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Te rāngai mahi – Māori in the workforce

by Basil Keane

I ngā wā ō nehe ka mahi te Māori i runga i ngā tohu ā-marama. He mahi ā-whānau, ā-hapū hoki. Nāwai, parea ai te Māori ki ngā mahi ihu oneone me ngā kēnge kutikuti hipi a ngā kaipāmu Pākehā. Nō te tau rua mano kua matomato te tipu o te hunga ngaio Māori.


Traditional Māori workforce

Whānau me te hapū

Ka mahi ā-whānau, ā-hapū hoki te Māori. Ko te kaumātua te kaiārahi i ngā mahi o te whānau. Ka mutu ko te rangatira te kaiarataki i ngā mahinga nui a te hapū, pērā i te waihanga pā me te hao ika.

He mana tuku iho tō te rangatira, heoi he mea nui tonu tōna kaha ki te mahi.

Whakangungu wāhi mahi

He kōrero tuku iho te tikanga whakaaro a te Māori, ā, kei ngā waiata me ngā haka ngā tohutohu whakahaere i ngā mahi a te iwi. Ka tauiratia ngā mahi katoa i te ao tūroa, i ngā whetū me ngā pua ngahere – hei tauira, e kī ana te kōrero, ‘Ka rere a Matariki ka wera te hinu’, arā, i te kohitinga o Matariki i ngā ata i te kaupeka o Pipiri, kua mōmona te huahua.

Mahi ā-marama

He mahi kē mō ia marama o te tau, pērā i te whakawātea whenua, te whakatō, te hauhake, te hī ika, te hī tuna me te patu manu.

Kāre rātou i tau ki te mahi kotahi, hei kaihī, hei kaiwhakatipu, hei kaipatu manu rānei, engari i whāia ngā tohutohu o te tau, o te whānau, hapū rānei. He kaimahi ngā tamatāne pakari, ā, ki te tauātia kua hāpai katoa rātou i te rākau.

Ngā mahi ā-apa

Mā te tāne anake ētahi mahi, mā te wahine anō etahi. He rite tonu te wā ko ngā tāne ngā kaitawhiti kiore, kaipiki rākau, kaihī me ngā toa pakanga. Ko tētahi atu mahi nui a te tāne he keri aruhe, ā, mā ngā wāhine e tunu.

Ko te mahi raranga ka waiho mā ngā ringa o te wahine. He tapu rawa ētahi mahi mō te wahine, pērā i te hanga whare me te tārai waka.

Te tono rangatira tāne

Kei ngā whakataukī pēnei e whakahauhia ana kia moea te tangata pukumahi, ‘E moe i te tangata ringa raupā.’

Taurekareka

Ko ngā mauhere a iwi kē ka taurekarekatia. Kāre e āhei te tangata tapu kia pā ki te hāpai ō me te tangata noa.

He wā kua taka tētahi hapū ki raro i te manaakitanga o tētahi atu. Ko te utu mō tēnei he tuku, hāunga tērā, i a rātou tonu tō rātou mana motuhake.

Tohunga

Kāre i ārikarika ngā momo tohunga, pērā i te tohunga whakairo, tohunga whaihanga, tohunga tārai waka me te tohunga tā moko.


European contact

Te urutaunga

I ngā tūtakitanga tuatahi ki te Pākehā, ka taunga tonu te Māori ki ētahi āhuatanga kē, engari kāre i rerekē te whakahau tonu a ngā kaumātua i ō rātou whānau, me ngā rangatira i ō rātou hapū.

Te hoko me te Pākehā

Nā te hīkaka ki ngā taonga a te Pākehā pērā i te pū, ka tere waia te Māori ki te hoko i ōna hua ki te Pākehā hei whāngai i tōna ohanga.

Ka whakamahia te poro kauri mō te tapitapi kaipuke, nā whai atu he nui tonu te muka harakeke ka hokona ki Ahitereiria. I ngā wā ō mua ka hauhaketia te harakeke mō ngā kākahu, kete, whāriki. Nā ngā whakapau kaha ka kitea ngā hua nui e hoki mai ana. Ka whai wāhi katoa ngā ringaringa mahi ki te uta i ngā rawa ki runga kaipuke. Hei tauira, kotahi te tone o te muka harakeke mō te pū kotahi.

