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Hōkakatanga – Māori sexualities

by Clive Aspin

He take māmā te ai i wherawhera noatia i ngā kōrero me ngā whakairo o te ao Māori tūturu. Ka panoni tēnei i te taunga mai o te Pākehā me ngā waiaro Wikitōriana ki Aotearoa. Kātahi ka tītīnihia ngā waiata me ngā kōrero. I ēnei rā kua tuwhera anō te kaupapa hokakatanga hei wāhanga nō te oranga.


Sexuality in Māori tradition

I ngā wā o mua, he iwi rongonui te ao Māori mō tāna whakanui i te kanorau o te ai. Kei ngā whakairo, waiata me ngā karakia e takoto ana ngā kōrero mō te ai.

Kahungunu rāua ko Rongomaiwahine

Tērā ngā kōrero mō tēnei tipuna a Kahungunu e whakaari ana he tūwhera ngā whakaaro Māori, wāhine mai, tāne mai, ki te aitanga. He maha ngā hoa rangatira o Kahungunu. Ka uia hoki tētahi o ēnei wāhine ko Hinepuariari ki te āhua o tana tāne o Kahungunu, ka whakautua, ‘Kāore hoki tērā te hanga o taku tāne, kāore e rūpeke mai ana, takoto noa mai te nuinga i waho.’ Ka tae te rongo o tēnei kōrero ki a Rongomaiwahine o Te Māhia, ka whakatau ia, ‘Nā te mea anō rā he kōpua pāpaku, mehemea e taka mai ana ki te kōpua hōhonu a Rapa e tūhera atu nei, pokopoko ana ia ki roto.” Nō muri rawa i te rongotanga o tēnei wero e Kahungunu ka whakatika atu a ia, ka whakaipo, ā, ka moe i a Rongomaiwahine.

Tutānekai rāua ko Tiki

E rongonuitia ana a Tūtānekai i tōna mate kanehe ki a Hinemoa, tērā i kawea atu i runga i te au o te pūtōrino. Hāunga i mua hoki i tāna moe ki a Hinemoa, ko tōna hoa pūmau he tāne tonu ko Tiki. Kei ā ētahi titiro, ka noho tauira tēnei mō te moe a te tāne i te tāne anō. Kei ngā tuhinga a Te Rangikāheke, ka mea a Tūtānekai ki tōna matua:

Ka aroha atu a Tūtānekai ki a Tiki, ka mea atu ki a Whakaue.

Ka mate ahau i te aroha ki tōku hoa, ki a Tiki.

Nāwai ka kī ake a Tūtānekai mō Tiki, ko ‘taku hoa takatāpui’. Ko ngā whakamārama kei te papakupu o Wiremu (1844), ‘he hoa tata nō te ira kotahi’.

Ngā mōteatea

He mea whakanui te ai o te tāne me te wahine i roto i ētahi o ngā haka me ngā waiata. Ko ētahi e kōrero ana mō te aroha takatāpui. Ko te tauira ko te waiata tangi mō Pāpaka Te Naeroa i mate i te pakanga. Nō te whakaputanga o tēnei waiata ki Ngā mōteatea, ka hurihia te kupu ‘aitia’ ki te ‘awhitia’. Tērā tētahi atu waiata:

Ehara koe i te tāne, he puhi koe nāku,

Te ipō ki te moenga.

Ngā whakairo aitanga

Kei te toi whakairo Māori hoki te taha ai e whakaaria ana. Ka whakaaturia hoki ngā taonga ai a te tāne me te wahine, tae atu ki te mahi ai. Kei runga i te pātaka kai o Te Puawai o Te Arawa kei Whare Taonga o Peretania te whakairo o tētahi tokorua e ai onioni ana. Tērā anō tētahi waka huia kei te Whare Taonga o Peretania e whakaatu ana i te ai a te tāne me te wahine. Kei konā anō tētahi papahou e whakaatu ana i tētahi tāne e ai ana ki tētahi atu tāne. Kei runga i te maihi o te whare o Rangitihi hoki tētahi whakairo o ētahi tāne e tāwhiwhi tahi ana. I wāhia tēnei maihi, ko tētahi wāhanga i tonoa ki te whare taonga i Leipzig, ā, ko tētahi i tonoa ki St Petersburg.


