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Kōrero: Walker, Ranginui Joseph Isaac

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Walker, Ranginui Joseph Isaac

1932–2016

Whakatōhea; academic, activist, author

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Paul Spoonley, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau i te 2024. He mea whakamāori nā Te Kahautu Maxwell.

He rākau kawa a Ranginui Walker ki te tārai kōrero, he kākā-tarakeha ki te kupu kōrero, he toherauriki nō te iwi, ā, he tohenihorau hoki i tetē nui ai ōna rei kia takatū ake te iwi Māori i roto i te tekau tau atu i 1970 me te tekau tau atu i 1980 ki ngā take ahurea, tōrangapū anō hoki. Nāna i takitaki ki te whakatikatika i te moenga rangatira, e ai ki te Tiriti, a te Karauna me te iwi Māori, ki te whakapātaritari i te kaikiri o roto i ngā tāhuhu matua o roto i ngā pokapū pāpori. I tareka ai e ia te kura i awarua hai kura i whanake i te ahurea me te tōrangapū i waenganui i te ao Māori me te ao Pākehā, nā te hinu hoki o tāna pene, arā ko wāna pukapuka pēnei i a Ka whawhai tonu mātou me wāna atikara i te New Zealand Listener. He rākau kawa ki te kupu, he toki ki te kōrero, ‘he pērā anō tōna arero, he hoari tao kī.’1 Ko wāna tao kupu, kauaka rawa ki te iwi Pākehā anake, ki te kāwanatanga anake; kāore hoki, ka whiua e ia ngā tao kī ki ngā tāngata Māori, me ngā rōpū Māori hoki. He whakairoirotanga ia nā te whakairotanga i ngā tikanga Katorika, i te hekenga nui a Ngāi Māori i ngā marae kāinga ki ngā tāone nunui i muri mai i te pakanga tuarua o te ao. Koia hoki te pūtātara whakaaraara i te whenua ki te huhua o ngā tika i murua ai i ngā tāmitanga a te ao Pākehā.

Ngā Tau o te Tamarikitanga

Nō te 1 o Poutūterangi 1932 i whānau mai ai a Ranginui Joseph Isaac Walker ki Waiaua, ki Te Moana ā Toi, ki a Mihikore Walker he tamariki tonu, he 15 rānei he 16 noa iho ōna tau nōna e hapū ana ki a George Edwards. Engari, kua taumau i mua noa atu a Mihikore ki a Ngāwai (Fred) Amoamo, nā i runga tonu i tēnei ōhākī nui tapu rawa atu me tana pakeke i atawhaitia te pēpi nā e te tuakana o Mihikore, e Wairata me tana tāne a Isaac Walker, he kaiahuwhenua ia. I whakapakeketia ia e tōna hapū ki Waiaua, ki kō tata iho, ki te rāwhiti o Ōpōtiki. Ko tōna whaea ake me tōna whaea whāngai, he tuākana, he tāina o tētahi whānau tino nui, he 14 te rahi, ā, he uri rātou katoa nō ngā hapū e rua tonu o Te Whakatōhea, nō Ngāti Patumoana, nō Ngāti Ruatakenga. Kīhai rawa a Ranginui i tukuna kia whai wāhi atu ki tana matua ake, korekore rawa atu.

Ko tōna whaea whāngai a Wairata me te matua o Wairata, a Matewiki, ngā kura nui mō Ranginui nōna e tamariki ana. Ahakoa he wairua hao nō Wairata, i whakatōkia tonutia e ia ngā tikanga o te pukumahi, o te Katorika hoki kia ū tonu atu, kia mau. Nā tēnei wairua hao ōna me uaua ka kitea e ngā whāngai tokorima āna, a Wairata, i wō rātou mātua ake.

