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Matariki – Te Tau Hou Māori

by  Paul Meredith

Kia taukapo mai ki te rangi takurua i te atapō, kua tohu a Matariki i te Tau Hou Māori. Ki a ngāi Māori, ko te aranga ake o Matariki te mātārere mō te whakamaharatanga, te harikoa me te rongomau. Koia nei te wā e whakakotahi ai ngā hapori ki ngā mahi whakanui. I ngā tau 2000, ka kaha kitea anō te whakanuia o Matariki e ngāi Māori me ngāi Pākehā. Atu i te tau 2022 ka tū he hararei tūmatanui e arohia ai a Matariki i te Pipiri, i te Hōngongoi rānei o ia tau.  


Heralding the new year

Tirohia ake ngā whetu
Me ko Matariki e ārau ana
He tiki mai tahau i ngā mahara e kohi nei
Whakarerea ake e nā te roimata koua riringi
He puna wai kai aku kamo…

I gaze up to the stars
To the assembly of Matariki
Captured are my memories of you who have left me behind
Tears rippling
like springs in my eyes. 1

He kāhui whetū ririki a Matariki kei te kāhui o Taurus, e mōhiotia anō ko Pleiades. I Aotearoa ka kitea e iri hāhaka mai ana i te huapae ki te raki-mā-uru, i te hiku o Te Ika-o-te-Rangi, i te atapō i wē-takurua. Koia nei te mātārere o te Tau Hou Māori me te huringa o te pekanga o te tau.

He wā kē anō e whakanuia ai a Matariki e tēnā me tēnā iwi, ko ētahi iwi hei te kitenga tuatahi o te kāhui i te ata iti, ko ētahi atu i muri o te eanga o Ōturu, i te tīmatanga rānei o te kōhiti. Ki ētahi atu iwi e whitu ngā whetū kei te kāhui, ki ētahi atu e iwa kē.

Heoi, mō ngā iwi katoa, ka whakapuakina te hiranga o Matariki ki te whakataukī me te waiata e hono ana i a ia ki te whetū taiahoaho, a Whānui:

Ka puta Matariki ka rere Whānui
Ko te tohu tēnā o te tau e!
Matariki reappears, Whānui starts its flight.
Being the sign of the [new] year!

Kōrero Orokohanganga

He whakapotonga a Matariki mō ‘Ngā Mata o te Ariki Tāwhirimātea’. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngāi Māori, i te wehea o Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku e ā rāua tamariki, ka tino riri tētahi o ā rāua tama, te atua o te hau a Tāwhirimātea, ka tīkarohia mai ōna mata, ka makaia ki te rangi.

Ko te kōrero a te tohunga kōkōrangi o Tūhoe, a Ahorangi Rangi Matamua, e iwa ngā whetū i tatauria e ōna tūpuna:  

  • Matariki – te whetū tohu i te noho ora, i te hokinga mahara, i te tūmanako me te whakahuihui i te iwi; e whakaarotia ana he whetū wahine, ko ia nei te kaitiaki o ērā atu whetū o te kāhui. Ko Matariki te ingoa o tēnei whetū takitahi me te kāhui katoa.
  • Waitī – te whetū e hono ana ki te wai māori me ngā kai o te wai māori.  
  • Waitā – te whetū e hono ana ki te wai tai me ngā kai o te wai tai.  
  • Tupuānuku – te whetū e hono ana ki ngā kai ka tupu ki te whenua.   
  • Tupuārangi – te whetū e hono ana ki ngā kai ka ahu mai i te rangi: te hua o te rākau me te manu.  
  • Waipunarangi – te whetū e hono ana ki te ua.  
  • Ururangi – te whetū ka whakarite i ngā hau mō te tau.  
  • Pōhutukawa – te whetū e hono ana ki te hunga kua mate.  
  • Hiwa-i-te-rangi – te whetū e hono ana ki te moemoeā me te wawata mō te tau ka takoto ake.  

Ko ētahi atu e kī ana ko Matariki te whaea, huri noa i a ia ko ana tamāhine tokoono, ko Tupuānuku, ko Tupuārangi, ko Waitī, ko Waitā, ko Waipunarangi, ko Ururangi. Ko tētahi kōrero e kī ana ka āwhina a Matariki rātou ko ana tamāhine i Te Rā, kua ngoikore nei i ana haerenga iho i te takurua mai i te raki.

