Kōrero: Ngā haumi a iwi

Whārangi 1. Ohanga Māori

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

I ngā tau 2005/6 neke atu i te $16.5 piriona kei ngā ringaringa Māori:

  1. 52 ōrau i whakangaohia ki ngā ahumahi tuatahi – ngahere, moana, ahuwenua hoki
  2. 8 ōrau ki ngā ahumahi tuarua – te hanga i ngā rawa nō te ahumahi tuatahi
  3. 40 ōrau ki ngā ahumahi tuatoru – ngā ahumahi whakarato, tae rawa ki ngā mahi tāpoi.

I ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, he wāhi iti noa tō ngā pakihi Māori ki te ohanga o Aotearoa (1.4 ōrau). Ko te nuinga kua whakangaohia ki ngā hoko ki tai.

75 ōrau o ngā rawa Māori i pū ki Te Ika-a-Māui – 47 ōrau ki Tāmaki, Waikato me te Moana-a-Toi.

Ngā tauhokohoko whai tikanga

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, ka mahi tuopu te Māori hei oranga. He nui ngā tauwhitiwhiti a ngā hapū me ngā iwi i ō mua wā. Ko ngā whenua, ngā ahumoana, me ngā taonga o te taiao i raro i te mana o te hapū me te iwi. He tikanga tēnei i hau whānui ai te hora o ngā kai me ngā taonga ki te motu whānui.

Tere tonu te whanake a te Māori i ōna mahi tuopu i te taenga mai o te Pākehā.

Ngā oka pakohe

He taonga nui ngā matā pakohe ki te Māori. E rua anake ngā wāhi e kitea ai tēnei kōhatu. Heoi whai muri tata i tōna tuhuratanga, ka horapahia te taonga nei ki te motu. I kitea rawa ētahi ki Rekohu rā anō.

Ngā mahi tuopu me te Pākehā

Ka huri anō te ohanga Māori i te tauhokohokotanga o ngā kēkeno, tohorā me te harakeke. Nō te whakatūnga o ngā teihana tohorā ki ngā takutai moana o te motu, ka tuwhera ngā iwi ki ētahi taonga, mahi hou hoki. Ka hokona atu ngā papa rākau, te harakeke, te ika me ngā kai mō ngā whao maitai tae atu ki ngā kākahu, paraikete wūru hoki.

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1840, anō nei te poaka me te rīwai he moni ki te Māori. Nō konei ka kitea te wairua rakahinonga a te Māori i tā rātou hoko i ngā kaipuke kawe i ngā kai me ngā rawa ki Poihākena.

Ngā murunga whenua

Ka kaha haere te riro whenua atu i te tekau tau 1840. Nō te tau 1860, tata tonu i te katoa o ngā whenua Māori i Te Waipounamu kua riro atu, ā i tērā tekau tau ka raupatuhia ngā whenua o ngā iwi o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ka riro ngā whenua mōmona i te raupatu whai muri i ngā pakanga.

Nō te rironga o ngā whenua ka kore he tūāpapa ōhanga mō ngā iwi, ā, ka haumate ngā iwi, ā-wairua, ā-tōrangapū hoki. Ka haere tonu nga mahi whānako i te tau 1900, tae rawa ake ki ngā mahi whānako a ngā kaunihera me ngā tari mahi.

I te rangatū whenua Māori i te tau 1975, me te noho ki Takaparawhā i ngā tau 1977–78, ka whakaatu te Māori i ōna nawe ki ōna whenua. Ka whakatūhia Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti i te tau 1975, ā, ka hanga houtia te ture kia mātirotirohia ngā take kereme tiriti atu i te tau 1840, i rewa ai te hiahia ki te whakatika hapa i ora ake anō ai te iwi.

Ngā hanganga hou ā-ōhanga atu i 1980

Nō te whakahounga o ngā tari kāwanatanga me te hokotanga o ngā kamupene kāwanatanga i te tekau tau 1980 ka noho kore mahi te rahi o te Māori. Heoi nō konā tae atu hoki ki te whakataunga o ngā kereme tiriti, ka arotahi te Māori ki te mahitahi.

Nā ngā rangatira Māori i whakahaere i te Hui Taumata o te tau 1984 i whakatō i te whakaaro kia whai ohanga te Māori, kia whai hoki i te mana motuhake.

Ngā rangapū kāwanatanga

I te tau 1987, ka toa te Kaunihera Māori o Aotearoa mō te whakawātanga e pā ana ki te Ture Rangapū Kāwanatanga 1986. Ka tono te Kooti Teitei me aro te Karauna ki ngā kereme Māori mō te mana pupuri o ētahi rawa i mua i te hokotanga atu. Whāia, me aro rātou ki ngā kereme whenua, rawa rānei a te Māori e whakawhitihia ana ki ngā rangapū Kāwanatanga hou.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Edward Ellison, 'Ngā haumi a iwi - Ohanga Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-haumi-a-iwi/page-1 (accessed 22 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Edward Ellison, i tāngia i te 11 Mar 2010