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Ngā haumi a iwi – Māori investment

by Edward Ellison

I ngā rau tau 1800 me 1900 ka riro ngā whenua me ngā takutai ohu kaimoana a te Māori. Heoi nā te matanga o ngā whakahaerenga, me te whakahokinga o ngā rawa ā-iwi ki ngā iwi, ka haere kaha ngā pakihi Māori i ngā tau tōmua o tēnei mano tau – nō te tau 2006 neke atu i te $16 piriona te nui o ngā rawa a Ngāi Tāua.


Māori economy

I ngā tau 2005/6 neke atu i te $16.5 piriona kei ngā ringaringa Māori:

  1. 52 ōrau i whakangaohia ki ngā ahumahi tuatahi – ngahere, moana, ahuwenua hoki
  2. 8 ōrau ki ngā ahumahi tuarua – te hanga i ngā rawa nō te ahumahi tuatahi
  3. 40 ōrau ki ngā ahumahi tuatoru – ngā ahumahi whakarato, tae rawa ki ngā mahi tāpoi.

I ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, he wāhi iti noa tō ngā pakihi Māori ki te ohanga o Aotearoa (1.4 ōrau). Ko te nuinga kua whakangaohia ki ngā hoko ki tai.

75 ōrau o ngā rawa Māori i pū ki Te Ika-a-Māui – 47 ōrau ki Tāmaki, Waikato me te Moana-a-Toi.

Ngā tauhokohoko whai tikanga

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, ka mahi tuopu te Māori hei oranga. He nui ngā tauwhitiwhiti a ngā hapū me ngā iwi i ō mua wā. Ko ngā whenua, ngā ahumoana, me ngā taonga o te taiao i raro i te mana o te hapū me te iwi. He tikanga tēnei i hau whānui ai te hora o ngā kai me ngā taonga ki te motu whānui.

Tere tonu te whanake a te Māori i ōna mahi tuopu i te taenga mai o te Pākehā.

Ngā oka pakohe

He taonga nui ngā matā pakohe ki te Māori. E rua anake ngā wāhi e kitea ai tēnei kōhatu. Heoi whai muri tata i tōna tuhuratanga, ka horapahia te taonga nei ki te motu. I kitea rawa ētahi ki Rekohu rā anō.

Ngā mahi tuopu me te Pākehā

Ka huri anō te ohanga Māori i te tauhokohokotanga o ngā kēkeno, tohorā me te harakeke. Nō te whakatūnga o ngā teihana tohorā ki ngā takutai moana o te motu, ka tuwhera ngā iwi ki ētahi taonga, mahi hou hoki. Ka hokona atu ngā papa rākau, te harakeke, te ika me ngā kai mō ngā whao maitai tae atu ki ngā kākahu, paraikete wūru hoki.

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1840, anō nei te poaka me te rīwai he moni ki te Māori. Nō konei ka kitea te wairua rakahinonga a te Māori i tā rātou hoko i ngā kaipuke kawe i ngā kai me ngā rawa ki Poihākena.

Ngā murunga whenua

Ka kaha haere te riro whenua atu i te tekau tau 1840. Nō te tau 1860, tata tonu i te katoa o ngā whenua Māori i Te Waipounamu kua riro atu, ā i tērā tekau tau ka raupatuhia ngā whenua o ngā iwi o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ka riro ngā whenua mōmona i te raupatu whai muri i ngā pakanga.

Nō te rironga o ngā whenua ka kore he tūāpapa ōhanga mō ngā iwi, ā, ka haumate ngā iwi, ā-wairua, ā-tōrangapū hoki. Ka haere tonu nga mahi whānako i te tau 1900, tae rawa ake ki ngā mahi whānako a ngā kaunihera me ngā tari mahi.

I te rangatū whenua Māori i te tau 1975, me te noho ki Takaparawhā i ngā tau 1977–78, ka whakaatu te Māori i ōna nawe ki ōna whenua. Ka whakatūhia Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti i te tau 1975, ā, ka hanga houtia te ture kia mātirotirohia ngā take kereme tiriti atu i te tau 1840, i rewa ai te hiahia ki te whakatika hapa i ora ake anō ai te iwi.