Early Māori sexuality

Te āria Māori i te taenga mai o tauiwi

I te taenga mai o te Pākehā ka kitea he rerekē te tirohanga ai a te Māori ki tā te Pākehā. He maha ake ngā hoa wahine o te rangatira Māori. I tua atu i ngā puhi, ka whakaaetia te moe ipo i mua i te whakapākūhā. I āta whakaarohia te ao Māori e ngā kaihōpara o Ingarangi me Wīwī. E ai ki a Georg Forster, ‘Their ideas of female chastity are, in this respect so different from ours, that a girl may favour a number of lovers without any detriment to her character; but if she marries, conjugal fidelity is exacted from her with the greatest rigour' (He rerekē rawa ō rātou whakaaro mō te kore ai a te wahine. Ākene pea he tokomaha ngā ipo a tētahi wahine. Hāunga tērā ka noho tonu tōna mana; heoi pēnā ka moe tūturu ia, me pūmau ia ki tērā).1 E ai ki a Julien Crozet, '[Māori] gave us to understand by signs that we must not touch the married women, but that we might with perfect freedom make advances to the girls' (Ka rotarota mai a [Ngāi Māori] kia kaua e pā atu ki te wahine kua whai tāne, engari, e pai ana te tono atu ki ngā kōtiro takakau).2 I moe ngā kaihōpara, ngā heremana me ētahi mihinare ki ngā tāngata Māori.

Tāpiri atu, pēnā ka whānau mai te tamaiti i mua i te moe tūturu, ka noho tonu rātou i roto i te iwi.

He kōrero o mua

E ai ki te tohunga pūtaiao o te kaipuke o Endeavour a Joseph Banks, ka noho tētahi kauhoe moana ki tētahi whānau Māori, ā, ka utu ia kia eke i tētahi wahine. I te hoatutanga o te wahine ki a ia ka kite ia he tama kē. Nō tana hokinga ka whakatakariri, ā ka hoatuhia tētahi atu kōtiro, hāunga he tāne kē anō. I tana whakatakariri anō ka kataina ia e te whānau. Kāore a Banks e mōhio mēnā he whakaaetanga tēnei ki te kanorau ai, ko te tinihanga rānei.

Tērā ētahi kōrero mō ngā tāngata whai e moe tahi ana me te ira kotahi. Ko Minita William Yate tētahi mihinare i noho tahi me tana hoa tāne ki Waimate mō ngā tau e rua, ā, ka panaia ki Ingarangi mō te moe tāne. I whakaaengia tana mahi e te hapori Māori engari i whakahēngia e ōna hoa mihinare. Ina tirohia āna mahi ai ki ngā taiohi Māori ka whakaatu te whakaaro Māori ki te ai. E ai ki a Richard Davis, '[they] showed no shame. They simply declared that they were unaware of any sinfulness in such practices and that Yate had not initiated them' (Kāore [rātou] i whakamā. Ka mea atu rātou ehara tēnei i te mahi hē, ā, kāore i timatahia e Yate).3

Ngā āria Pākehā

Nō te taenga mai o te Pākehā i ngā rautau e rua ki mua, kua whakaurua te kairautanga, ā, kua panonitia ngā āria ai a te Māori. Nā tēnei ka whakatauhia ngā āria tōtika o Ingarangi ki runga i te Māori. Nō konei ka puta te mea me moe anake te tāne me te wahine i raro i te awe o tētahi mārena Karaitiana i mua i te ai,ā, me whakawhānau i te pēpi.

