It is difficult to see the remains of Kaiapoi pā from the ground, but from the air the club-shaped outline of the earthworks is visible. Built around 1700, the pā was the largest and most important of Ngāi Tahu strongholds. It was considered impregnable, but Ngāti Toa invaders from the north breached its defences in 1832 and slaughtered the inhabitants.
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Department of Conservation
Photograph by Kevin Jones
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