I te tau 1937 i tīmata a Ranginui ki Ōmarumutu Native School. Nō roto mai i te tau kotahi nā te whakahau a Wairata i hūnukutia ia ki Ōpōtiki Convent School. Nōna e tamariki ana he whare kōrero reo Māori, he whare kōrero reo Pākehā tōna, engari ia nāwai rā, nāwai rā – i a ia i te kura kawenati i horoia atu, i murua atu tōna reo Māori me te tata ngaro hoki o tōna tuakiri Māori. Nō te tau 1946, he tauira noho a Ranginui ki Hato Petera ki Te Raki-pae-whenua o Tāmaki. Ko Hone Papita Raukura (Ralph) Hōtere he hoa nōna ki te kura, whāia, nō rāua i reira ko rāua ngā ākonga i eke paneke ki te angitu o te kura. Ko tana tau mutunga ki te Kāreti o Ōpōtiki, i mau tonu ia ki tāna i mea ai; he pai ake tana whiwhi mātauranga ki Ōpōtiki i tāna i whiwhi ai ki Hato Petera. Nō te 1950 i whakauru ia ki te kāreti ako māhita ki Epsom, Tāmaki, kia whakangungua ia hai kura māhita mō ngā kura tuatahi. Koia tētahi o ngā Māori o te kōauta Māori, ko tāna kia whakangungua hei kura māhita mō ngā kura Māori. I whaihoa hou ia, arā ko Paakaariki (Paki) Harrison tētahi i whakaakoi a Ranginui ki ngā mahi whakangahau (pāti), ki te inu waipiro anō hoki.

I Tāmaki, i whakaipoipo a Ranginui i tētahi wahine Pākehā, ko Deidre Patricia Dodson, i te whakangungu anō hoki a ia hai kura māhita. Kīhai tōna whānau, otirā ko tōna matua tonu i whakaae ki a Ranginui, nā te mea he Māori ia, he Kātorika hoki ia. Rite tonu ngā whakaaro o te whānau o Ranginui, otirā ko wō Wairata hoki, hai tāna kāore e tika kia moe a Ranginui i te wahine ehara i te Kātorika, ka mutu he wahine Pākehā hoki. Engari ka pai mai ki ōna taina, he wahine hāngai a Deidre i tareka ai e ia te whakamāmā i te tirohanga mārō, taikaha hoki o Ranginui ki te ao. I mārena rāua i te 25 o Hereturikōkā 1953 ki St John’s Church, Parnell, ā, tokotoru ā rāua tamariki ko Michael (i whānau mai i te 1954), ko Stuart (i whānau mai i te 1955), rātou ko Wendy (i whānau mai i te 1958).

Ka noho ko Deidre te toka-ahuru mō Ranginui nōna ka rongonui ai. Koia te pā-kaha o te tokorua nei, te ahi mumura i roto i ngā mahi tōrangapū, anā ka hāngai tonu ana kōrero, ki ngā upoko tonu o ngā rōpū tōrangapū me ā rātou āpiha i ngā huihuinga nunui ōkawa. I te mutunga iho, ā, kātahi a Wairata ka rata tonu atu ki a ia, ki tana hunaonga.

Ngā Mahi i te Ao Mātauranga

Ko te tau 1952 te tau tuatahi o Ranginui e kura māhita ana ki tētahi kura Māori ki Pipiwai i Te Taitokerau, i mua i tana whakangungu ā-ture hei hoia mā Tūmatauenga ki Papakura, 1953. Kātahi ia ka hoki ki te kura māhita ki Ōākura i Te Taitokerau, i mua i tana hūnuku i 1955, ki Mount Eden Primary i Tāmaki. Nā tēnei ia i whai wāhi ki te whai i te Tohu Paetahi ki Auckland University College (nō muri mai ko Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki), kia āhei ia ki te whakapiki ake i tana tohu kura māhita. Nō te tīmatatanga i uru atu ia ki ngā akoranga Māori me te mātauranga tikanga tangata. Ahakoa kīhai tōna ngākau i hihiko ki tērā ako, ā, ka mutu kāore tonu ia i eke ki tā te tohunga.

Nō te 1962 i whakapōtaetia ia, ā, i hoki anō ki te kāreti kura māhita ki te whakaoti i tana tiwhikete kura māhita, ā, whāia ka noho hei pūkenga ki te Tari Māori atu i te 1962 tae rawa ki te 1966. Nō te 1964, i uru anō ia ki te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki ki te whai i te Tohu Paerua (MA) mātauranga tikanga tangata, nā i oti i a ia i te tau o muri iho. Anā kua hihiko katoa ia i konā ki te whai i te mātauranga, anā i uru atu ia ki te whai i Te Tohu Kairangi (PhD), ā, ko Tā Hugh Kāwharu rāua ko Ralph Piddington ōna kaitohutohu. Ko tāna kaupapa he rangahau i te hekenga a Ngāi Māori ki ngā taone nunui whai muri iho i te pakanga o te ao, me tā rātou whakatikatika anō i a rātou ki te noho taone nunui, ko tōna aronga pū i whakawhāiti tonu ki runga ki te taone pū o Ōtara. Nō te 1967 i whakaae ia ki tētahi tūranga pūkenga mō te rua tau ki te Tari Mātauranga Tikanga Tangata, hei kairīwhi mō Bruce Biggs me te whakaako i tana kaupapa Māori nōna e ngaro ana, arā ko ngā pūrākau me ngā tikanga a te Māori. Nō te 1970 i kopoua ia e te whare wānanga hei pūkenga i te Ratonga Ara Mātauranga mō ngā Pakeke, kei raro i a ia ko ngā akoranga mātauranga hapori, me ngā kaupapa Māori mō ngā tauira pakeke. Ā, ka noho ia ki reira – ā he wā tōna, ka whakangā anō – tae rawa ake ki te tau 1985.