Ngā hanganga hou ā-ōhanga atu i 1980

Nō te whakahounga o ngā tari kāwanatanga me te hokotanga o ngā kamupene kāwanatanga i te tekau tau 1980 ka noho kore mahi te rahi o te Māori. Heoi nō konā tae atu hoki ki te whakataunga o ngā kereme tiriti, ka arotahi te Māori ki te mahitahi.

Nā ngā rangatira Māori i whakahaere i te Hui Taumata o te tau 1984 i whakatō i te whakaaro kia whai ohanga te Māori, kia whai hoki i te mana motuhake.

Ngā rangapū kāwanatanga

I te tau 1987, ka toa te Kaunihera Māori o Aotearoa mō te whakawātanga e pā ana ki te Ture Rangapū Kāwanatanga 1986. Ka tono te Kooti Teitei me aro te Karauna ki ngā kereme Māori mō te mana pupuri o ētahi rawa i mua i te hokotanga atu. Whāia, me aro rātou ki ngā kereme whenua, rawa rānei a te Māori e whakawhitihia ana ki ngā rangapū Kāwanatanga hou.


Māori investment

Te mana whenua Māori

Ko te whenua te tūrangawaewae ki te Māori. Koinei te pūtake o te tuakiri Māori. He rawa hoki te whenua Māori e whai hua ai ngā reanga ō muri.

I te tau 2004, 5 ōrau te rahi o ngā whenua o Aotearoa i roto i ngā ringa Māori. Ko ngā whenua taiwhenua he tūpuhi, he pūhore, ā 7 ōrau o aua whenua he koretake. Nā te iti o ngā rōpū pupuri, te titini o ngā kaipupuri me te rawakore o te Māori kāre e āhei te Māori te whanake i ō rātou whenua – i ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, ko te taurite o ngā whenua pupuri o ia rōpū pupuri ko te 59 heketea, me ngā kaipupuri e 73 te tokomaha.

Ngā whenua rāhui

Ka whai hua ngā whenua rāhui i whakahokia e te Karauna ki roto i te ahumahi ahuwhenua i ngā tau tōmua o 2000. Ka noho ko ēnei hei tūāpapa ohanga mō te Māori ki te whakatipu i ngā pakihi mō ngā kaipupuri whenua me te whakatū anō i te mana ōhanga o te iwi.

Ngā kaporeihana whenua

Nō te tau 1977 ka whakatūhia te Kaporeihana o Wakatū, ā, i te tau 2009 e 1,400 ngā heketea e whakaherehia ana ki te rohe o Whakatū. E 2,800 ōna kaipupuri ki ngā rawa e $150 miriona te rahi i te tau 2003. Whai muri ka whakawhānui rātou ki ngā mahi ahumoana, hoko rawa, ahuone, miraka kau, viticulture, whakawhanake whenua hoki.

I whakatūhia te kaporeihana o Paraninihi ki Waitōtara (PKW) i te tau 1976, ā, i te tau 2009, e 350 ngā taitara rīhi e mauria ana e tēnei rōpū, me te whakamahi i ngā heketea 22,000 te tokomaha ki te West Coast Settlement Reserves ki Taranaki. I te tau 2003, e neke atu i te $150 miriona te wāriu o tēnei whakahaerenga me ngā pāmu miraka kau e 18 te nui. Ko PKW te rōpū nui rawa e whakangao ana i ngā kiko miraka ki te rohe o Taranaki. Nā te iti o ngā moni ka hoki mai i tāwāhi i ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, ka huri te aro o PKW ki te hoko mai i ngā whenua Māori kua rīhitia, ā, me te whakawhānui i ngā whenua o PKW.

Kaitiakitanga whenua

I whakatūhia te Tūaropaki Trust hei whakakotahi mai i ngā whenua o ngā uri o ngā hapū e whitu e noho ana ki te taha uru mā-raki o Taupō i whakahokia ngā heketea 2,708 te rahi ki ngā kaipupuri i te tau 1979. I te tau 2004, e $216 te wāriu o ngā rawa o tēnei whakahaerenga. I ia tau, ko tōna whakahoki moni ā-tau ko te $27 miriona. E $3.3 miriona ōna whakapaunga utu. Ko tētahi ūmanga i mahia e rātou me tētahi atu rōpū, ko te whakatū i te whare pūngao puia, a Mōkai 1, me te keri ake i ngā puia kei raro i te whenua o te pāmu. E āhei ana tēnei whare pūngao puia te whāngai i te hiko ki ngā kāinga 100,000 te maha. Ko te aronga o te kaitiakitanga kia whai aro mai ōna kaipupuri me te tūmatanui ki ō rātou mahi, e ai ki Tumanako Wereta.

