Kōrero: Hōkakatanga

Whārangi 2. Ngā āhuatanga o mua

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te āria Māori i te taenga mai o tauiwi

I te taenga mai o te Pākehā ka kitea he rerekē te tirohanga ai a te Māori ki tā te Pākehā. He maha ake ngā hoa wahine o te rangatira Māori. I tua atu i ngā puhi, ka whakaaetia te moe ipo i mua i te whakapākūhā. I āta whakaarohia te ao Māori e ngā kaihōpara o Ingarangi me Wīwī. E ai ki a Georg Forster, ‘Their ideas of female chastity are, in this respect so different from ours, that a girl may favour a number of lovers without any detriment to her character; but if she marries, conjugal fidelity is exacted from her with the greatest rigour' (He rerekē rawa ō rātou whakaaro mō te kore ai a te wahine. Ākene pea he tokomaha ngā ipo a tētahi wahine. Hāunga tērā ka noho tonu tōna mana; heoi pēnā ka moe tūturu ia, me pūmau ia ki tērā).1 E ai ki a Julien Crozet, '[Māori] gave us to understand by signs that we must not touch the married women, but that we might with perfect freedom make advances to the girls' (Ka rotarota mai a [Ngāi Māori] kia kaua e pā atu ki te wahine kua whai tāne, engari, e pai ana te tono atu ki ngā kōtiro takakau).2 I moe ngā kaihōpara, ngā heremana me ētahi mihinare ki ngā tāngata Māori.

Tāpiri atu, pēnā ka whānau mai te tamaiti i mua i te moe tūturu, ka noho tonu rātou i roto i te iwi.

He kōrero o mua

E ai ki te tohunga pūtaiao o te kaipuke o Endeavour a Joseph Banks, ka noho tētahi kauhoe moana ki tētahi whānau Māori, ā, ka utu ia kia eke i tētahi wahine. I te hoatutanga o te wahine ki a ia ka kite ia he tama kē. Nō tana hokinga ka whakatakariri, ā ka hoatuhia tētahi atu kōtiro, hāunga he tāne kē anō. I tana whakatakariri anō ka kataina ia e te whānau. Kāore a Banks e mōhio mēnā he whakaaetanga tēnei ki te kanorau ai, ko te tinihanga rānei.

Tērā ētahi kōrero mō ngā tāngata whai e moe tahi ana me te ira kotahi. Ko Minita William Yate tētahi mihinare i noho tahi me tana hoa tāne ki Waimate mō ngā tau e rua, ā, ka panaia ki Ingarangi mō te moe tāne. I whakaaengia tana mahi e te hapori Māori engari i whakahēngia e ōna hoa mihinare. Ina tirohia āna mahi ai ki ngā taiohi Māori ka whakaatu te whakaaro Māori ki te ai. E ai ki a Richard Davis, '[they] showed no shame. They simply declared that they were unaware of any sinfulness in such practices and that Yate had not initiated them' (Kāore [rātou] i whakamā. Ka mea atu rātou ehara tēnei i te mahi hē, ā, kāore i timatahia e Yate).3

Ngā āria Pākehā

Nō te taenga mai o te Pākehā i ngā rautau e rua ki mua, kua whakaurua te kairautanga, ā, kua panonitia ngā āria ai a te Māori. Nā tēnei ka whakatauhia ngā āria tōtika o Ingarangi ki runga i te Māori. Nō konei ka puta te mea me moe anake te tāne me te wahine i raro i te awe o tētahi mārena Karaitiana i mua i te ai,ā, me whakawhānau i te pēpi.

I runga i ēnei āria ka tīmata te wetewete haeretanga o te ao Māori. Ka tapahia ngā ure o ngā whakairo, ā, ka hurihia ngā kupu o ngā waiata me ngā karakia. Hāunga anō tonu te tūwhera o te whakaaro Māori ki te ai, ko ngā whakapākehātanga o ngā kupu Māori o te mahi ai ka hurihia ki roto i te reo rātene kē. Hei tauira ka noho te kupu mō te ure ki te membrum virile. Ko ngā Pākehā i kohi kōrero tuku iho ka tapahi i aua kōrero. Ko John White, te tangata nāna nei i kohikohi i ngā kōrero tīpuna ka mea atu, ‘Nearly all my best tales are tainted with indecency' (Tata ki te katoa o ngā kōrero pai, he paruparu).4

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Anne Salmond, Between worlds: early exchanges between Maori and Europeans, 1773–1815. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Viking, 1997, wh. 76. Back
  2. I takoto ki Anne Salmond, Two worlds: first meetings between Maori and Europeans, 1642–1772. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Viking, 1993, wh. 376. Back
  3. I takoto ki Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, ‘He Reka Ano – same-sex lust and loving in the ancient Māori world.’ Kei Outlines: lesbian & gay histories of Aotearoa, ētita Alison J. Laurie rāua ko Linda Evans. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Lesbian & Gay Archives of New Zealand, 2005, wh. 7. Back
  4. I takoto ki John O’Leary, ‘“Tableaux of queerness”: the ethnographic novels of John White’, http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-OLeTabl.html (i tirohia i te 2 Poutū-te-rangi 2011). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Clive Aspin, 'Hōkakatanga - Ngā āhuatanga o mua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hokakatanga/page-2 (accessed 19 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Clive Aspin, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 22 Jan 2019