Activism and leadership

Taka rawa ki ngā tau mutunga o te 1960 kua mahuta ake ia ki te ao nui i te tiputanga nui ōna, o Ranginui Walker, hei mātanga, hei ihorei, hei tokatū-moana, hei kaiwhakapātaritari. I whakarākeitia ia ki ngā mātauranga me ngā kaupapa whakawhanake tōrangapū i Aotearoa, otirā puta ki te ao whānui. I roto i tana whai i te mātauranga i heipū ia ki ngā mahi a ngā kaiwāwāhi rapunga whakaaro mō tēnei mea te mana motuhake pērā i a Paulo Freire rātou ko Ivan Illich, ko Saul Alinsky, me tāna kite i te pitomata o te mātauranga hei taiaha mōna mō roto i ngā whakauenga riri mō te mana Māori Motuhake. Nāwai rā ka mārama pū ia ki ngā āhuatanga tōrangapū o te ao mātauranga a te Pākeha, arā kīhai i noho wāriu kore, i noho kaikiri kore anō hoki. Nō reira, hai tāna me whakarite tērā mātauranga o te Pākehā kia rite ki te umu pokapoka a Tūmatauenga hei rūnanga i te whakaaro, hei kura-wānanga i te āhureinga, hei whakamana i te mana Māori motuhake, hei whakarauora i te iwi Māori. I tātakina a Ranginui e Frantz Fanon me wōna tautohetohe e pā ana ki te horohoroinga atu i te pākehātanga kia whakamāoritia anō a Ngāi Māori, i wā Freire kōrero kia motukia ngā ioka whakapononga o ngā kaupapa tuku iho, i wā Antonio Gramsci kōrero e pā ana ki te kaikiri o ngā whare pēnei i te ao pāpāho ki te raupatu i ngā whakaaro me te muru i ngā whakapono o te Māori kia rite ki wō te Pākehā. I pūmau tōna whakapono ki ēnei iho pūmanawa ōna me wō rātou whakapono, ā tae noa ki tōna mutunga i tana mahi whakaako i ngā whare wānanga ā, haere ake. Hei taiaha whakapātaritari mōna, i tīkina atu ko wā Gramsci taututetutenga ki ngā kāwanatanga e pā ana ki wā te kāwanatanga tikanga ki te tohu tāngata Māori ki ngā tūranga teitei, e karangatia ana e ia ‘ko ngā rangatira kūpapa’ mō tō rātou kore e paku pakanga ki te ao Pākehā, mā reira rā anō i whakapau ia i ōna kaha katoa kia rūmakina wōna tauira, kia matatau ake ki ngā take huhua noa atu e pā ana ki te iwi Māori.2

He mea nui anō hoki ki a ia ko tāna whai wāhi ki ngā kaupapa tōrangapū a Ngāi Māori o roto o Tāmaki, he kāinga tērā i tipu nui ai tā te Māori whakatakariri, hūneinei, ātete ki te kaikiri o ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga me āna tikanga whakahaere e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori, me ngā rawa Māori hoki, me te ahurea o te iwi Māori. Nō te tutukitanga i a ia tana Tohu Kairangi (PhD), nā tōna matua kēkē a Matiu (Matt) Te Auripo Te Hau te kōrero ki a ia ko ia hei heketari hou mō te Kaunihera Māori ā Rohe o Ākarana, he rohenga nō te Kaunihera Māori o Aotearoa, he mea waihanga e te ture, ko tāna he toko i te ora o Ngāi Māori, ā, koia hoki hei māngai ki te kāwanatanga. He tauhou a Ranginui ki ngā whakahaere tōrangapū Māori pēnei. He mea whānako moni tā te heketari o mua, anā i pīrangitia a Ranginui hei whakakī i te tūranga nā te mea he tangata tōtika, ā he motukā anō hoki tōna (he wāriu nui tonu tō tērā, tō te motukā i waua wā). He mema ia ki te Kaunihera Māori ā Rohe o Ākarana mai i te tau 1969 ki te 1973, ā ko ia te Heamana mai i te tau 1974 ki te tau 1989.