Ka tuaputia anō te rīwai – i te tau 1814, 150 ngā kete rīwai ka tuaputia mō te pū kotahi. Nā te tapu o te whakatō, te whakatipu me te hauhaketanga o te kūmara, kāre te wahine i whai wāhi. Heoi kāre ērā tikanga tapu i pā ki te whakatō rīwai, ā, ka whakamahia te wahine me te hunga mauhere ki ēnei whakahaerenga.

Ngā kaimahi Māori i roto i te ao Pākehā

Ka hinga tērā o ngā kaupapa tuatahi kia whakakotahitia atu te hunga Māori ki roto i te rāngai mahi Pākehā. I te tau 1793, ka kāhakina ngā rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau a Tuki Tahua rāua ko Ngāhuruhuru ki runga kaipuke, ā, ka mauria i runga i te tono a Rūtene-Kāwana Phillip King ki te moutere o Norfolk.

Ko te wawata a King kia whakaatuhia e rāua ngā tikanga mahi harakeke ki a ia. Heoi he koretake te harakeke o Norfolk, me te aha kāre te tokorua rā i mōhio ki te mahi harakeke – he tohunga a Tuki Tahua, ka mutu he toa a Ngāhuruhuru.

Kaumoana

I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800 ka tīmata te mahi takitahi a te Māori ki runga i ngā waka patu tohorā. Nō te tau 1804, ka tū te Māori hei kauhoe ki runga i tētahi waka patu tohorā. I te tau 1926, e 12 ngā kauhoe Māori o tētahi waka, ā, e ai ki ngā Pākehā mō rātou he tino mārama, he tino kaha rātou ki te mahi. I te tau 1838 i ngā whakataetae whakatere waka tohorā ki Hobart, hautoru o ngā kaipatu tohorā he Māori.

Te ahumahi kairau

Nō te pānga tuatahi ki te Pākehā, ka tipu te ahumahi pīkonikoni. Atu i te puhi (he wahine kua rāhuitia mō te moe), kāre i whakahēhia te mahi ai i mua i te whakapuhitanga. E whakaarotia ana he momo tikanga manaaki tērā i a Pākehā. Ā, me i pai ki te wahine, ka taea e ia te moe kaumoana Pākehā. Ko te utu ka hoki ki a ia me tana iwi. He wā anō ka whakawhiua ngā wāhine e te hunga tāne ki te mahi kairau, me te moe punarua. Kāre ēnei wāhine i whai taonga i ēnei mahi.

Kaitakawaenga ā-iwi

Ka noho anō ngā kaihoko Pākehā hei kaitakawaenga i waenga i te Pākehā me te Māori. Ka kuhuna rātou ki roto i te hapori me te rāngai mahi Māori, ā, ka whakamoea hoki ki ngā wāhine Māori. Kāre i roa, he maha ngā hononga i tū i waenganui i te Māori me ngā teihana tauhokohoko, tope rākau, tohorā hoki.

He maha anō ngā kaipatu wēra tōmua pērā i a Dicky Barrett rātou ko Phillip Tapsell me Jacky Love i whakamoea ki roto i ngā whānau Māori. E rima ngā moenga a Manuel Jose ki roto i a Ngāti Porou, ā, tokoono ngā wāhine o te Tai Rāwhiti i moea e te kaihoko o Tūranga a Thomas Halbert.

Footnotes
  1. Quoted in Harry Morton, The whale’s wake. Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 1982, p. 167. Back

The rural workforce

He iwi taiwhenua

I mua i te Pakanga Tuarua, ka noho te mātotoru o te iwi Māori ki ngā taiwhenua. I te tekau tau atu i 1900, 95 ōrau e noho ana ki te wā kāinga, ā, atu i te tekau tau 1930, 90 ōrau o te taupori e noho ana ki ngā taiwhenua.

Ki tā ngā tatauranga i te tau 1926, neke atu i te 10,000 te nuinga o te iwi Māori e mahi ana i roto i ngā ahumahi matua.

I tua atu i te 7,000 te nui o ngā kaimahi i rēhitatia he ihu oneone. Ko te nuinga o tēnei hunga, kei ngā mahi whenua.

Te tuwhera ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua

Nō mua rawa mai ka hikaka katoa te Māori i te kawea mai o ngā tipu me ngā tikanga ahuone hou. Ko tā ētahi iwi he putu kai mā ngā tāngata whai o ngā tāone tuatahi. Ahakoa ka tū takitahi ētahi Māori hei kaiahuwhenua, ka mahi tahi tonu ia me tōna iwi. Taka mai ki ngā tau waenganui o te rau tau 1800 kua tīmata te whakatūhia o ngā mira puehu parāoa hei whakangao i te witi. I kitea ai te tōnuitanga o ngā mahi ahuwhenua a te Māori i te takiwā atu i 1840 ki te tekau tau 1860 – heoi he harore rangi tahi.

