Kōrero: Te whakatere waka

Whārangi 1. Waka

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā tīpuna kaumoana

Ko ngā tīpuna o te Māori ngā tino tohunga ki te tārai waka, ki te whakatere waka me te haere i te moana nui. Heke iho i ngā mano tau, i mua noa atu i te taenga mai ki Aotearoa, ka totoro ngā tīpuna o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i te tonga mā rāwhiti o Āhia, ki Moana Tawhiti, ki Micronesia, ki Melanesia me Poronihia.

Ngā waka tōmua

Tērā tonu pea i whakamahia te mōkihi i ngā whakawhitinga tōmua. Ko ngā moutere tata anake i haerea, arā, ngā moutere kitea noa ai e te kanohi. He maha ngā tāngata me ngā kawenga taumaha ka taea e te mōkihi, engari ia he waka pōturi. He tere te dugout engari he tokoiti noa iho ngā tāngata ka taea e ia. Heoi he kino ngā waka nei i ngā haere pāmamao – he rite te wā ka taka te tangata ki roto wai i runga i ngā mōkihi, ā, ka totohu ngā dugout.

Waka ama

Ka hipa te wā, ā, tāpirihia he ama kia kore ai te waka e pīoi. Nō te herenga o ngā rauawa, ka tau te wāhanga o te waka kei waenga i te takere me te ama. Ka tere te rere o te waka i te whakatūnga o te rā me te whakatika o te urungi.

Ko ngā baurua me ngā proa o Micronesia ngā tino waka ama. Whakaterehia ai ngā waka nei kia ahu te ama ki roto i te hau, kia kore ai te waka e tōia e tōna ama. He hangarite te āhua o te takere ā, he papatahi o waho kia kore ai te waka e tītaha; he hanga areare te āhua o roto, kia rere ai te wai i waenganui i te waka me te ama. Mā te haumi i ngā rauawa, ka tau te waka.

Nā te tau me te tere o ēnei waka, ka taea te whakatere waka i te moana nui mai i tētahi moutere ki tētahi moutere tawhiti atu. E ai ki a Kāpene Hēmi Kuki rāua ko Charles Wilkes he tere ake ēnei tūmomo waka i ō rātou kaipuke: ka kīia e 22 noti te tere o ētahi. I te haerenga a Louis Antoine de Bougainville ki Hāmoa, me Kāpene Hēmi Kuki ki Tonga, ka kōrero rāua mō te tere o ngā waka ama ka huri āwhio i ō rātou waka. 1

Waka hourua ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

Ka whakawhanake ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i te waka hourua kia pai ai te rere i ngā moana pukepuke o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Inā te nui o ētahi o ēnei tūmomo waka – e 36 mita te roa o tētahi waka ndrua nō Whītī (e 33 mita te roa o Endeavour). E ai ki ngā kaihōpara me ngā mihingare o Ūropi, neke atu ki te e 250 ngā tāngata ka taea i tētahi ndrua o Whītī.

He waka hourua te ndrua, ko tētahi takere he roa ake i tōna hoa. Ko ngā kawenga taumaha ka utaina ki te takere roa; ka rite te mahi a te takere poto ki tō te ama i te waka ama.

Me kī, ko te ndrua ki Whītī, ko te kalia ki Tonga, ko te ‘alia ki Hāmoa. He pai ngā waka nei hei kawe i te nui o te tangata i waenganui i ngā moutere pātata.

Mō ngā haerenga pāmamao, ka poto ake ngā waka hourua (e 20 mita). E 150 ki te e 250 kiromita ka taea e ngā tūmomo waka nei i te rā kotahi. Whakamahia ai e ngā iwi o Tonga te tongiaki, whakamahia hokihia ai e ngā iwi o Hāmoa te va’a-tele me tētahi ama kīia ai he amatasi. Kei Tahiti ko te pahi me te tipairua: tērā tētahi wā, e ono ngā waka pēnei i kitea e Kuki, e 23 mita te roa o ia waka. Ko te kupu a ngā iwi o Rarotonga, ko te waka hourua me te vaka-katea. Kīia ai e ngā iwi o Hawaii ēnei momo waka he wa’a-kaulua; e 20 mita te roa; heoi tērā tētahi waka o aua rā, e 33 mita te roa. E ai ki te kōrero, neke atu i te 100 ngā tāngata ka taea e ia te kawe.

Takere, kōmaru, urungi

E rua ngā momo takere waka: te hanga ‘V’ mō ngā waka tere, me te hanga ‘Ū’ mō ngā waka pai te urungi haere. Teitei te tau o ngā waka hourua ki roto i te wai, kia kaua te waka e tōia e te wai. Ko te tauira mō ngā waka hourua parahutihuti o Tā Peter Blake (Steinlager 1) rāua ko Grant Dalton (Club Med), ko ngā waka o Poronihia.

Arā ngā momo kōmaru whakamahia ai mō ngā waka. Me he ‘V’ te hanga o te waka, ka nui ake te hau ka pupuhi i te kōmaru. He poto iho ngā tira o ngā waka a ngā tūpuna i ērā ō ngā waka o ēnei rā.

Inā te roa o te urungi, neke atu i te e 6 mita te roa o ētahi. E rua ngā take roa ai te urungi: ko te whakahaere i te waka, kia kore ai hoki te waka e tītaha i te hau me te āmai o te wai. He rite te mahi a te urungi ki te mahi a te ‘keel’ i ngā waka o ēnei rā.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. G. S. Parsonson, ‘The settlement of Oceania.’ I roto i Polynesian navigation, i ētitatia e Jack Golson. Wellington: Polynesian Society, 1962, w. 37–38. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāwiri Taonui, 'Te whakatere waka - Waka', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whakatere-waka/page-1 (accessed 22 April 2019)

Story by Rāwiri Taonui, published 8 Feb 2005