Kīhai i rāhuitia ngā mahi a te Kaunihera Māori ā Rohe o Ākarana ki ngā hāpori Māori o Tāmaki anake; ka puta te rongotoa o te Kaunihera nei. Ko Ranginui te iho pūmanawa, te kaitiaki i te ahi kōmau o wērā kaupapa. Nāna i para te ara o riri-whakauaua, o riri whakanekeneke mō Ngāi Māori noho taone nunui me ngā kaunihera Māori, hāunga anō ngā kaunihera Māori ā Rohe kei ngā marae kāinga he noho pūmau ki ngā kaupapa tuku iho. Ko wāna mahi ki te Kaunihera Māori ā Rohe o Ākarana, he taura-ā-roto ki ngā rōpū pēnei i te Rōpū Māori Tautika Tangata (Māori Organisation on Human Rights), ā, ki Te Matakite o Aotearoa, ko ngā pakihiwi kaha ēnei o taua wā ko ngā kaiwhakaturuki i te tino rangatiratanga, arā hoki, ki te whakatūtū taua a te Māori hai tātaki i ngā take whakatumatuma. Ka noho ko te kaunihera hai taumata, hai paepae tapu mō ngā matakite me ngā kara a Ranginui ki te whawhai mō te tino rangatiratanga, mō te mana Māori Motuhake, arā, nā Ngāi Māori mō Ngāi Māori, me te whakarauoratanga o ngā tikanga a te Māori me te tūranga a te kāwanatanga.

He wāhanga matua tō te tiputanga nui o te mana o Ranginui i roto i ngā take tōrangapū Māori, anā i tinana i te tau 1970, ā, nāna i whakatū te Hui Taumata Manukura Rangatahi (Young Māori Leaders Conference) i raro i te maru o te Kaunihera Māori, i raro anō ki tōna tūranga mahi ki te Ratonga Ara Mātauranga mō ngā Pakeke. Ko te tāhuhu o te hui ko te noho a te Māori ki ngā taone nunui me te unu i te ioka whakapononga o te Māori ki te kāwanatanga. Ko wētahi i tae ake pēnei i a Syd rāua ko Hana Jackson kua hōhā marika ki te noho ki raro i te pūnaha kaunihera Māori e tautokongia ana e te kāwanatanga,nā reira i wānangatia ai te whakatūtanga o tētahi rōpū hou hei whakaara ake i ngā take whawhai mō te iwi Māori. I reira a Ranginui, ā hai tāna, nāna anō te ingoa ‘Ngā Tamatoa’ i tapa, hoi anō, kua kī atu anō wētahi nā rātou kē, ā kāti. Nā Ranginui tonu te kōrero: ‘He ngākau whakauka tāku i taua wā, i whai wāhi ahau ki te pūnaha … anā i te kōrero ui makihoi rātou ki a rātou anō [Ngā Tamatoa] mō te tino rangatiratanga, te mana Māori motuhake, me ngā take Mangu Kaha … Ki owahau nei, he kura i whanake, he kura nui tēnei mōku ki te tātaki i tērā hui taumata’.3 Nā tēnei anō i kite a Ranginui, i rongo a Ranginui, i ako a Ranginui i te rerekē o ngā rōpū pēnei i te Kaunihera Māori i whakahē atu mā te tuhi reta, mā ngā petihana, me ētahi atu huarahi. Nā te upoko pakaru o ngā rōpū whawhai mō te mana Māori Motuhake i whakangungua a Ranginui ki te ao torangapū.

Nō te tau 1979, nā Ranginui i whakahaere he wānanga ki Ngāruawāhia hai whakarauora i te Rōpū Wātene Māori ka aua atu tāna manawa kiore i taua wā. Hei whakaaraara, hei mauri ohooho i ngā Wātene Māori, i riro i a ia he $50,000 i te Minita Take Māori i a Ben Couch. Nō taua wā tonu kua tū te kaupapa a Kara Puketapu, ko Tū Tangata, arā ko te kaupapa mā te hapori anō te hapori e tātaki, ko reira i pūhou anō ai ngā Wātene Māori ki te kawe anō i wāna anō mahi, ki te tiaki i te iwi Māori me ngā hapori whānui.