Riro whenua atu

Nō te tekau tau 1860, kua riro te nuinga o Te Waipounamu i ngā ringaringa o te Māori. Taka mai ki te rau tau 1900, ka riro te whenua i te hoko me te raupatu. I mua atu ko te iwi e whakamahi ana i tōna whenua, heoi nō te rironga o ngā whenua haumako ki te Pākehā, ka whakamahia ngā Māori ki ngā mahi tūtūā.

Mahi kirimana

He nui ngā Māori ka mahi ā-marama ki ngā pāmu Pākehā. Atu i te paunga o te rau tau 1800 ka hua ake ngā rōpū kuti hipi i karangahia ai he ‘kanataraki’. He rōpu ā-whānau, ā-hapū rānei ēnei rōpū. He mahi nā te ringa raupā te ahuwhenua.

Whai atu i tērā, ko ngā mahi kāwanatanga pērā i te hanga rori, te whakatakoto rērewē me te whakawātea puihi ka haere katoa ki ngā hapori Māori.

Ka mahi ā-marama tonu te iwi i noho ki te kāinga, ā, he āhuatanga tēnei i whakauaua i te rapu mahi ki waho, me te whakatutuki i ngā tono a te iwi. Whai i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua, ā mihini i pau haere ai ngā mahi i runga pāmu.

Te ahunga o te whenua – putanga mai i ngā mahi ihu oneone

Taka rawa ki te tekau tau 1930, he mahi uaua te whakawhanake a te Māori i tōna whenua i te kore āhei ki ngā pūtea āwhina a te kāwanatanga. I roto i tana tūranga hei minita Māori atu i te paunga o te tekau tau 1920, ka kōkiri a Āpirana Ngata i ngā kaupapa whakawhanake whenua i piki ai te rahi o ngā kaiahuwhenua Māori.

Ko te kaupapa whakawhanake he mahi nui tonu i whakaratohia e te kāwanatanga, ā, nō te tau 1939, e 5,000 te rahi o ngā kaimahi Māori ki tēnei wāhanga.

Ngā taiapa

Hāunga tonu rā ngā whakapaipai o te ahuwhenua Māori, he maha ngā ārai i te kaupapa a Ngata mā – arā, te tipu nui o te taupori, te iti o te whenua me te aha he tūpuhi, tae atu rawa ki te noho tāone.

Ngā umanga ā-rohe

Ko ētahi mahi i pū ki te wāhi kotahi anake. E ai ki ngā tatauranga ā-motu i te tau 1926, e 40 ngā kaipatu tītī i noho katoa ki Te Waipounamu. I ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000 e whai hiranga tonu ana te ahumahi tītī ki te iwi o Rakiura.

I taua tau anō, e 627 te nui o ngā Māori e keri kāpia ana ki Te Tai Tokerau. Nō konei ka karangahia te kamupene A a te rōpū 28 ko ngā ‘keri kāpia’.


Urbanisation

Nō te auhekenga o te Māori ki ngā tāone, ka taunga tōna noho ki reira, heoi he rerekē ōna momo mahi i tā ngā Pākehā.

Ahuwhenua

I mua i te pakanga tuarua, ko te nuinga o te iwi Māori kei ngā taiwhenua e mahi ana. Nāwai nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1900, kua kore e pērā rawa te whakahirahira o te mahi ahuwhenua.

I te tau 1958 he teitei tonu te whika – 38 ōrau te tokomaha o ngā tāne Māori e mahi ana i te ahuwhenua, te ngahere, te whakangau kīrehe me te hī, ā, e 21 ōrau o te iwi Pākehā e mahi ana ki ēnei ahumahi. I waenganui i ngā tau o 1951 me 1971 ka paheke te nuinga o te Māori e mahi ana ki ēnei ahumahi mai i te 38 ōrau ki te 16.3 ōrau.

I te tau 1936, tata tonu i te katoa o ngā wāhine Māori (atu i ērā i mahi ki te kāinga) i mahi ki roto i ngā umanga whakangao matua. Nō te tau 1951 ka heke te nuinga ki te 14 ōrau, ā, taka mai ki te tau 1971 ka heke ki te 3 ōrau.

