The mixture of different-sized fragments of pumice and volcanic glass in Kāingaroa soil, in the central North Island, are called tephra. Typically, Kāingaroa soils have dark organic topsoil and a compacted subsoil that restricts root growth. Modern tree-planting methods include breaking up the subsoil before planting.
Using this item
New Zealand Society of Soil Science
Reference: Les Molloy, Soils in the New Zealand landscape: the living mantle. Wellington: Mallinson Rendel, 1988, plate 2.8
Photograph by Quentin Christie
This item has been provided for private study purposes (such as school projects, family and local history research) and any published reproduction (print or electronic) may infringe copyright law. It is the responsibility of the user of any material to obtain clearance from the copyright holder.