Kōrero: Te Wīata, Īnia Mōrehu Tauhia Wātene Iarahi Waihuihia

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Te Wiata, Inia Morehu Tauhia Watene Iarahi Waihurihia

1915–1971

Nō Ngāti Raukawa; he kaiwaiata, he kaiwhakairo, he tangata pūkenga

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Beryl Te Wiata,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 2000.

Nō te 10 o Hune i te tau 1915 i whānau ai a Īnia Mōrehu Tauhia Wātene Iarahi Waihurihia Te Wīata (ko Te Iwiata kē te īngoa tūturu) i Ōtaki. Ko ōna mātua nei ko Wātene Te Wīata rāua ko tana wahine, ko Constance Helena Johnson, ko tōna īngoa anō hoki ko Kone (Connie) Papi Nīkora. He Kōtimana, he Māori nei tōna pāpā nō Ngāti Raukawa, ā, he tātai heke mai nei tō tōna māmā i Huitene. I te matenga atu o Wātene Te Wīata i te urutā rewharewha o 1918, kaha ana te ngaki oranga ake o tōna whaea, he horoi kaka, mahi ā-whare, whakapai tari nei āna mahi. E waru tau te pakeke o Īnia ka moe tana māmā i a Pāneta Te Waaka Naihi, inarā, he mea karanga anō ia ko Barnet Waaka. Hoi anō i tonoa atu a Īnia ki ngā whanaunga o tōna pāpā, ki a Rākate rāua ko Pairoroku Rikihana, noho ai.

He tāngata ahu māra te mahi a ngā Rikihana, ā, i mua o te haerenga, o te hokinga mai rānei o Īnia i te kura, he miraka kau, he kato manga, he kohikohi, he tapahi tāwhaowhao mai i te ākau wāna mahi. Nā te tamāhine a ngā Rikihana, nā Mihi ngā tamariki i whakatipu, ā, i kaha tonu te mau o tana whakaako i ana tamariki ki ngā mahi puoro. I te kura tuatahi o Ōtaki me te kāreti Māori o Ōtaki (Ōtaki Native College) a Īnia e kuraina ana. He wahine tino pūkenga a Pairoroku ki ngā tikanga Māori, ā, he kite nōna i te hiahia manawanui mai o Īnia, i tika tonu te meinga i a ia kia akona ki te whakapapa. I whakatipua mai a Īnia ki te kōrero Māori, ēngari i tōna taenga atu ki te kura tuatahi noho ake ana he ako, kōrero Pākehā anake te mahi.

Nō te ekenga o ngā tau o Īnia ki te tekau mā whā i tīmata ai tana waiata i te momo waiata nei o te kaiwaiata panguru. Tukua mai ana ia ki roto i te tino rōpū tokotoru nei, arā ko Hēnare Tāhiwi, ko Wī Nicholls, me te tungāne o Mihi, me Dan. Nō tēnei wā i tapaina a ia ki te īngoa nei o ‘Happy’. Nō te tau 1932 i rongo ai te minita nei a Te Hīmoa (A. J. Seamer), nāna nei i whakatū te koaea Māori o te Mīhana Metoriti (Methodist Māori Mission Choir), i te reo panguru tino kaha nei o Īnia e waiata mai ana i te tira rōreka o te whare karakia o Rangiātea. Whakanōhia ana a Īnia e Te Hīmoa hei kaiwaiata hīanga, hei mema anō hoki mō te tira rōreka, tekau mā waru marama e haerea ana e rātou a Aotearoa. Nā te tino pīrangitia o te rōpū i whakawhiti atu ai rātou ki Ahitereiria, tekau mā waru marama nei tō rātou roa ki reira.

I tēnei wā, hāunga anō te whakamīharotanga ki a Te Wīata mō tōna pai ki te waiata, ēngari pērā anō te whakaaro mō tōna rawe ki te whakairo me te whakaahua. Kāore i kitea he tangata hei whakaako i a ia ki te whakairo, ēngari i a ia i te kura tuatahi he mea whakataki e ia ngā whakaahua o ngā whare nui o te Māori, ā, oti ana i a ia te kape ake aua whakairo nei. Taihoa rā, i te whakaurunga atu a te koaea o te mīhana Metoriti i te mahi mau taiaha i roto i ā rātou kōnohete, he pākarukaru tonu te mahi a ngā rākau, ka riro nei nā Īnia i whakairo ngā mea whakakapi tino rawe kē nei.