Te Kaitākupu me Te Kaiwhakakakau-kupu

He reo whakatakē tō Ranginui e pā ana ki ngā tōrangapū whakatūpehupehu, e pā ana ki te tuakiri me te manatika i ngā tau 1970 tae rawa ake ki ngā tau 1990. He rākaukawa ki te tuhi, ki runga pouaka whakaata, reo irirangi, he pūkōrero whakahirahirarākaukawa i ngā kaupapa me ngā tūmanako o Ngāi Māori. He kanohi kitea i ngā pāpāhotanga o ngā take Māori, he kaitākupu taikaha, mārama hoki, ā, me uaua ka kore e mōhiotia, he aha rawa wōna whakaaro. He wā anō tonā, nā tēnei āhuatanga wōna i tukituki a Ranginui ki ngā mana maunga nui pēnei i te Pirimia a Robert Muldoon me ngā mema o tōna kāwanatanga.

I whakahē tūmatawhānuitia e Ranginui ngā whiu tōrangapū ki runga ki ngā iwi manene o Te Moana nui a Kiwa me te whakaparahako i a rātou ki te ingoa hahani, ‘overstayer’, me tana tautoko i ngā rōpū pēnei i te Auckland Committee on Racism and Discrimination (ACORD) me tā rātou whakatakē i te kaikiri o te Pākehā. I tāwharautia e ia te mana o Ngāti Whātua ki runga o Takaparawhau, he matā-kai-kutu, he matakīrea a ia mō Ngāi Tauira Māori me Ngāi Tauira nō Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, arā ‘He Taua’, ki te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki i te tau 1979, nā te haka whakaparahako a ngā tauira Pākehā. Ko ia a maruwehi ki te whakahē i te haerenga mai o te tīma Springbok i te tau 1981, ko ia hoki i whakamārama ki a Aotearoa whānui he aha i mana nui ai te hikoi i te tau 1984. Ko ia te kaiwhakaako nui i ngā tāngata o Aotearoa i mātau ai rātou ki wēnei take kaikiri.

Ko te paepae kōrero o Ranginui he mana nui ki te hapori, arā ko wāna tuhituhi pērā ki ngā pukapuka maheni rongonui ko te New Zealand Listener (1973–90), me te Metro (1993–97). Nāōna wheako e pā ana ki ngā take nunui me ngā hapori, i tareka ai e ia te tuhi me te mea nei he kuku-ā-mata. He huhua ngā kaupapa moroki noa nei nāna i tuhi pēneki i ngā whiu whakataurekareka a ngā pirihimana, ngā kupu whakahāwea a ngā mema paremata, ngā mahi kaikiri a ngā mana whakahaere tūmatanui, me ngā pūrongo hē, ngā pūrongo whakawetiweti a te ao pāpāho ki ngā take Māori. I mātua tuhi ia mō te pānga moroki o Te Tiriti o Waitangi me ngā pānga o ngā ture Pākehā ki te iwi Māori. Ko ngā hua o te paepae kōrero o Ranginui, e ai ki ngā kupu a te Kaietita a David Beatson o te Listener, ‘he tirohanga mārama’, ‘he mea maninohea, he mea whakaako’, engari oti ‘i noho tēnei hei paepae whakapuaki i tēnei ao mōrikarika.’4 Ko wēnei tuhituhi a Ranginui he mea āta whakamārama, he mea āta whakaako i te hohonutanga o ngā take Māori, i ngā kūrakuraku, i ngā moemoeā.