I te tau 1971, kāre i tino rerekē atu te nuinga o Ngāi Māori e mahi ahuwhenua ana i tō te Pākehā (13 ōrau o te Māori, 11 ōrau o te Pākehā) – nō konā kua ōrite te nuinga ōrau o te Māori me te Pākehā e noho taiwhenua ana.

Whakangao

I ngā tekau tau o 1930 me 1940 ka maha ake ngā Māori e mahi ana ki ngā wāhanga ahumahi; i te tau 1936, e 2,039 te rahi, heoi nō te tau 1945 ka kake ki te 4,365. Ka piki anō te nui o te hunga wāhine ki tēnei wāhanga mai i te 79 te nui ki te 487 – ākene pea mō ngā whakapau kaha mō te pakanga.

Nō te tau 1951 e 6,044 (23 ōrau) te nui o ngā tāne Māori i roto i ngā mahi whakangao, ā, 1,482 (22 ōrau) te nui o ngā wāhine Māori. Heke iho ki te tau 1971, hautoru o ngā Māori katoa – tāne mai, wahine mai – kei ngā wāhanga whakangao e mahi ana.

Ratonga

Ko tētahi atu wāhanga i whakapau kaha ai ngā wāhine Māori ko te wāhanga ratonga. I te tau 1951, neke atu i te haurua o ngā wāhine Māori e mahi ana i te wāhanga ratonga, ā, e 40 ōrau noa iho mō ngā wāhine Pākehā.

Ko te nuinga o ēnei tāngata he kaimahi hōhipera, hōtera, whare noho, ratonga tūmataiti rānei. I te tau 1956 ka heke ki te 45 ōrau, ā, no te tau 1966 ka mimiti ki te 37 ōrau. Tae rawa ki te tau 1971 kua waimeha ki te 25 ōrau.

Te hunga ngaio kōiti

He maha ngā tauira o ngā tatauranga e kī ana he itiiti rawa te hunga ngaio Māori – tāne mai, wahine mai. Aua atu te wā i pēnei ai, heoi i nui tonu ngā ngaio Māori i roto i te ao mātauranga, tāpuhi, whakapono hoki. Ko Ākenehi Hei te Māori tuatahi kia whakapōtaehia hei nēhi i te tau 1908.

Ngā ngaio tōmua

Ko tētahi ngaio Māori tōmua ko Āpirana Ngata, i whakapōtaehia i te tau 1895 mō te mahi rōia. Whai atu i a ia ko Thomas Ellison, he rōia tonu, tae atu ki ngā tākuta a Te Rangihīroa rātou ko Māui Pōmare ko Edward Ellison. Ko te nuinga i haere ki Te Aute, ā, he mea tō mai i ngā tōpito katoa o Aotearoa ki reira.

Ahakoa tōna angitū, ka taka te kura ki raro i ngā mahi arotake a te Kōmihana Roera i te tau 1906. Ko tētahi wāhanga o te arotake ko te whakarite pēnā i nui anō ngā akoranga mahi ā-ringa. Ka whakatau te kōmihana me aro kē ki ngā akoranga ā-ringa, ā, ka whakatumatumahia ngā kaitiaki o te kura e te Tari Mātauranga.

Nā ēnei rerekētanga, me te otinga o te tumuaki nui o Te Aute a John Thornton, ka heke te nui o te Māori e tae atu ana ki te whare wānanga.

He oati e tārewa ana

Nō te wā o te heke tāone whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua kāre tonu i tutuki ngā whakaaro taurangi a te hunga ngaio Māori o te wā o te huringa rau tau o 1900.

I te tau 1945, ko te nuinga o te kōiti ngaio Māori he kaiako, he tāpuhi, he minita rānei. 136 te nui o ngā kaiako wāhine, ā, 25 ngā kaiako tāne, tae atu ki ngā tāpuhi e 164 te rahi (wāhine katoa). E 81 ngā minita tāne, me te tokotoru he wāhine. Kotahi anō te rōia Māori, tokorua he kaiāwhina ture (kotahi te tāne, kotahi te wahine) tokowhā ngā tākuta me ngā tākuta niho tokorua. Tokoono ngā kaiwhakahaere (tokotoru he tāne, tokotoru he wāhine).