E tata atu ana ki te 20 tau te pakeke o Īnia ka whakaputa nei a Te Hīmoa i tana whakaaro ki ngā kaumātua o Ngāti Raukawa, kia tonoa a Īnia ki Tūrangawaewae hei whakatupu ake i tana mōhio ki te whakairo. Kitea ake ana hoki e Te Puea Hērangi te māiatanga o Te Wīata ki te whakairo, ka meinga atu a ia mā tana tino tohunga whakairo, mā Piri Poutapu e ako, ā, mā Te Puea tonu hoki e nuku atu ai ōna mōhiotanga ki tana taha Māori. Whakahautia ana hoki a Poutapu e Te Puea ki te hari atu i a Īnia ki ngā papa tongarewa i Pōneke (Wellington) me Ākarana (Auckland) hei tiro whakataki māna i ngā tauira o ngā taonga toi Māori, kātahi kē nei te ātaahua. E ai ki te whakapuakitanga a Poutapu, kātahi anō ka kitea e ia te tauira pēneki rawa te pai i a Īnia.

Nō te tau 1937 i tae mai a Te Hīmoa ki Ngāruawāhia ki te whakamōhio atu i tana hiahia nei ki a Īnia hei kaiwaiata hīanga māna, mō te koaea o te mīhana e huri haere atu ana i Ingarangi. Kāti nā te mea kua oti kē ia te waitohu hei kaiwhakairo mō Tūrongo, arā, mō te kāinga ake o Kīngi Korokī, i whakaaro ia ko te hiahia o tana iwi te mea tuatahi. Nō te 7 o Hune o te tau 1939 i Ngāruawāhia, i moea e ia a Rose Evelyn Friar, he mea karanga nei ko Ivy, hei whanaunga taiohi nei ki a Te Puea; tokoono wā rāua tamariki.

Noho ake ana a Te Wīata i te whare patu mīti o Horotiu, i runga hoki i ngā pāmu o te takiwā kāinga mahi ake ai. Nā te tino whakamīharo o tētehi tangata ahu pāmu ka rongo nei i a Te Wīata e waiata ana, ka whakaritea e ia ko tana tuakana, teina rānei te tangata hei whakarongo ki a Te Wīata, he ako nei tāna mahi ki te whakapuaki i te tangi o te reo; mea kau tonu atu tana whakarite māna a Īnia e ako, kāore he utu. He waiata whakangahau anō hoki te mahi a Īnia (inarā he wā mau ake kē ia i te īngoa nei o Happy Davidson) i ngā ‘kōnohete auahi’, arā, ngā kōnohete ‘kai paipa’ mō ngā hōia. He tangata nō Ākarana i tētehi o ngā kōnohete, ko Jack Grant tōna īngoa, ā, he tino tumeke nōna ki te pai o te reo o Te Wīata me te pai o tana whatārangi mai, i tohua a ia kia haere ki Kirikiriroa (Hamilton), kia akona a ia e te kaiwhakaako waiata nei, e James Patrick Lonergan, inarā he tino kaiwaiata panguru tonu nei ia. Kātahi hoki te kaiwhakaako tino pai kē nei ko tēnei, ēngari he rerekē nei tōna nei momo ako. Ina koa rā kāre kau he piana, me te kore mōhio hoki o Te Wīata ki te pānui puoro. Noho noa ana ko ngā oriori paki nei me ngā waiata Māori wā Īnia i ako ai. Hei aha hoki, he mea āta poipoi tonu e Lonergan te reo rangatira māhorahora tino pai kē nei o Te Wīata. Nā te whakamīharo nei o te mēa o Kirikiriroa, o Harold Caro ki te reo me te āhua o Te Wīata i tīmata ai tana kohikohi moni hei tiaki i te whānau a Īnia me ka tūpono nei tana whiwhi karahipi hei whakaako i a ia i tāwāhi. Mau tonu te waiata haere a Te Wīata i ngā kōnohete o ngā tāone pakupaku nei, me tana whakauru haere tonu ki ngā whakataetae waiata, riro haere tonu i a ia te paraihe tuatahi. Taro rawa ake i whakaritea he karahipi kāwanatanga māna, ā, mahue mai ana tana whānau i Aotearoa, ka rere atu nei ia mā runga kaipuke ki Rānana (London) i Ingarangi i te 17 o Āperira o te tau 1947.

