Kōrero: Te iwi Māori

Whārangi 2. Te noho a te Māori i mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā

Ngā whakaahua

Pūtakenga

He uri whakaheke te Māori o Aotearoa nō ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nō te rau tau o 1300 AD ū ai rātau ki Aotearoa. Ahakoa ngā tautohe, e tohu ana ngā taunakitanga ki te rau tau 1200 mō te wā tae mai ai ngā waka tere moana ki Aotearoa mai i te taha rāwhiti o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Kei te tohea tonutia te wāhi ake i ahu mai te Māori. E whakapae ana ētahi i ahu mai rātou i Rarotonga kei ngā moutere o Kuki; ko ētahi e whakapono ana i heke mai rātou i Raiatea i ngā moutere o Society. Nā te rite o ngā ingoa wāhi me te reo Māori ki ērā takiwā o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, kāore e kore he hononga kei waenganui i ngā iwi nei.

Ka ū ki Aotearoa

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, ka ū ētahi waka ki Te Tai Rāwhiti o Te Ika-a-Māui. E mea ana te kōrero, ko Whangaparāoa te wāhi ū mai ai a Tainui me Te Arawa me ētahi atu waka. Ko te waka Mataatua ka ū ki te pūaha o te awa o Ōhinemataroa (Whakatāne).

I hōrapa te nuinga o ngā tāngata ki ngā takutai, ki te mātaki i te whenua me te titiro kei hea ngā wāhi whakamarumaru. Ko Tainui tērā ka haere mā Te Moana-a-Toi kia tae ki Tīkapa Moana, tatū rawa ki Te Waitematā; kātahi ka rere whakarunga te waka i te awa o Tāmaki. Nō te maunga o Tainui, ka tōia te waka mā te kūititanga o Tāmaki (takiwā ki Ōtāhuhu), kia taka ki roto i ngā wai o Manukau. Whāia, ka ahu atu te waka ki Mōkau i te tonga, i mua i te hokinga anō ki te raki. Ka ū te waka ki Rangiāhua kei Kāwhia.

Ngā nohoanga tōmua

Kōrero ai ngā iwi mō ō rātou tūpuna ka haere i ā rātou haerenga rongonui, pērā i a Tamatea-pōkai-whenua, i tīmata rā tana haere i Te Tai Tokerau, ka tae ki te tonga rā anō. Nō te paunga o te rau tau 1300 kua huraina katoatia ngā motu nei. Heoi, ko te āhua nei, i noho te iwi ki ngā kāinga tūturu. Hei tauira, noho ai ngā iwi o Tainui ki Kāwhia mō ngā whakatipuranga e ono, e whitu rānei. I roto i taua wā, ka rongo rātou i te āhuarangi hōu (he makariri ake a Aotearoa), ka kite hoki rātou i ngā tipu hōu (pērā i te harakeke) me ngā manu hōu pērā i te tūī. I te nuinga o te wā i ngā whanga me ngā pūaha o ngā awa ō rātou kāinga tūturu – e tata ai ki te moana me ngā mātaitai. Nui te kekeno me te moa i patua e rātou.

‘Kekeno’

Ko te kekeno tētahi kararehe tino rerekē ki te Māori i te whenua hōu nei. I tērā wā, nui te kekeno ki ngā takutai o ngā motu nei. Ko te ingoa a te Māori mōna, ko te kekeno – nā te hurihuri o tōna māhunga, anō nei kei tirotiro haere te kekeno. Ki te haere koe ki te mātaki i tētahi huinga kekeno, ka mōhio koe he aha te take ingoatia pērātia ai te kekeno e te Māori.

Ka neke ki tuawhenua

Ka piki haere ngā mōhiotanga o te Māori ki te ahuone. Whakamahia ai e rātou ngā kōhatu hei pātū, ngā pungarehu hei whakamahana i te one. Ka taea e rātou te whakatipu i te kūmara me ētahi atu tipu mai Hawaiki. I a rātou ka hīkoi whakauta, ka kite te Māori i te wao nui. Ki ētahi takiwā, ka huri te aronga o ngā tāngata mai i tai ki uta, ki te wāhi kei reira te mahi a te manu.

Te ahurea

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, mā te kōrero ā-waha kawe ai ngā tikanga a te Māori. He kotahi te noho a ngā whānau me ngā hapū ki ō rātou kāinga motuhake i ngā whārua me ngā wāhi ki tai. He mea nui te pakanga ki ngā iwi Māori – inarā he tini ngā puke hiwi puta i te motu i waihangahia hei pā, he tohu ki te wāhi nui o te riri ki te Māori o aua wā.

Pā whawhai

I te marama o Māehe 2003, ka puta te kōrero a te New Zealand Archaeology Association e mea ana, e 6,852 ngā pā puta i Aotearoa kei runga i tā rātou rēhita. Ko te nuinga o ngā pā nei kei ngā rohe kei te raki o te rārangi atu i Whanganui ki Te Matau-a-Māui.

He kai tangata te mahi i aua wā, whakaaetia hokitia te moe i te maha o ngā hoa. Kāore i tua atu i te pounamu me te tūhua hei auaha taonga me te taputapu; mahia ai te harakeke i ngā mahi raranga, whatu kākahu, whāriki, aha atu. He nui te tauhokohoko i ēnei taonga.

Te noho a te whānau, te hapū, te iwi

I ara mai ngā tikanga a te ao Māori i te āhua o tā rātou noho. Tirohia ai te tangata takitahi ano he wāhanga o te whānau, hapū, iwi ranei. He mea nui ki te Māori tōna whakapapa, e mōhio pai ai ia ki taua whakataukī e kī ana, ko te whiunga ki uta, ko te pānga ki tai. Ko te whakapono, he kotahi te tangata me te taiao – te ngahere, te moana, ngā roma wai. Ki tā te tangata titiro i aua wā, he tapu te tangata, he tapu hoki te taiao. Nā reira ki te tango rawa, kai, aha rānei te tangata mai te taiao, mā te karakia a te tohunga rā anō te tapu e hiki.

I te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, kua tau te noho o ngā hapū me ngā iwi Māori ki ngā tōpito katoa o te whenua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Te iwi Māori - Te noho a te Māori i mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-iwi-maori/page-2 (accessed 24 July 2019)

Story by Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, published 8 Feb 2005