Kōrero: Matariki – Te Tau Hou Māori

Whārangi 3. Matariki o te ao hou

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

I kaingākautia te whakanui i a Matariki i mua i te taenga mai o ngā iwi o Ūropi ki Aotearoa, ka haere tonu tae atu ki ngā tau 1900. Nā wai, nā wai ka kore haere, ko ngā taiopenga ahurei whakamutunga i tū i ngā tau o te 1940, engari i puritia tonuhia ngā mātauranga o te rohe e ētahi iwi. I komokomohia e ētahi hāhi Māori hou, pērā i te hāhi Ringatū, ētahi āhuatanga ake o Matariki ki ā rātou tikanga hou.

Whakarauoratanga

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 21 ka tahuri a ngāi Māori ki te whakarauora ake i ngā mahi whakanui i a Matariki hei tohu i te whakamaharatanga, i te harikoa me te rongomau. I whakakotahi mai anō ngā iwi, ngā hapu me ngā whanau i te wā ki a Matariki ki te tangi i ērā o te whānau kua riro, ki te kai tahi, ki te wānanga me te whakanui anō i a Matariki i ō rātou hapori. Ka whakahaeretia e ētahi ngā tikanga o mua i te ata iti, ka taki ai i ngā ingoa o te hunga kua mate mai i tērā aranga ake o Matariki, hei poroporoaki i a rātou, me te tunu anō i ngā kai o te kaupeka o te tau.

Hiranga ana te wāhi ki ngā iwi Māori ki te whakarauora ake i te aro atu a te hapori whānui ki ngā mahi whakanui. I a Te Rangi Huata i whakarite ai i ngā mahi whakanui i a Matariki a Ngāti Kahungungu i te tau 2000, i āhua 500 te hunga i whai wāhi atu; i te tau 2003, 15,000 te hunga i tae ake. I te tau 2021, ka āwhina a Te Rangi ki te whakarite i tana hui whakanui 21, ko ngā mahi i tū ki te Wairoa ahu atu ki te Wairarapa. I whakapono a Te Rangi i noho huarahi a Matariki hei whakanui i te ahurea Māori, waihoki, ki te whakakotahi i ngā iwi katoa o Aotearoa.   

Kua āwhina hoki ngā pukapuka a te tohunga tātai arorangi, te mātanga mātauranga Māori, a Ahorangi Rangi Matamua (Tūhoe), ki te taunaki i te hiranga o Matariki ki ngā hapori Māori o mua, me ōna hononga ki te noho mārama a ngāi Māori ki tōna ao māori me te ao wairua.

Nā ngā taiopenga hoki kua whakaritea e ngā kaunihera ā-rohe me ngā whakahaere pērā i Te Papa Tongarewa, i Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori me Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, kua huri anō te aronga ki a Matariki. Haere ana ngā mahi kapa haka, te mātai whetū, te pahū muramura, te hāngī me te konohete huri noa i te motu. I te tau 2017 ka nekehia te pō pahū muramura i Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, i whakahaeretia nei i te Whiringa-ā-rangi hei tohu i te Rā o Guy Fawkes, ki te Hōngongoi, hei whakanui i a Matariki.  

I whai wāhi atu anō te whakarauoratia o Matariki ki te whakapiki ake i te kaingākautia o te pākau. Hei tā Hekenukumai Busby, tētahi tohunga ki ngā tikanga whakatere moana o nehe, i whakanuia e ngā tūpuna o ngāi Māori a Matariki mā te tuku pākau, pērā anō ngā iwi o Poronīhia o nehe.

Hararei tūmatanui

I te tau 2020, ka pānuitia e te kāwanatanga tana whakaaro kia tū he hararei tūmatanui i te wā ki a Matariki ki te whakamihi me te whakanui i te ao Māori, ka tū tuatahi ā te tau 2022. Ka whakatūria te Rōpū Arataki o Matariki ki te tuku kupu ārahi ki ngā minita mō te wā me te āhua o te whakanui i te hararei tūmatanui nei. Ka neke te rā o te maramataka mō te hararei tūmatanui o Matariki haere he tau, kia hāngai ai ki te maramataka Māori. Te tikanga hei te tōmuritanga o Pipiri hei te tōmuatanga rānei o Hōngongoi. I tōia mai ngā mema o te Rōpū Arataki i te motu nui tonu e puta ai ngā mātauranga o iwi kē, o iwi kē. 

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith, 'Matariki – Te Tau Hou Māori - Matariki o te ao hou', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/matariki/page-3 (accessed 25 September 2021)

He kōrero nā Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 12 Jun 2006, reviewed & revised 19 Jun 2021