I whakatūhia te Lake Taupo Forestry Trust (LTFT) i te tau 1969. E whakakotahi ana te kaitiakitanga nei i ngā poraka whenua e 60 te maha, me ngā heketea e 31,000 te rahi. I te tau 2002, e $170 miriona te wārou o tēnei rōpū. I whakatūhia te LTFT hei mahi ngātahi me te Karauna i roto i ngā mahi paina. I retihia e Ngāti Tūwharetoa ngā whenua kia riro hoki mai ngā painga o ngā paina ki a rātou ā tōna wā, me te whakawhanake i ō rātou ake māra paina.

Footnotes
  1. Trust Chair, Tumanako Wereta Back

Fisheries and Treaty settlements

Ngā whakataunga hao ika

E rua ngā whakataunga rawa hao ika i tū, arā, i te tau 1989 me te tau 1992 hei tuku i te hautoru o ngā ahumahi hao ika ki te Māori. I whakatūhia te Māori Fisheries Commission i te tau 1989 ki te whakakuhu haere i te Māori ki te ahumahi hao ika, me te tohatoha haere i ngā rawa ika. He maha ngā tautohe mō te tohatohatanga o ngā rawa. Nō te tau 2004 ka whakamanatia rawatia te Māori Fisheries Act 2004. Ka whiria te tohatohanga o ngā rawa i te nui o te takutai o te iwi. Kātahi ka haere katoa nga rawa o te Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commssion – $300 miriona – ki tētahi kamupene hou, arā, a Aotearoa Fisheries Limited (AFL).

Aotearoa Fisheries Limited

I te tau 2009, ka taka mai ngā kamupene o Moana Pacific, o OPC, o Kia Ora Seafoods, o Prepared Foods me Pacific Marine Farms ki raro i a AFL. Koia te kaipupuri Māori ki roto o Sealords. I te tau 2008, ka riro i a ia te $19 miriona. Mā ōna āpiti, ka hauhake, ka whakangao, ka hokona e AFL ōna kaimoana ki tāwāhi i ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000.

Ngā hao ika ā-iwi

Matua ake ka whāiti mai te mahi o ngā iwi Māori ki te ahumahi hī ika ki te tuku pūnaha hopu ika. Ka whakatū ētahi iwi i ō rātou whakahaerenga hei mahi moni, me te tuku mahi atu ki ngā tāngata o te rohe.

Ngāi Tahu Seafood

He ākau roa tō Ngāi Tahu, ā, i te tau 2009, he tūranga nui tō Ngāi Tahu Seafood i waenganui i ngā kamupene kaimoana ā-iwi. Heoi he kaitākaro ririki noa iho te kamupene i roto i te ahumahi whānui o Aotearoa. Ko te aronga o Ngāi Tahu:

  1. ko te whakahaere me te tiaki i ngā whakapau moni o te iwi ki te pūnaha hopu kaimoana
  2. te mahi ki ngā wāhi kokoru e whai hua ai
  3. kia mārama ki ngā hiahia o ngā kaihī ika o Ngāi Tahu me te tautoko i ngā ōhanga ā-rohe.

Ngā whakataunga raupatu o Waikato–Tainui me Ngāi Tahu

Ko Waikato–Tainui me Ngāi Tahu ngā iwi tuatahi kia whakatau i ō rātou whakataunga raupatu me te Karauna mō ngā hapanga ture, arā, ko Waikato i te 1995, me Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1998. $170 miriona te wāriu o te moni me te whenua i whakahokia ki a rātou. He nui ngā korapa a Tainui whai muri i te whakataunga, ā, kātahi rātou ka tahuri ki te whakamahi i tētahi āhuatanga ahumoni hei whakahaere i ngā rawa o te iwi. I te tau 2008, e $496 miriona ngā rawa e puritia ana e Tainui Group Holdings me Waikato–Tainui Fisheries, e $52.4 miriona te nui o ngā rawa i hoki mai ki a rātou i tērā tau. E $10 miriona i tukuna e rātou ki ō rātou kaipupuri. Koinei te tau tuatoru e pēnei ana rātou. Ko te whakangao anō i te moni me te kapo ake i ngā kaupapa mahi moni te kaupapa nui mō Waikato ā ngā rā kei te heke – i te tau 2008, 15 ōrau te hau o te nama ki te rawa.