Matariki rāua ko Puanga

Matariki ki waho atu o Aotearoa

Ka nui te hiranga o te kāhui o Matariki ki ngā take wairua, take taiao me ngā take ahurea puta noa i Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. He maha ngā iwi o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa ka aro ake ki tōna rerenga i te rangi hei tohu i te taka o te wā me te huringa o te pekanga tau. Ka kīia ko Matariki ki Ngā Kuki Airani; ko Mataliki ki Tokelau, ki Niue, ki Tuvalu, ki Tonga, ki ‘Uvea me Futuna); ko Matali’i ki Hāmoa; ko Matari’i ki Tahiti me Makali’i ki Hawai’i.

Kua noho ngā whetū o Matariki hei take mātai pūtaiao hei kōrero pūrākau i ngā ahurea puta i te ao mō te hia mano tau, tae atu ki te Rāwhiti Waenga, ki Āhia, ki Ahitereiria, ki Ūropi, ki Amerika ki te Raki me te Tonga anō.

E ai ki ngā kōrero pūrākau o Kirihi, ko ngā whetū taiahoaho katoa o Pleiades ko Pleione rāua ko Atlas, me ā rāua tamāhine tokowhitu. I a rātou e haereere ana i te ngahere i tētahi rangi, ka kitea ngā tamāhine nei e Orion, kātahi ka whāia. E ora ai rātou i te whakaaro kino o Orion, ka hurihia rātou e Zeus hei whetū, ka whakairia ki te rangi. Ko ētahi temepara o nehe kei te Toi o te Pā i Ātene e anga atu ana ki te aranga ake o Pleiades.

Hāunga ia te whakanui a ngā iwi katoa i te Tau Hou Māori i te Pipiri me te Hōngongoi, ka kīia tēnei wā o te tau e ētahi iwi ki Whanganui, ki Taranaki, ki Te Aupōuri me Te Waipounamu ko Puanga, kaua ko Matariki. I ēnei wāhi o te motu, kāore e mārama te kitea o te kāhui o Matariki, nō reira ka noho hiranga mai ko te whetū o Puanga, te whetū hiranga tuarua tata katoa ki a Matariki, ka māmā ake te kitea i te rangi rere rua. Ki a Ngāi Tahu i Te Waipounamu ko Puaka te ingoa o te whetū.  

I ōna anō rohe ko te hekenga o te whetū o Rehua i te takurua te tohu o te huringa o te pekanga o te tau.

Tātaitanga o Matariki

I ngā rā o mua, he iwi tātai arorangi te Māori, e mōhiotia ai te taka o te wā me te huringa o te pekanga tau mai i ngā whetū, me te tātai i ēnei e rere ai i te au o te moana. He rerekē anō te tātai a ngā iwi i te tīmatanga me te whakamutunga o Matariki, nā ngā rerekētanga tonu o te taiao, o te matawhenua, me te āhua o te tū mai o te rā me te marama e kite ana rātou.

Ko te huringa o te marama kei te tūāpapa o te Tau Māori e 354 rā te roa. Engari anō te maramataka o Ūropi ki te Uru  (Gregorian), e 365.25 rā te roa, kei tōna tūāpapa ko te amionga o Papatūānuku i te rā. Nā tēnei ka rerekē anō ngā rā ki a Matariki i ia tau i te maramataka o te Uru.

Ka ngaro ngā whetū o Matariki i te rangi i te marama o Haratua (te tikanga i wē Haratua ki te tōmuatanga o Pipiri), ka kitea anō hei tōna marama i muri mai i te Pipiri (te tikanga i te tōmuritanga o Pipiri ki te tōmuatanga o Hōngongoi). Ki ētahi iwi ko te hokinga ake o ngā whetu kē ka tohu i te tīmatanga o te tau hou. Heoi anō, i te mea e kitea ana a Matariki i te rangi, ehara tērā i te tohu koia te wā tika mō ngā mahi whakanui, ka tohua kēngia tēnei e ngā wāhanga o te marama. Ko te wā kē mō ngā mahi whakanui ka taka i ētahi rā i muri mai o te aranga tuatahi o Matariki i te huapae.

