The mixture of different-sized fragments of pumice and volcanic glass in Kāingaroa soil, in the central North Island, are called tephra. Typically, Kāingaroa soils have dark organic topsoil and a compacted subsoil that restricts root growth. Modern tree-planting methods include breaking up the subsoil before planting.
Te whakamahi i tēnei tūemi
New Zealand Society of Soil Science
Reference: Les Molloy, Soils in the New Zealand landscape: the living mantle. Wellington: Mallinson Rendel, 1988, plate 2.8
Photograph by Quentin Christie
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