Kōrero: Ahuwhenua

Whārangi 1. Ka panoni te ahuwhenua Māori

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā kai onamata

I mua i te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, ko te kai a te Māori, ko te manu (ki-tai, ki-uta hoki), te aruhe, tae atu ki ngā tipu i mauria mai i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, arā, te kūmara, te taro, te hue, te uwhi. Nāwai, nā te mea he makariri ake a Aotearoa tērā ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka ako te Māori me pēhea te whakatipu me te tiaki i ēnei tūmomo kai. Nā ēnei mōhiotanga, ka taea noatia ai e te Māori ngā ahuwhenua arumoni i tōna wā.

Te rīwai, te poaka me te pī

Nō te tōmuritanga o te rau tau atu i 1700 tae atu ki te tōmuatanga o te rau tau atu i 1800, ka taetae ngā kararehe, ngā tipu me ngā taputapu rino ki Aotearoa. Kīhai i ārikarika te hopu a te Māori ki ēnei mea hou, ā, taro ake ka nui atu ngā ahuwhenua me te pāmu kararehe.

I te taenga o Kāpene Kuki ki Aotearoa i te tau 1769, ka hoatu (hoko rānei) e ia he kāpeti, he kotami, he rīwai ki a Ngāti Porou ki Ūawa. I taua tau anō ka whakataka e Jean Francis Marie de Surville he witi, he raihi, he pī ki Taipā i Te Tai Tokerau. Nō te tau 1773 ka hoki anō a Kāpene Kuki ki Aotearoa, ka tau ki Ūawa, ka whakataka he poaka, he rīwai. Mai i te tau 1803 ka tīmata ngā tauhokohoko a te Māori i te rīwai, te poaka, te kānga me ētahi atu kai.

Te parau me te whakapono Karaitiana

Ko te kō me te timo ngā taputapu kerikeri i te oneone mō te whakatō kai. Hāunga te pai o ēnei taputapu ki ngā wāhi tipu ririki, kāore he take ki ngā māra nui.

Nō te tau 1814, nā Te Mātenga ngā hōiho me ngā kau tuatahi ki Aotearoa. Nō te tau 1820, nā te mihinare rā a John Butler te parau tuatahi ki Aotearoa. Nā ēnei kararehe, nā ēnei taputapu hou ka māmā atu te whakataka i te whenua hei whakatipu kai.

Nō te whakawhitinga o te tangata Māori ki tāwāhi, ka akona ngā tikanga ahuwhenua hou. Nō te hokinga o Ruatara ki Aotearoa, ka whakahau ia i tōna iwi o Ngāpuhi kia ako i ngā tikanga ahuwhenua a te Pākehā.

Te whakatipu me te kawe witi

Tino kaha te whanaketanga o te ahuwhenua Māori i ngā tau 1830 ki te tekau tau atu i 1850. Nō te Māori te nuinga o ngā kaipuke i Te Ika-a-Māui, me te aha, ko te rahi o ngā kai i hokona ki Aotearoa tae rawa atu ki Ahitereiria nā te Māori i whakatipu. Kia tae ki te tekau tau atu i 1850, kua hōrapa te whakatipu witi, kua tūtū ngā mira pana wai puta noa i Aotearoa. Kei waenganui i ngā tau 1846 me 1860 e 37 ngā mira puehu parāoa nō te Māori ki te porowini o Ākarana.

Te whirinakitanga ki te Maori

Ka tipu te ahuwhenua Māori i ngā tau pokapū o te rau tau atu i 1800, he āwhina ki te māeatanga o Aotearoa hei whenua ahuwhenua. I tēnei wā ka nui haere, ka nui haere te taupori Pākehā. I te tīmatanga, nā te kūare ki ngā oneone me te āhuarangi, ka whirinaki ngā tāngata whai ki te Māori me āna kai. I te tau 1842, ka kōrero a Pīhopa Herewini mō ngā tāngata whai o Whakatū i whakawhirinaki ki te iwi o reira me āna kai. I puta ngā kōrero o te wā mō te pai o ngā mahi ahuwhenua a te Māori.

Ngā ahuwhenua kaitā

I te tau 1859, ka takoto i a William Swainson ngā kōrero mō ngā mahi ahuwhenua o Te Arawa, o Tūwharetoa, o Mataatua. Ka hia mano eka i whakatipuria ki te witi, te rīwai, te kānga, te kūmara; ka hia mano ngā poaka, ka hia rau hōiho, kau hoki, tāpiri atu ngā mira puehu parāoa me ‘ngā kaipuke iti e 43 e 20 tana te taumaha, ngā waka māori neke atu i te e 900’.1

Ka piki, ka heke te ahuwhenua Māori

E 30 tau whai muri i te taenga o te parau ki Aotearoa, ka huri te Māori mai i ngā ahuwhenua tūturu ki te ahuwhenua arumoni, me te whai hua o ngā mahi. Nō te tau 1865 ka puta he kōrero i te New Zealander mō te tūranga o te Māori ‘hei rangatira, kaipāmu, kaitiaki kararehe, kaumoana, kaiwhakahaere kaipuke, ihu oneone, kaimahi taunga hoki’.2

Kia tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1850, kei roto tonu i ngā ringaringa o te Māori te nuinga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Heoi, nā te whakatau a te kāwana o ngā tāngata whai kia whakatakitahi i ngā taitara whenua, tāpiri atu ki ngā raupatu whenua o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka huri wawe tēnei.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. William Swainson. New Zealand and its colonization. Christchurch: Kiwi, 1997, p. 65 (originally published 1859). › Back
  2. Quoted in G. T. Alley and D. O. W. Hall, The farmer in New Zealand. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs, 1941, p. 22. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Tanira Kingi, 'Ahuwhenua - Ka panoni te ahuwhenua Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ahuwhenua/page-1 (accessed 23 September 2019)

Story by Tanira Kingi, published 24 Nov 2008