Hei āpititanga anō mā Ranginui ki āna atikara me āna tuhinga whare wānanga, i tīmata ia ki te karawhiu i te pene ki te tuhi tuhingaroa e tika ana hai whakaputa pukapuka māna. I whakaputaina e ia ngā tuhingaroa tiketike e pā ana ki te ahurea me ngā tikanga Māori mō ngā kohikohinga a Michael King kua etitatia arā ko Te ao hurihuri (1975) me Tihei mauri ora (1978), me wētahi o wāna tuhituhinga Listener i whakaputaina ki Ngā tau tohetohe: years of anger (1987). He kohikohinga i wētahi o wāna atikara Metro me wētahi atu tuhinga āna i kohikohia ki roto ki Ngā pepa a Ranginui: the Walker papers (1996). Waihoki ko Ka whawhai tonu matou: struggle without end (1990 i whakahoutia i te 2004), ko tōna pukapuka tūturu tuatahi tēnei, i reira i kite ai i tōna iho pūmanawa hai tohunga tuhituhi, hītōria, tohunga ihorei ki ngā take tōrangapū e pā ana ki te tino rangatiratanga me te whakataurekarekatanga a te iwi Pākehā i te iwi Māori ki āna ture kaikiri. He tatau tēnei pukapuka ki te ao Māori, he koruru tēnei ki te tirohanga Māori, ki ngā tāhuhu kōrero o tenei whenua, ki ōna pūrākau, ki tōna whakapapa nō mua , nō muri i te taenga mai a te Pākehā, me tāna whakapākehātanga i a Ngāi Māori, me ngā tautohetohe o ngā tekau tau 1970 me te 1980. I whakaatu te pukapuka nei, i te rautau tekau mā iwa he mea āta whakarite, āta kōkiri e te kāwanatanga me te tuku i ōna ope taua ki te takahi i te mana o te iwi Māori kia whakamatea rawatia. . Ahakoa tēnā, i mau tonu te iwi Māori ki te riri whakamau a Tūmatauenga ki te iwi Pākehā me tōna kāwanatanga. Ka noho ko Ka whawhai tonu mātou te pukapuka i hau ai te rongo o Ranginui i roto i te kōputu mātauranga o Aotearoa, kāti tonu, koianeki hai Paipera Tapu mō Aotearoa me te ao whānui e pā ana ki ngā hītōria me ngā take tōrangapū ki tēnei whenua o Aotearoa.

Ka mātai tonu te titiro a Ranginui ki te kāwanatanga me ngā mana whakahaere o te motu me tā rātou tītīni i ā rātou tikanga whakahaere e mārama ai rātou, e mahi tahi ai rātou ki te iwi Māori. I taunuhia e ia te kāwanatanga a Reipa o ngā tau 1980 me ōna whakakāhoretanga, me ōna whakahoutanga i ngā ture me ngā whiunga kino o wēnei ture hou ki runga ki te iwi Māori. I nui te aronga o wāna tuhituhi ki ngā pāekeeketanga me ngā pāhekeheketanga a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, te hūnukutanga o te Tari Māori ki Te Puni Kōkiri, ngā panonitanga ā-ture pēnei i te State-owned Enterprises Act 1986, me te pūnaha kōauta hou mō ngā Tini a Tangaroa. Nō ngā tau mutunga o ngā 1980 i māharahara nui a Ranginui mō te āheitanga o te iwi Māori ki te whai hua i ngā kaupapahere a te kāwanatanga i runga anō i tōna tukutanga atu i wētahi o wōna mana whakahaere, me ngā tika me ngā haepapa ki ngā rūnanga me ngā poari kaitiaki Māori: ‘Nā te rawakore o te iwi Māori me te whakapapa o… nā te kore tuku a te kāwanatanga i te pūtea e tika ana, ko te rautaki o taua wā [ko te tuku i te mana ki ngā rūnanga] he rautaki whakarangirua, he rautaki mōrearea kē tērā ki te iwi Māori’.5 I nukuteretere ia ki roto i te kāwanatanga ki te rapa i ngā kaupapahere e tika ana, me ngā tukanga whakahaere e pai ake ana, me te tohenihorau kia whakaaetia, kia whakamanatia hoki Ngā Mana Whakahaere Māori i raro i te mana Māori Motuhake.

Kīhai a Ranginui i aro atu ki te rōpū tōrangapū Māori, ko Mana Motuhake, i tōna tīmatatanga ake i ngā tau mutunga o te tekau tau 1970, engari hai tāna he pitomata tō te pūnaha pōti MMP, i tīmataria i te tau 1996, ka hua, ka tini noa atu ngā mema Māori ki rō Pāremata. Nō te tau 1996, i pau monemone katoa ngā tūru Māori e rima i a Aotearoa Tuatahi, engari i whakapae a Ranginui he tautieki rawa te pāti me tana mānukanuka i tōna moenga tahitanga ki a Nāhinara hai kāwanatanga. I whakatakēngia e ia ngā Mema Māori te āhua nei i whakapau i ngā pūtea kāwanatanga mō rātou anake te painga, i whakaatu rānei i tō rātou kūare ki ngā tikanga Māori me ngā kawa Māori.

