga whai pānga tō rātou tūranga hei hunga whai pānga. Mō te taha ki ngā kaporeihana, ka noho te hunga whai pānga hei kaipupuri hea, ka whiwhi pānga i runga i ā rātou hea. Nō ngā hanganga ture o ngā tau tata nei, whakaaetia ai ngā rōpū kaitiaki ahuwhenua te whakahaere i a rātou i runga i ngā ara arumoni ki te hiahia rātou, ka panoni hoki ngā ritenga o te kaitiakitanga.

Kaipāmu kaporeihana

Ka whakahaerengia ai te nuinga o ngā whenua Māori i raro i tētahi rōpū kaitiaki, tētahi komiti whakahaere rānei. He rerekē tēnei ki te nuinga o te rāngai ahuwhenua, arā, ko te tangata kotahi me tōna whānau i tōna ake pāmu. Ko te nuinga o ngā mahi ahuwhenua Māori kei raro i ngā Kaipāmu kaporeihana – kīhai te hunga whai pānga i te mahi i ō rātou whenua, kua oti kē te whakarite kaimahi ki ngā mahi.

He rerekē ngā taumahatanga kei ringa i te ahuwhenua Māori e pā ana ki te mana, te whakahaere, te āheinga ki ngā haupū rawa.

Mana whenua

Ko te nuinga o te hunga whai pānga ki ngā whenua Māori kīhai e noho ana ki te whenua. Nā tēnei ka puea ētahi āhuatanga ka pā ki te whakahaere me te mana i ngā whenua.

E kore te nuinga o te hunga whai pānga Māori e noho ki runga i ō rātou whenua tōpū, kīhai rānei e whai oranga i aua whenua. Heoi, he wāhi nui tō te pānga ki te whenua ki te tuakiri Māori. Ko te whenua te tūrangawaewae o te tangata. Nā te mea he kāmehameha te whenua, kīhai te hunga whai pānga e mahi heahea me te whenua, kei ngaro atu te whenua. Whakapono ai te hunga whai pānga me whakatairanga ngā whāinga hapori me ngā whāinga ahurea ki te taha o ngā whāinga arumoni.

Te whakahaere me te whakatau kaupapa

Ko te nuinga o ngā tāngata ka eke ki ngā poari me ngā komiti ka ahu mai i te hunga whai pānga. Ka pōtitia ngā māngai whai mana kōkiri i runga i ngā tikanga manapouri, ā, i te nuinga o te wā ka whakaata te komiti i ngā pānga o tēnā whānau, o tēnā whānau e ngana ana kia pupuri i te mana o te rōpū. Ki te kore e whai wheako tika te taha ārahi me te taha whakahaere, ka pā tēnei ki te pai o te haere o te rōpū kaitiaki, te kaporeihana rānei.

Haupū rawa

He uaua ki ngā rōpū te whātoro ki ngā haupū rawa hei whakapai i ngā whenua. Me kī, i te nuinga o te wā, ko te hiahia o te hunga whai pānga kia āta haere, kia kaua e nui ngā nama. Nā te whīwhiwhi o ngā tāngata ka whai pānga ki te whenua Māori, kīhai e rata ngā pēke te tuku pūtea taurewa ko te whenua Māori hei tuarā. Mēnā kīhai te kaiwhakahaere o tētahi whenua Māori e whai wheako whakahaere umanga, ka uaua rawa atu te rapu pūtea āwhina hei hāpai i ngā mahi i runga i te whenua.

Ngā painga i ngā kamupene

Nō ngā tau tata nei, kua hāpai te Kōti Whenua Māori i ngā hanganga kamupene i raro i te Ture Kamupene 1993, hei āta wehe i te mana whenua mai i ngā kaupapa umanga. Ka tareka i raro i te hanganga kamupene te āta wehe i ngā whāinga arumoni mai i ngā whāinga hapori me ngā whāinga ahurea, te whakatū hoki i tētahi hātepe tātari i te pai o ngā mahi. Ka taea te whakatakoto i ngā whāinga arumoni o te hanganga kamupene kia mārama, kia pai ai te arotake. Mā te pōti i tētahi poari whakahaere – ka pōtitia i runga i ō rātou wheako kaipakihi – ka mārama ngā kawenga o tēnā, o tēnā.


Incorporations and ahuwhenua

Te wāhi ki a Āpirana Ngata

He wāhi nui tō Āpirana Ngata i te whakatūnga o tētahi kaupapa ā-motu ka whakahuihui i ngā whenua Māori, ka whakawātea hoki i ngā pūtea hei whakamahi i te whenua. I angitu ngā kaupapa a Ngata nā te mea kua roa kē tōna iwi o Ngāti Porou e mahi pāmu ana i Te Tai Rāwhiti, tāpae atu ki tōna matatau ki te ture Pākehā.