Footnotes
    • By Mihikitekapua (Tūhoe, Ngāti Ruapani). Reproduced in Apirana Turupa Ngata, Ngā mōteatea: he maramara rere nō ngā waka maha, 4 vols, Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2004–7. Back

Cycles of life and death

I whakapono te Māori e tohu ana te whakakau ake o Matariki ki te rangi i te atapō i wē-takurua i Te Mātahi o te Tau, te tīmatanga o te Tau Hou Māori. Kua kimi te tohunga kōkōrangi i te aranga ake o Matariki i te atapō, kua āta mātai i te āhua o tēnā me tēnā whetū. Mā ēnei mātaitanga e matapaetia ai ngā āhuatanga o te tau kei te tū mai, pērā i te huarere me te āhua o te hauhaketanga.

Whakataukī

He maha ngā whakataukī mō Matariki. E kōrero ana a ‘Matariki kāinga kore’ mō te haerenga mutunga kore o te kāhui whetū nei – kotahi tōna ngaronga i te rangi i te tau, i a ia ka whakangā i te Haratua ina riko te marama. Nā te hononga o Matariki ki ngā māra kai i puta ai te whakataukī: ‘Matariki ahunga nui’ (Matariki te kaiwhakarato i te nui o te kai). I te kitea ōna i te wā o te mahi huahua, ka puta te kōrero: ‘Ka kitea a Matariki, kua maoka te hinu’ (Kia kitea a Matariki, kua korotutuhia te huahua).

Ko Matariki te wā o te whakamaharatanga, te haumakotanga me ngā mahi whakanui. E toru ngā mea tino hiranga:

Te mahara ki te hunga kua riro:

Haere atu rā e koro ki te paepae o Matariki, o Rehua. Haere atu rā.
Farewell old man, go to the threshold of Matariki, of Rehua. Farewell.

Ko tā te Māori o mua i te kitenga tuatahi i a Matariki, he tangi ki te hunga kua mate mai i tōna aranga ake i te tau ka hori. I whakahaeretia te tikanga o te ‘whāngai i te hautapu’ i tēnei wā hei whakamaharatanga ki te hunga kua mate, ko tētahi wāhanga ōna ko te ‘whāngai whetū’ ki te kai kua āta whakaritea.

I te tau 1957, ka mahara ake a Rangihuna Pire, tētahi kaumatua o Ngā Ruahine i Taranaki, ki te heria ōna i a ia e tamariki ana ki te kimi i a Matariki i Kaūpokonui, ki te tonga o Taranaki:

Tērā e oho roa ai ngā kaumatua mō ētahi pō nei i mua i te whakakau ake o ngā whetū. Kua mahia e rātou he hāngī iti. Kia kitea ngā whetū, kua tangi, kua taki haere i ngā ingoa o te hunga kua riro ki a Matariki mai i tōna hekenga, kua hukea te hāngī kia āwhiowhio ai tōna kakara ki te whakakaha ake i ngā whetū, kua ngoikore hoki, kua makariri hoki. 1

Te whakanui i tēnei wā:

Ngā kai a Matariki, nāna i ao ake ki runga.
The foods of Matariki, by her scooped up.

Kia mutu te wā ki te tangi, kua huri te aronga ki ngā mahi whakanui i a Matariki. I te takanga o Matariki i te mutunga o te hauhaketanga, ranea ana te kai mō te hākari. Harikoa ana te iwi, he waiata, he kanikani te karawhiu ki te whakanui i te huringa o te pekanga tau me te tau hou.

Te titiro ki āpōpō atu:

Matariki atua ka eke mai i te rangi e roa,
E whāngainga iho ki te mata o te tau e roa e.
Divine Matariki come forth from the far-off heaven,
Bestow the first fruits of the year upon us.

Ko Matariki anō te wā e whakariterite ai mō te tau ka takoto ake. Ki te mārama, ki te taiahoaho ngā whetū, he tau pai, he tau humi kei te haere, kua tīmata te rumaki kai i te Mahuru. Ki te rehurehu, ki te tātata ngā whetū, kua kino te makariri o te takurua, kua waiho te rumaki kai mō te Whiringa-ā-nuku.