He matakōkiri a Ranginui ki te ao mātauranga, tuatahi hei mema o te kāhui, whāia ka tū ia hei manukura o te poari whakamana, arotake hoki i ngā tohu mātauranga, ki roto i te Mana Tohu Mātauranga o Aotearoa (matāwhanga i te āheinga o te tangata ki te hoki tuarua anō ki te ako). I whakaaengia tēnei tūranga e ia, tuatahi hai whakawhānui i tāna mahi ki roto i te ao mātauranga, tuarua hai māngai mō ngā hāpori Māori e pā ana ki te whakarato i ngā tūāhuatanga mātauranga. Nāna i arotake Te Whare Takiura o Manukau i te tau 1999 (whāia ka noho ko ia te Amorangi, ā koiaraka hai mema o tōna kaunihera) me Te Whare Wānanga o Ōtākou i te tau 2001. Nōna e mema ana ki te pae whakamana i ngā tohu, i tareka e Ranginui te whiu i ngā urupounamu e pā ana ki te whakamahinga o ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi e te whare wānanga, e pā ana ki ngā rauemi me ngā kaupapa here, anō hoki ki te kuramahora i ngā mātauranga e tika ana hei hora ki te iwi Māori. He pakihiwi kaha ia mō te Kawa Whakaruruhau mō ngā mātauranga e pā ana ki ngā mahi a ngā nēhi. Ko ia hoki te matā kai kutu i hauhau ai i ngā tikanga Māori ki ngā kura tākuta, mātua ki te Kura Ratao Tāmaki. I tohenihorautia e ia he aha ngā tūmomo āhuatanga me whakatinana hai whakatutuki i ngā pīrangi o te iwi Māori mō roto i te mātauranga, engari i mātua whakatumatuma hoki wētahi o ngā wānanga Māori me mātua toherauariki anō hoki wā rātou paerewa kia tiketike tonu te taumata. Kāre hoki i hūnaia e Ranginui te ngangaunga a te kupu o tōna arero, ka kaikai taringatia e ia, ahakoa hoki ko wai te tangata, ko wai anō te iwi.

Ngā tau o muri

I kopoua e te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki a Ranginui hai ahorangi tūhono ki te Tari Māori hou i te tau 1986, ā, i korowaitia a ia ki te kahu o te ahorangi i te tau 1993. Nō te tau 1997, nōna e kukume mai ana i te pae o pēperekou kia tina, i meatia ki a ia te tūranga Tūmuaki Māori ki te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki, te tuatahitanga o te tūranga pēnei te kuratawhiti. E rua tau ōna ki tēnei tūranga, i te wā i tāoki ia i te whare wānanga i te tau 1998, anā i amokapuatia ake a Ranginui ki runga hai amorangi hōnore. I whakaarikitoatia ai a ia e te kāwanantanga mō wāna mahi nunui ki te hōnore Distinguished Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit i te tau 2001, me te uhi atu i a ia ki te Tohu a Te Pirimia mō te ringakino i roto i ngā mahi tuhituhi i te tau 2009. Nō te tau 2012 i whakaingoatia ia e te Whare Wānanga o Tamaki hai Matararahi Kura Tahito.

Tua atu i ngā tau 1990 ka tahuri a Ranginui ki te amo i tōna ake anō iwi i a Te Whakatōhea, mārekereke ana ko te whai kia mātua whakatutukihia te kerēme raupatu a te iwi. Ka noho koiaraka hai ūpokotātaki mō te kerēme raupatu a Te Whakatōhea i te tau 1994, ā, atu i te tau 1996 ki te tau 1998, ā, he mema hoki a ia nō Te Poari Kaitiaki Māori o Te Whakatōhea. Nō muri kē mai i tana rītaiatanga, i tarea e ia te aro pū ki ngā take a te iwi, hoi anō, i manawapā anō hoki ia, hai tāna, ki ngā take hōnorekore. Ka aua atu tāna kaioraora ki wētahi o tōna iwi tonu, whanaunga tonu i ngā take huhua. I tuhia e ia he pukapuka e pā ana ki ngā kōrero taketake ake nō te iwi, ko Ōpōtiki-Mai-Tawhiti: capital of Whakatōhea, i te tau 2007.

