Kōrero: Ngā iwi o Te Tau Ihu

Whārangi 4. Te muru Whenua

Ngā whakaahua

Te whakanoho me te whakatau

I te tau 1839, i mahi a Kānara William Wakefield i te taha o ngā iwi toa ki te whakatū nōhanga mō te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ki Whakatū. Nā ngā hoko whenua āhua rūkahu nei (kua whakaaetia ināianei he rūkahu), ka riro i te kamupene ngā whenua 1.2 miriona heketea te rahi i ngā taha e rua o te moana o Raukawa. Taro ake ka hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi ki ngā wāhi e toru i Te Wairau, heoi kāore ngā rangatira o Whakatū i whai wāhi ki te wānanga i te tiriti. Tū tonu ana te pokapū o te Kamupene ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ā, ka hipa te rua tau ka tū te pokapū o te Kamupene ki Whakatū, i raro i a Kāpene Arthur Wakefield, te tuakana o William. I whakawhitiwhiti kōrero a Arthur Wakefield me ngā rangatira e whai tika ai te noho ki ngā rohe o Whakatū.

Ngā tauhokohoko

I te tuatahi, he pai ngā pānga i waenganui i ngā tāngata whai me ngā Māori, me te aha, nā ngā Māori i whāngai ki te kai ngā whānau a ngā tāngata whai i te wā e whakawātea ana rātou i ngā whenua hei whakatipu kai mō rātou ake. Hāunga tērā, nō te kore utu a ngā āpiha o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni me te Karauna i ā rātou ‘hokonga’, me ngā tautohetohenga mō te mana whenua, ngā paenga whenua, ka tipu te raruraru.

He kaipuke ō te Māori i kawe i ngā hua a ngā Māori, a ngā Pākehā hoki o Whakatū, o Te Wairau, ki ngā wāhi hoko. Nā ngā mahinga kai e 400 heketea a te Māori, e hia rau tana rīwai, wīti ka hua hei hoko ki Whakatū, ki ngā teihana patu tohora, ki Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, ki kō atu hoki.

Te riri ki Te Wairau

Nā te mahere a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni mō Whakatū i whakatakoto, kia wāwāhia ngā whenua kia 1,100 ngā rohenga, kia 201 eka ki ia rohenga, inarā, me ‘whenua parahua’ aua whenua. Hui katoa, e 221,000 eka (e 89,433 heketea) te whenua nei ka mutu, ko te whakatekau noa iho o aua whenua ka wehea hei ‘Rāhui Whakatekau mō ngā Tāngata Whenua’.

Nō te tau 1843, nā te iti o ngā whenua parahua hei whakarato, ka tonoa ngā kairūri a te kamupene ki ngā mānia ki Te Wairau, ahakoa te mea kāore anō ēnei whenua kia hokona. Ka matika a Te Rauparaha me ētahi atu rangatira o Ngāti Toa ki te whakahē i taua mahi i te mea, kīhai aua whenua i taka ki raro i ngā ‘hoko’ a te kamupene i te tau 1839.

Ka hipa ngā marama e tautohe ana, e pitihana ana a Ngāti Toa mō te kore hua; i te mutunga i panaia e rātou ngā kairūri, ka tahuna ō rātou whare tīhokahoka. Ki tā Te Rauparaha titiro, nōna ngā whenua i tīkina ake ai ngā rākau hei whakatū i ngā wharau rā. Ko te whakautu a Arthur Wakefield rāua ko te Kaiwhakawā Pirihimana a Henry Thompson, ko te whakaara i te kura takahi puni Pākehā kia whakamātau ki te mauhere i ngā rangatira ki Te Wairau. I te 17 o ngā rā o Hune, ka pakaru mai te riri, ka hinga ngā Pākehā e 22 me ngā Māori e whā.

He kino ake te hua o tēnei riri. Atu i tēnei wā, ka pōuri te noho a te Māori me te Pākehā.

Te rironga whenua

Nō te tau 1853, ka murua e Kāwana Hōri Kerei ngā heketea e 371 o ngā Whenua Rāhui o te Māori ki Motueka hei whakatū i te kura o te hāhi Mihinare ki Whakarewa. Nā tēnei mahi, ka riro ngā whenua mōmona o ngā iwi o Whakatū. Ka panaia rātou i ō rātou kāinga, i ō rātou mahinga kai. Nā ngā ‘hoko whenua i Te Wai Pounamu’ a te Kōmihana Whenua a Te Mākarini i ngā tau 1853-56 , tae atu ki te Ture Whenua Rāhui Māori 1856 me āna whakatikatika, i whakatakoto te papa e wehea ai te Māori i ōna whenua mō ngā tau 120 ka whai.

Ka nui te kino ka pā ki ngā iwi Māori i te whakamanatanga o ngā rīhi pūmau (i te tekau tau atu i 1880), te tangohanga o ngā whenua rāhui i raro i Te Ture mō ngā Mahi Nunui, te hoko ā-ture a te Karauna i ngā ‘pānga huakore’ (i te tekau tau atu i 1950), tae rawa atu ki te unuhanga o ngā whenua rāhui a te Māori hei hoatu ki te hunga rīhi (i ngā tekau tau o 1960, o 1970).

Nā te Karauna ēnei mahi i whakahau, i a ia ka tohu kaitiaki mō ngā whenua rāhui; nā te mahi nei i ngoikore ai te mana o ngā Māori nō rātou aua whenua. Ka taka ki te tekau tau atu i 1970 kua toe mai ki ngā Māori o Whakatū ko te 3000 eka anake o te 20,000 eka ( 1200 heketea o ngā heketea e 8000) i oatitia mō rātou i ngā hokohoko whenua o te tekau tau atu i 1840. Ko ngā putanga kino o tēnei mahi ki ngā iwi Māori o te rohe, ko te paheketanga o te hauora, ko te kore puta i roto i te mātauranga, ko te marara o te taupori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Hilary Mitchell and John Mitchell, 'Ngā iwi o Te Tau Ihu - Te muru Whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-iwi-o-te-tau-ihu/page-4 (accessed 15 November 2019)

Story by Hilary Mitchell and John Mitchell, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017