Raoul Island is the emergent part of a large volcanic complex, shown here from recent bathymetric surveys by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). Two large calderas on Raoul Island have erupted several times within the last 4,000 years, but there are also large submarine calderas to the west and to the south. Grey areas on the map have not been surveyed.
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Base map courtesy of NIWA – National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research; Source for the Denham and Raoul calderas: T. J. Worthington and others, ‘The Denham caldera on Raoul volcano: dacitic volcanism in the Tonga–Kermadec arc.’ Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research 90 (1999): 29–48