Ka pāmu hipi a Ngāti Porou

Atu i tau 1900, ka wānanga a Āpirana Ngata i te pāmu hipi ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, inarā koia te kaiwhakahaere o te teihana o Ahikouka me ngā teihana e toru atu. Mai anō i te paunga o te rau tau 1800, ka hua ngā mahi hipi a ngā rangatira pērā i a Rāpata Wahawaha rāua ko Mōkena Kōhere ki ngā raorao; heoi, mā te whakatakoto tikanga whakahaere, ka pai atu ai te pāmu hipi.

I taua wā ka whakatūria e ngā kaipāmu o Ngāti Porou tētahi Kotahitanga o ngā Kaipāmu o Ngāti Porou. Ka tahuri a Ngata ki te ako i tōna iwi a Ngāti Porou ki ngā tikanga pāmu hou, arā, te whakatū taiepa, te nekeneke i ngā kararehe, te whakatipu otaota. Ka whai pūtea āwhina a Ngata mā ngā kaipāmu o Ngāti Porou, i tōna hoa a Samuel Williams, nāna nei te kāreti o Te Aute i whakatū. Ka hōrapa te pāmu hipi ki te riu o Waiapu, ko Āpirana Ngata i te ārahi. Ka piki te rahi o te hipi mai i te e 52,786 i te tau 1900, ki te e 65,619 i te tau 1905, ki te e 132,356 i te tau 1909. Kia tae ki te tau 1927, e 500,000 ngā hipi a Ngāti Porou.

Te tohu Ahuwhenua

 

Nā Āpirana Ngata ngā tohu mō te Kaipāmu Māori o te Tau i tīmata i te tau 1932. Ka whiwhi te hunga toa i te Tohu Ahuwhenua; i te tau 1932 nā te kāwana-tianara nā Rōre Bledisloe i tuku. Nāwai ā, ka uaua rawa atu te tātari i ngā pāmu hipi i te taha o ngā pāmu miraka kau; whāia, i te tau 1954 ka tukua e Rōre Bledisloe tētahi tohu mō te pāmu hipi. Ka toa he wahine Māori i te taha pāmu hipi i te tau 1952 me te taha pāmu miraka kau i te tau 1954.

 

Te miraka kau a Ngāti Porou

Nō te tau 1923, ka rapu a Ngata i ngā whenua pai mō te miraka kau. Me uaua te tahuri i ngā kaipāmu o Ngāti Porou mai i te pāmu hipi ki te miraka kau, inarā kua pau te e 30 tau e pāmu hipi ana rātou. Ka pūtea taurewa i te Kaitiaki Māori hei whakatū wheketere miraka, hei hoko kau, hei hanga hēte miraka, hei whakatere hoki i te Kamupene Miraka Kau o Ngāti Porou. Mō te tau 1925/26, e 60 tana te nui o te pata i hua i te wheketere i Ruatōria. I te tau 1931/32 ka eke te pata ki te e 460 tana. Heoi, ka paheke te miraka kau whai muri i te pakanga tuarua o te ao; nō te tau 1954 ka kati te wheketere.

Ngā kaporeihana nui

Ka nui rawa ngā mahi pāmu a ētahi o ngā kaporeihana Māori nui.

Kei Taranaki te Kaporeihana o Parininihi ki Waitōtara. 13 ngā pāmu miraka, 8,000 ngā kau a te kaporeihana ki runga i te whenua haumako e 2,500 heketea te rahi. I te tau 2008, e $50 miriona te uara o te kaporeihana i roto o Taranaki, neke atu i te 20,000 heketea kei te rīhitia tonutia. 

Nō te tau 1970 whakatūria ai te kaporeihana a Atihau-Whanganui, ki te whakahaere i ngā whenua e 40,873 heketea te nui. I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 2000, tekau ngā teihana, kotahi te pāmu miraka kau i raro i te whakahaere a te kaporeihana mō te hunga whai pānga e 7,072. Tērā tētahi o ngā teihana ko Pah Hill, e 1,900 heketea te nui, e 20,800 ngā hipi me ngā kau.

Tērā te Kaporeihana o Wairarapa Moana, i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 2000, e $90 miriona te uara o ngā hua, ko te nuinga i ngā paina rākau me ngā ahuwhenua. E 4,200 heketea i ngā whenua pāmu, arā, e 12 ngā pāmu miraka kau me te teihana hipi, kau e 1,325 heketea te nui. Ko ngā hea-miraka ka miraka i ngā kau e 7,200, e 2.3 miriona koma-mano te hua miraka ia tau.

Ko Puketapu 3A Trust ngā rangatira o te teihana o Moerangi. E 3,877 heketea te nui o te teihana, e 2,159 heketea ka pai mō te ahuwhenua. I te tau 2008, e 13,200 ngā hipi, e 1,200 ngā kau, tata ki te e 2,000 ngā tia, e 500 ngā nanekoti.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Tanira Kingi, 'Ahuwhenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ahuwhenua/print (accessed 6 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Tanira Kingi, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008