Footnotes
    • Harry Dansey, ‘Matariki’. Te Ao Hou 61 (December–February 1967/68): 15–16. › Back

Modern Matariki

I kaingākautia te whakanui i a Matariki i mua i te taenga mai o ngā iwi o Ūropi ki Aotearoa, ka haere tonu tae atu ki ngā tau 1900. Nā wai, nā wai ka kore haere, ko ngā taiopenga ahurei whakamutunga i tū i ngā tau o te 1940, engari i puritia tonuhia ngā mātauranga o te rohe e ētahi iwi. I komokomohia e ētahi hāhi Māori hou, pērā i te hāhi Ringatū, ētahi āhuatanga ake o Matariki ki ā rātou tikanga hou.

Whakarauoratanga

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 21 ka tahuri a ngāi Māori ki te whakarauora ake i ngā mahi whakanui i a Matariki hei tohu i te whakamaharatanga, i te harikoa me te rongomau. I whakakotahi mai anō ngā iwi, ngā hapu me ngā whanau i te wā ki a Matariki ki te tangi i ērā o te whānau kua riro, ki te kai tahi, ki te wānanga me te whakanui anō i a Matariki i ō rātou hapori. Ka whakahaeretia e ētahi ngā tikanga o mua i te ata iti, ka taki ai i ngā ingoa o te hunga kua mate mai i tērā aranga ake o Matariki, hei poroporoaki i a rātou, me te tunu anō i ngā kai o te kaupeka o te tau.

Hiranga ana te wāhi ki ngā iwi Māori ki te whakarauora ake i te aro atu a te hapori whānui ki ngā mahi whakanui. I a Te Rangi Huata i whakarite ai i ngā mahi whakanui i a Matariki a Ngāti Kahungungu i te tau 2000, i āhua 500 te hunga i whai wāhi atu; i te tau 2003, 15,000 te hunga i tae ake. I te tau 2021, ka āwhina a Te Rangi ki te whakarite i tana hui whakanui 21, ko ngā mahi i tū ki te Wairoa ahu atu ki te Wairarapa. I whakapono a Te Rangi i noho huarahi a Matariki hei whakanui i te ahurea Māori, waihoki, ki te whakakotahi i ngā iwi katoa o Aotearoa.   

Kua āwhina hoki ngā pukapuka a te tohunga tātai arorangi, te mātanga mātauranga Māori, a Ahorangi Rangi Matamua (Tūhoe), ki te taunaki i te hiranga o Matariki ki ngā hapori Māori o mua, me ōna hononga ki te noho mārama a ngāi Māori ki tōna ao māori me te ao wairua.

Nā ngā taiopenga hoki kua whakaritea e ngā kaunihera ā-rohe me ngā whakahaere pērā i Te Papa Tongarewa, i Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori me Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, kua huri anō te aronga ki a Matariki. Haere ana ngā mahi kapa haka, te mātai whetū, te pahū muramura, te hāngī me te konohete huri noa i te motu. I te tau 2017 ka nekehia te pō pahū muramura i Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, i whakahaeretia nei i te Whiringa-ā-rangi hei tohu i te Rā o Guy Fawkes, ki te Hōngongoi, hei whakanui i a Matariki.  

I whai wāhi atu anō te whakarauoratia o Matariki ki te whakapiki ake i te kaingākautia o te pākau. Hei tā Hekenukumai Busby, tētahi tohunga ki ngā tikanga whakatere moana o nehe, i whakanuia e ngā tūpuna o ngāi Māori a Matariki mā te tuku pākau, pērā anō ngā iwi o Poronīhia o nehe.

Hararei tūmatanui

I te tau 2020, ka pānuitia e te kāwanatanga tana whakaaro kia tū he hararei tūmatanui i te wā ki a Matariki ki te whakamihi me te whakanui i te ao Māori, ka tū tuatahi ā te tau 2022. Ka whakatūria te Rōpū Arataki o Matariki ki te tuku kupu ārahi ki ngā minita mō te wā me te āhua o te whakanui i te hararei tūmatanui nei. Ka neke te rā o te maramataka mō te hararei tūmatanui o Matariki haere he tau, kia hāngai ai ki te maramataka Māori. Te tikanga hei te tōmuritanga o Pipiri hei te tōmuatanga rānei o Hōngongoi. I tōia mai ngā mema o te Rōpū Arataki i te motu nui tonu e puta ai ngā mātauranga o iwi kē, o iwi kē. 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Paul Meredith, 'Matariki – Te Tau Hou Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/matariki/print (accessed 18 July 2024)

He kōrero nā Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 12 o Hune 2006, reviewed & revised 19 o Hune 2021