I te kāreti puoro o Te Tokotoru Tapu (Trinity College of Music) a Īnia e whakamātau ana. Hoi anō ko te mate kē he tohutohu kaiwhakaako kē te mahi nui a te kāreti, ā, tata mahue ana te akoako nei i ngā kaiwaiata. Nā te mahi a te kaitohutohu i whakaritea mā Te Wīata i tata ngaro tonu atu tana reo māhorahora, i tiakina mai rā e Lonergan. I taua wā hoki, ka kaha kē nei te uaua o te mau i a Īnia o te ako i te kaupapa whakaōrua, ako hoki i te reo Itāriana me te reo Tiamana. Ahakoa tonu, oti katoa atu ana i a ia aua mahi rā.

Waimārie ana te tūpono noa atu o Īnia ki a Steuart Wilson o te reo irirangi o Peretānia (BBC) i whakawhitia atu ai a Te Wīata ki te kura ōpera o Joan Cross whakaakona ai. Hei whakatika ake i te hē mai rā o te whakaako i a Īnia i te kāreti puoru o Te Tokotoru Tapu, i mau tonu ai nā Wilson te mahi whakaako reo, whakaako tonu rā ia i a Te Wīata. Kitea ana te matareka o Īnia ki te mahi kaiwhakatū, ā, nō te tau 1950 i pū ai tana whakamātautau mō te whare roera mō te ōpera (Royal Opera House) i Covent Garden, kātahi anō nei ia ka waiata i te taha o te tira whakatangitangi. Nā te kore whai rārangi waiata nōna i kaha kē atu ai tana mahi, arā, i a ia i te kura he waiata wāhangahanga ōpera noa tana mahi. Ko te tūranga tuatahi i whakaritea mōna ko tēraka hei Kaikōrero mō The magic flute , nō te marama o Hānuere o te tau 1951 i rewa ake ai. Nō taua tau anō i waiata mai anō ia i ngā ōpera o The marriage of Figaro , me The p ilgrim’s progress a Ralph Vaughan Williams, tae atu ki a Billy Budd, te ōpera a Benjamin Britten.

I tana tau tuatahi i Covent Garden, ka tonoa ia kia hanga mai i tētehi ‘waitohu Māori’ mō mua o te āta o te whare karakia o Rangiātea hei whakakapi i te mea nā Kuini Wikitōria i tāpae atu. Whakahaerea ana e te kura roera mō te mahi mātuhi (Royal School of Needlework) te mahi nei, ā, i te whakatauira mai a Īnia, he mea waiho tonu ngā waitohu roera ki waenganui, me tēraka o Aotearoa i te taha mauī, me te auaha matua Māori i te taha matau.

I ngā wā e wātea mai ana ia i tana kirimina i Covent Garden, hau ana te rongo o Te Wīata, ka waiata nei ia ko tana kotahi. I Hune o te tau 1953, hei waitohu i te koroneihana o Kuini Erihāpeti Te Tuarua, i whakahaerea te ōpera a Britten, a Gloriana , i Covent Garden; waiatatia mai ana e Te Wīata te whakatūnga i āta tuhia nei e Britten māna. Nō te whakatūranga i te whakaminenga o Rhodesia me Nyasaland i te tau 1953, i tonoa mai te kamupene kia whakahaere i te ōpera nei, i a Glorian a me ērā atu anō ōpera ki Bulawayo. Ka tono mai nei a Te Wīata kia riro kē tōna tūnga i tētehi atu, ēngari kāore i whakaaetia e ngā mana whakahaere o Covent Garden. Tohe kē ana rātou, ahakoa tōna iwi, me ōrite tonu ngā whakarite mōna ki ērā atu o rātou anō o te tira ōpera.

Taihoa ake anō i taua tau, kāore a Te Wīata i whakahou i tana kanataraka hei kaiwaiata matua mō Covent Garden. Noho kaiwaiata takakau kē ana a Te Wīata, ka tīmata tana mahi i ngā whakakite puoro, mahi pikitia, mahi whakaari mai i runga i te reo irirangi, tae atu ki te waiata, me te mahi whakatū mai anō hoki i runga i te pouaka whakaata. Mau tonu i a ia te tūranga kaiwaiata manuhiri i Covent Garden me Sadler’s Wells, ā mate noa ia i te tau 1971.

Nō te tau 1959 i whakamutua tūturutia ai te mārena tuatahi a Te Wīata. Whāia hoki nō te 24 o Oketopa i moe nei rāua ko te kaiwhakatū nei o Aotearoa, ko Beryl Margaret McMillan, i Evesham i Worcestershire. Kotahi nei tā rāua tamāhine, ko Heather Rima nei te īngoa, i puta nei hei kaiwhakatū, hei kaiwhakangahau.