I runga i ēnei āria ka tīmata te wetewete haeretanga o te ao Māori. Ka tapahia ngā ure o ngā whakairo, ā, ka hurihia ngā kupu o ngā waiata me ngā karakia. Hāunga anō tonu te tūwhera o te whakaaro Māori ki te ai, ko ngā whakapākehātanga o ngā kupu Māori o te mahi ai ka hurihia ki roto i te reo rātene kē. Hei tauira ka noho te kupu mō te ure ki te membrum virile. Ko ngā Pākehā i kohi kōrero tuku iho ka tapahi i aua kōrero. Ko John White, te tangata nāna nei i kohikohi i ngā kōrero tīpuna ka mea atu, ‘Nearly all my best tales are tainted with indecency' (Tata ki te katoa o ngā kōrero pai, he paruparu).4

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Anne Salmond, Between worlds: early exchanges between Maori and Europeans, 1773–1815. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Viking, 1997, wh. 76. Back
    • I takoto ki Anne Salmond, Two worlds: first meetings between Maori and Europeans, 1642–1772. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Viking, 1993, wh. 376. Back
    • I takoto ki Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, ‘He Reka Ano – same-sex lust and loving in the ancient Māori world.’ Kei Outlines: lesbian & gay histories of Aotearoa, ētita Alison J. Laurie rāua ko Linda Evans. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Lesbian & Gay Archives of New Zealand, 2005, wh. 7. Back
    • I takoto ki John O’Leary, ‘“Tableaux of queerness”: the ethnographic novels of John White’, http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-OLeTabl.html (i tirohia i te 2 Poutū-te-rangi 2011). Back

Sexual diversity in contemporary Māori society

Takatāpui

I roto i te tau 2000 he maha ngā tāne me ngā wāhine Māori e kīia ana he takatāpui rātou. Kua kapohia anō te kupu i huaina e Tūtānekai hei whakamārama i te āhuatanga ki a rāua ko tōna hoa a Tiki. He mea nui te kupu 'Takatāpui' ki a Ngāi Māori nā te mea ka whakamihia te taha ai, me te taha Māori o te tangata. Waihoki, ka tautoko i ngā hononga ki te ao tawhito, me te ao hurihuri o te Māori.

Ngā āria ai o te ao hōu

Hāunga tonu te pehi o ngā āria ai a te Māori ki raro i ngā āria a te Pākehā, tae mai ki te mano tau hou nei kua kitea ētahi panonitanga. Kei te tipu ake te mōhio i roto i te ao, me te ao Māori mō te hunga takatāpui, ā, e kitea ana i ngā hōtaka whakaata pērā i a Takatāpui i te timatanga o ngā 2000. Koinei te hōtaka whakaata takatāpui tuatahi mō te tangata whenua huri noa i te ao. I te tau 2010, tērā tētahi taiwhanga whakaatu i ngā mahi toi a te tokorima nō Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, e karangatia ana ko Mana Takatāpui: Taera Tane i whakaatuhia ki te taiwhanga o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. E ai ki te kaiwhakarite ki a Reuben Friend, ‘Ka tiro tēnei whakaaturanga ki ngā takatāpui i Aotearoa i tēnei wā tonu.’ Ka tū te Hui Takatāpui ia tau.

Ngā kanorau ai

Ko ētahi kaupapa e tautoko ana i te kanorau ai i roto i te tau 2000 ko te hauora me te ora. He whai hīranga te hōkakatanga ki te hauora o te tangata me te hapori hoki.

Heoi arā anō ētahi kino kei roto, pērā i te mate ai ārai kore. Me pū anō ai ngā mōhiohio haumaru ki tēnei mate. Ki te Māori kei ngā tikanga tuku iho mō te arataki i te tangata.

Tūmahi ai Māori

I ngā tau tīmatanga o te rautau 2000, ka tīmata ngā rangahau e pā ana ki te tirohanga kanorau ai ki a Ngāi Māori ki Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki. Ko tā tēnei kāhui he pōhiri atu i ngā momo tāngata katoa kia kōrero mō ētahi āhuatanga i kitea ai. I maumahara ētahi i ō rātou kuia, i ō rātou kaumātua rānei e kōrero ana mō ētahi mea i kitea e rātou e pā ana ki te takatāpui. Ka mutu, ko aua tangata, he tūnga rangatira ō rātou i roto i ō rātou whānau, hapū hoki. Kāre rātou i whakawhiua, engari ka arohaina tonu rātou.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Clive Aspin, 'Hōkakatanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hokakatanga/print (accessed 22 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Clive Aspin, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 22 Jan 2019