I tīmata a Ranginui ki te āta pōkai i tana takapau wānanga i te ngahuru tau tuatahi o te rautau e rua ngahuru mā tahi, hāunga anō, nō tōna āhua pukumahi anō, me wāna tikanga mahi hoki, ā, kīhai rawa i tutuki i a ia tōna takapau te pōkai. Arā, i hākari nuitia ia e te mahi a te tangata hai whakatewhatewha i te au o ngā tikanga tangata, me te ia hoki o ngā tikanga Māori ki Aotearoa, hai reo hoki ki ngā kaupapa tūmata-whānui. Nō te wā o te au kukume, o ngaru hinga atu, o ngaru hinga mai o te takutai moana i te tau 2003-04, i whakaputaina e te Listener tētahi tuhinga tino tapu rawa atu nā Ranginui. I tētahi reta kōhera ki ngā manukura o ngā pāti tōrangapū (kauaka ki a Winitana Pita, he uri hoki ia nō Mātaatua waka rā anō hoki), nāna i tuhi: ‘Kua kotahi mano tau owahau i konei. Nōnā noa nei rawa koe.’6 Hai rangatira ariki o Te Whakatōhea, nāna rātou i tātaki ki te kupu tawhito,mō te iwi o ngaro whenua, o ngaro mana.

Nōna e rītaia ana, nāna i tuhi ngā haurongo o Apirana Ngata (He tipua, 2001) me tōna hoa aroha a Paki Harrison (Tohunga whakairo, 2008). Ka kopoua ia hai mema ki Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 2003, i mahi ia i ngā pakirehua o Wairarapa ki Tararua, o Whanganui me Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Te Taitokerau). Nā tēnei ake ka nui ake tana whai tāima ki tōna whānau ake, ā, ka Hawaiki-pēpeke ina tarea e ia ki tōna anō Hawaiki-haumanu, ki tōna whare ki Whananaki, Te Taitokerau, ki reira hī ika ai, whakateretere waka ai, whakapeto ngoi, whakapiki hau.

He mea whakahirahira te moetanga a Ranginui ki a Deidre, nāna nei ia i tautoko, nāna nei ia i tohutohu. Nā Deidre tonu te kōrero, tē aro i a Ranginui ngā take a te wahine, me te āmine marika mai o tā rāua tamāhine ki tēnei. He matua ia rā ia, he kī tahi, he taikaha, he tapu tōna nā tana pukumahi tonu, ā he tangata hoki ia nō te ao, arā i whakapau katoatia e ia tōna katoa ki tēnei ao matemate. Ko Deidre te rātā whakaruruhau, te kōhatu o te kaha me te puna o te aroha ki te whānau, me ngā hoa.

Nō te 29 o Pepuere 2016 i mate ai a Ranginui ki Tāmaki, e 83 tau tōna pakeke, i mahue pouaru nei ko Deirdre me wā rāua tamariki i pani nei. I takoto ia ki runga o Ōrākei Marae, ki reira tōna tangihanga, kātahi ka tahuna tōna tinana ki a Mahuika ki te urupā o Purewa. Nā Te Kahautu Maxwell (Te Whakatōhea) te kupu i tana tangihanga: ‘Koiaraka ko Ranginui te tāhurihuri, nāna i tohenihorau tōna ora me tonā wairua ki te pakanga mō tō mātou mana Motuhake … me te takahurihuri i ngā whakaaro o Ngāi Pākehā … kia matatau ai ki te Tiriti’.7

Kupu tāpiri
  1. H. Sadler. ‘Dr Ranginui Walker, 1932–2016’. Wellington City Libraries rangitaki, 10 March 2016 https://www.wcl.govt.nz/blog/index.php/2016/03/10/dr-ranginui-walker-1932-2016/. Ki muru
  2. R. Walker. ‘Māori conceptions of leadership and self-determination.’ Spoonley. Mata toa: the life and times of Ranginui Walker. Tāmaki-makau-rau, 2009: 60. Ki muru
  3. I takoto ki Spoonley. Mata toa: 80. Ki muru
  4. D. Beatson roto R. Walker. Nga tau tohetohe: years of anger. Tāmaki-makau-rau, 1987: 9. Ki muru
  5. R. Walker. ‘Runanga: recipe for confusion.’ New Zealand Listener. 25 July 1987: 74. Ki muru
  6. R. Walker. ‘Dear Crown.’ New Zealand Listener, 4–10 October 2003: 34. Ki muru
  7. I takoto ki ‘Ranginui Walker farewelled at Orakei Marae in Auckland’. Stuff, 4 March 2016. https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/77554489/ranginui-walker-farewelled-at-orakei-marae-in-auckland. Ki muru
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Spoonley. 'Walker, Ranginui Joseph Isaac', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2024. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/6w8/walker-ranginui-joseph-isaac (accessed 13 June 2024)