Nō te tau 1998 i whakaae a Ngāi Tahu ki te whakataunga a te Karauna, ā, hui katoa te wariu o te moni me te whenua $170 miriona.

Te whanaketanga o ngā whakataunga

I kake ake te nui o te utu o ngā whakataunga tiriti i waenganui i te tau 1998 me 2008. Nō te tau 2009, e $500 miriona te rahi o ngā whakataunga katoa i roto i tērā wā. Ko te whakataunga nui rawa ko Ngā Iwi o te Puku o Te Ika. Ko tōna wāriu ko te $161 miriona. Ā tōna wā ka kaha ake te whakawhitinga mai o ngā moni me ngā whenua mā te ture whakataunga tiriti.


Post-settlement corporate structures

Ngā kaupapa whakangao a Ngāi Tahu

I ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, he iwi angitū a Ngāi Tahu ki ngā kaupapa ahumoni. Ko te mahi a Ngāi Tahu he whakawehe i tōna rūnanga me tōna ringa mahi moni, kia mārama ai tētahi ki te mahi a tētahi.

Ko Ngāi Tahu Holdings Corporation te ringa mahi moni o Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, ā, ka tauhokohoko me Ngāi Tahu Holdings Group (NTHG). E whakahaere ana ia i ōna whakaōrite, rawa, kaimoana, mahi tāpoi hoki. Ko te mahi nui o NTHG he whakahaere i ngā rawa o Ngāi Tahu. Tekau tau i muri o te whakataunga, i te tau 2008, ko tōna wāriu e $644 miriona. Ko ōna nama, ko te $118 miriona, ā, ko ngā moni ka riro i te tau ko te $31 miriona.

Te whakakopareihanatanga me te tikanga

He wero nui ki ngā iwi te whakapākehā i ngā tikanga Māori hei whakahaere i ngā kaupapa ahumoni. He āhuatanga rerekē te pū harakeke ki ngā tikanga rangatōpū o Pākehā mā. Ko te mahi he whakakotahi mai i ngā āhuatanga mahi moni.

I ngā tau tōmua o 2000, he kaha ngā iwi ki te whai i ngā mahi e pā ana ki ā rātou tikanga, me te whakatū i ngā hononga ki waenganui i tōna rohe me ētahi atu iwi. Ko te mahi a ngā iwi he tautoko i ngā umanga a ētahi hei whakapiki ake i te ohanga. He mahi whakaheke ki ngā reanga te haumi ki te Māori hei whakatū anō i ngā tūrangawaewae me te whakahau i te mana ā-iwi ki te rohe. He nui ngā mahi haumi a ngā iwi me ngā kaitiakitanga ki waenganui i ngā hapū me ngā iwi. Ko te aronga nui ko te whenua, ngā rawa me ngā kaupapa ā-rohe.

Te angitū pakihi Māori

Ngā āhuatanga i whai angitū ai te pakihi Māori:

  1. te paku o ngā nama me te ōritenga wāhangahanga
  2. te whakawehenga o ngā rūnanga me ngā rōpū mahi moni
  3. kia whai wāhi ki te whakawhānui i ngā rawa
  4. te kōrero tahi me ngā kaipupuri
  5. te arotahi ki ngā whāinga taupori, ā-iwi, taiao, pakihi hoki
  6. ngā kaupapa whakaheke mahi mā ngā uri ki ngā tūranga whakawhanake ōhanga Māori
  7. te mahi tahi me ētahi atu iwi Māori ki te whakawhanake i te ohanga Māori.

How to cite this page: Edward Ellison, 'Ngā haumi a iwi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-haumi-a-iwi/print (accessed 17 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Edward Ellison, i tāngia i te 11 Mar 2010