Mid-1980s–2000s

Ngā hanganga hou me te kore mahi

He nui te pānga mai o ngā hanganga hou ohanga ki runga i te Māori i te tekau tau 1980. He nui rawa ngā Māori i mahi mō ngā ahumahi kāwanatanga pērā i ngā ngāherehere, ngā rērewē, te hanga rori me te Poutāpeta. Ka riro te titini o ngā mahi i te hanga houtia o ēnei. I ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1980 me ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1990 ka katia anō ngā whare patu mīti. I reira anō ngā Māori e mahi ana.

Ahakoa e 8 ōrau noa iho te nui o Ngāi Māori kei roto i te rāngai mahi ā-motu i te tau 1986, nō te ekenga o te tau 1992, e 26 ōrau o te hunga kore mahi he Māori. Ka piki rawa ngā Māori e noho kore mahi ana ki te 25 ōrau, ā, 10 ōrau mō te motu whānui.

I te marama o Piripi 2009, 10 ōrau o te taupori Māori e noho koremahi ana, ā, mō te hunga Pākehā, e 5 ōrau.

Ngā panonitanga ahumahi

I te tau 1986, 39 ōrau o te hunga Māori e mahi ana ki ngā ahumahi tuarua – pērā i ngā wāhanga whakangao, waihanga, hiko, penehīni, wai hoki. Nō te tau 2003, ka heke tēnei tatauranga ki te 25 ōrau.

Ka kake anō te hunga Māori e mahi ana ki ngā wāhanga ratonga ki te 65 ōrau – arā ki ngā wāhanga hoko whenua, pakihi, kawe tāngata, whakanoho utanga, hauora, hapori, mātauranga hoki.

Heoi ka noho ōrite tonu ngā ahumahi matua, arā, i te tau 1986, e 10 ōrau te nui; i te tau 2003, e 9 ōrau.

Mahi takitahi

I te tau 1981, e 6,700 ngā Māori e mahi ana mō rātou ake; nō te tau 2001, 17,100 te nui o tēnei hunga. I roto i taua wā, he nui ake te tipu o ngā tāngata Māori ki tēnei wāhanga i ērā atu iwi, heoi he itiiti iho. Ko te nuinga he tāne, heoi kua tipu nui te hunga wahine ki tēnei wāhanga atu i te tau 1991.

Kua tahuri te Māori i ngā mahi ahuwhenua ki ngā mahi ratonga. I te tau 1981, 37 ōrau o ēnei kaimahi Māori e mahi ana ki te wāhanga ngahere; nō te tau 2001, e 11 ōrau noa iho e mahi ana ki tēnei wāhanga.

Ngā mahi ā-ringa

Atu i te tau 1959, ka tū ngā whakangungu mahi a te Tari Māori mō te rangatahi Māori. Nō te tau 1972, e 7 ōrau o rātou he pia, ā, nō te tekau tau 1980, ka ako te Māori ki ngā whakahaerenga kāwanatanga, pērā i te ngahere, te rērewē me te hanga rori. Nō ngā hanganga hou a te kāwanatanga, ka ngaro ērā āhuatanga. Heoi, i waenga i ngā tau 2002 me 2007, ka kake te nui o te hunga Māori e mahi ā-ringa ana ki te 67 ōrau (7,800 te maha). E 23 ōrau te tatauranga ā-motu.

Ngā mahi pūkenga

I te tau 1991, 16 ōrau te nui o te Māori e mahi ana ki ngā tūranga whai pūkenga; i te tau 2003, ka kake ki te 19 ōrau. I tū tenei āhuatanga i te pikinga o te taumata mātauranga.

He maha ngā ngaio Māori e mahi ana ki te wāhanga ako (i te tau 2004, e 8,230 ngā kaimahi – tata tonu ki te 4 ōrau o te rāngai mahi Māori).

Arā anō te rōpū kaimahi kei ngā wāhanga hauora, hapori, hoko whare, pakihi, whakahaerenga kāwanatanga, mahi a Tūmatauenga hoki. I ngā tau tōmua o te tau rua mano, 10 ōrau te nui o te hunga ngaio Māori. Hautoru o rātou e mahi ana ki ngā mahi whai pūkenga, ā, haurua o rātou kei ngā mahi āhua whai pūkenga, ā, ko te tokoiti e mahi ana i ngā mahi whai pūkenga iti.

Utu

He iti iho ngā utu mahi a ngā tāngata Māori i tō ngā Pākehā. He ōrite tonu i waenganui i te tāne me te wahine, ā, he paku iho te rahi ake o te utu o ngā mea tāne i ngā mea wāhine.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Te rāngai mahi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-rangai-mahi/print (accessed 26 August 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 11 Mar 2010