Kōrero: Te rāngai mahi

Whārangi 4. Noho tāone

Ngā whakaahua

Nō te auhekenga o te Māori ki ngā tāone, ka taunga tōna noho ki reira, heoi he rerekē ōna momo mahi i tā ngā Pākehā.

Ahuwhenua

I mua i te pakanga tuarua, ko te nuinga o te iwi Māori kei ngā taiwhenua e mahi ana. Nāwai nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1900, kua kore e pērā rawa te whakahirahira o te mahi ahuwhenua.

I te tau 1958 he teitei tonu te whika – 38 ōrau te tokomaha o ngā tāne Māori e mahi ana i te ahuwhenua, te ngahere, te whakangau kīrehe me te hī, ā, e 21 ōrau o te iwi Pākehā e mahi ana ki ēnei ahumahi. I waenganui i ngā tau o 1951 me 1971 ka paheke te nuinga o te Māori e mahi ana ki ēnei ahumahi mai i te 38 ōrau ki te 16.3 ōrau.

I te tau 1936, tata tonu i te katoa o ngā wāhine Māori (atu i ērā i mahi ki te kāinga) i mahi ki roto i ngā umanga whakangao matua. Nō te tau 1951 ka heke te nuinga ki te 14 ōrau, ā, taka mai ki te tau 1971 ka heke ki te 3 ōrau.

I te tau 1971, kāre i tino rerekē atu te nuinga o Ngāi Māori e mahi ahuwhenua ana i tō te Pākehā (13 ōrau o te Māori, 11 ōrau o te Pākehā) – nō konā kua ōrite te nuinga ōrau o te Māori me te Pākehā e noho taiwhenua ana.

Whakangao

I ngā tekau tau o 1930 me 1940 ka maha ake ngā Māori e mahi ana ki ngā wāhanga ahumahi; i te tau 1936, e 2,039 te rahi, heoi nō te tau 1945 ka kake ki te 4,365. Ka piki anō te nui o te hunga wāhine ki tēnei wāhanga mai i te 79 te nui ki te 487 – ākene pea mō ngā whakapau kaha mō te pakanga.

Nō te tau 1951 e 6,044 (23 ōrau) te nui o ngā tāne Māori i roto i ngā mahi whakangao, ā, 1,482 (22 ōrau) te nui o ngā wāhine Māori. Heke iho ki te tau 1971, hautoru o ngā Māori katoa – tāne mai, wahine mai – kei ngā wāhanga whakangao e mahi ana.

Ratonga

Ko tētahi atu wāhanga i whakapau kaha ai ngā wāhine Māori ko te wāhanga ratonga. I te tau 1951, neke atu i te haurua o ngā wāhine Māori e mahi ana i te wāhanga ratonga, ā, e 40 ōrau noa iho mō ngā wāhine Pākehā.

Ko te nuinga o ēnei tāngata he kaimahi hōhipera, hōtera, whare noho, ratonga tūmataiti rānei. I te tau 1956 ka heke ki te 45 ōrau, ā, no te tau 1966 ka mimiti ki te 37 ōrau. Tae rawa ki te tau 1971 kua waimeha ki te 25 ōrau.

Te hunga ngaio kōiti

He maha ngā tauira o ngā tatauranga e kī ana he itiiti rawa te hunga ngaio Māori – tāne mai, wahine mai. Aua atu te wā i pēnei ai, heoi i nui tonu ngā ngaio Māori i roto i te ao mātauranga, tāpuhi, whakapono hoki. Ko Ākenehi Hei te Māori tuatahi kia whakapōtaehia hei nēhi i te tau 1908.

Ngā ngaio tōmua

Ko tētahi ngaio Māori tōmua ko Āpirana Ngata, i whakapōtaehia i te tau 1895 mō te mahi rōia. Whai atu i a ia ko Thomas Ellison, he rōia tonu, tae atu ki ngā tākuta a Te Rangihīroa rātou ko Māui Pōmare ko Edward Ellison. Ko te nuinga i haere ki Te Aute, ā, he mea tō mai i ngā tōpito katoa o Aotearoa ki reira.

Ahakoa tōna angitū, ka taka te kura ki raro i ngā mahi arotake a te Kōmihana Roera i te tau 1906. Ko tētahi wāhanga o te arotake ko te whakarite pēnā i nui anō ngā akoranga mahi ā-ringa. Ka whakatau te kōmihana me aro kē ki ngā akoranga ā-ringa, ā, ka whakatumatumahia ngā kaitiaki o te kura e te Tari Mātauranga.

Nā ēnei rerekētanga, me te otinga o te tumuaki nui o Te Aute a John Thornton, ka heke te nui o te Māori e tae atu ana ki te whare wānanga.

He oati e tārewa ana

Nō te wā o te heke tāone whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua kāre tonu i tutuki ngā whakaaro taurangi a te hunga ngaio Māori o te wā o te huringa rau tau o 1900.

I te tau 1945, ko te nuinga o te kōiti ngaio Māori he kaiako, he tāpuhi, he minita rānei. 136 te nui o ngā kaiako wāhine, ā, 25 ngā kaiako tāne, tae atu ki ngā tāpuhi e 164 te rahi (wāhine katoa). E 81 ngā minita tāne, me te tokotoru he wāhine. Kotahi anō te rōia Māori, tokorua he kaiāwhina ture (kotahi te tāne, kotahi te wahine) tokowhā ngā tākuta me ngā tākuta niho tokorua. Tokoono ngā kaiwhakahaere (tokotoru he tāne, tokotoru he wāhine).

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Te rāngai mahi - Noho tāone', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-rangai-mahi/page-4 (accessed 26 August 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 11 Mar 2010