E rua nei ngā tino haereeretanga mai o Te Wīata ki Niu Tīreni nei i te tau 1958 me te tau 1962. Nō te tau 1957 i riro nāna i waiata te tūranga matua o te whakakite puoro o Broadway, ko The most happy fella te īngoa; i whakahokia anō e ia taua mahi i te whakaaturanga i Rānana i ngā tau 1960 me 1961. Whārahi ana anō hoki te haerea o te whenua o Rūhia (USSR) e ia, ki reira waiata haere ai. I ia wāhi i tae atu nei ia, manawarū ana te mihi a te tangata ki a ia, he whakaritea tonutia te mahi a tōna reo ki ngā tino kaiwaiata panguru tokorua nei o tērā whenua, ki a Chaliapin rāua ko Battistini, e mau tonu nei te whakawehi o ngā tāngata o taua whenua rā ki a rāua. I ōna wā anō o te tau 1963 i waiatatia e ia The rise and fall of the city of Mahagonny , whai atu i tēnā ko ia anō i te whakakite puoru nei, i Show boat i Johannesburg. Ahakoa ngā ture momotu iwi o te whenua o Āwherika ki te Tonga, pū kau ana te angitu o te tangata tohunga nei, o Te Wīata. Nō te tau anō i muri mai i hoki atu anō ia mō tētehi wā anō ki Show boat , ā, i hoki atu anō ia i te tau 1969 ka riro nei i a ia te tūranga matua o South Pacific. te whakaaturanga nei, o Porgy and Bess , he mea mahi mai nei e te kamupene ōpera o Aotearoa (New Zealand Opera Company). He ōpera tēnei he mea tuhi tonu mō te hunga kiri mangu o Amerika. Riro kē ana i te hunga Māori ngā tūranga matua o te whakahaere nei, e toru noa i riro i ētehi kē. E mārama tonu ana ki a Te Wīata te tikanga ake nei mō te taha ki te puoro Māori, ā, nā reira i kore ai ia i whakaae ki tētehi mahinga whakahira anō māna ki Rānana. Ruarua noa ngā kaiwaiata i mōhio ki te pānui puoru, ā, whakarongo ā-taringa kē ana tō rātou momo ako i te rangi. Ahakoa tēnei, taea ana te whakaputa mai a te kaiwhakahaere, a Ella Gerber rāua ko Te Wīata te taha nui pai kē nei o ngā kaiwhakaata. Mau tonu te pupuri a Te Wīata i te rōpū nei, kia kore e pakaru me tana mahi hoki ki te whakarite i ō rātou raruraru me ō rātou rīriri. Haere tonu hoki tana whakamahara atu i ngā kaiwaiata nei kātahi te wā nui ko tēnei e kitea ai he tino kaiwaiata tonu te Māori. Ahakoa ko tēhea te tāone, tāone nui rānei, te momoho kē nei o te whakaaturanga, o Porgy and Bess. Puta ana te mihi a Gerber, kāore i tua atu i a Te Wīata mō te wāhi ki a Porgy, me te mahi anō hoki i tōna taha. Pērā anō hoki te pai o te haere o te whakaaturanga nei ki Ahitereiria. Taihoa ake te whakatau anō hoki a Gerber i a Te Wīata ko Porgy i tētehi whakaaturanga anō i whakaatūria ai ki Iharaira. Tautokona ana e ngā mema kiri mangu katoa nei o Amerika te momo whakaatu a Te Wīata i a Porgy.

Nō te tau 1962 i rongo ai a Te Wīata e hiahiatia ana tētehi mahinga toi nei mā te paepae mō te whare hou nei, mō te tari kāwanatanga o Aotearoa (New Zealand House) kua tīmata kē te mahi whakatū i Haymarket i Rānana. Kāti he pouihi tonu tā Te Wīata i mea atu ia kia mahia, ā, māna tonu e whakatauira, e whakairo hoki. Nō te tau 1964 i tukua atu ai mā runga waka he rākau tōtara nei ki Rānana. Nō te ngahere mai o Pureora te rākau nei, e ono rau tau te tawhito. Whakaaetia ana e ngā pakeke o Tūrangawaewae te taowaru a Te Wīata, ahakoa te tino auaha kē nei o ētehi o ngā mahi, arā, te waihanga Pākehā kē nei o te āhua o ētehi o ngā tekoteko, ā, hāunga hoki whakahuaina tonutia mai ana e ia te momo whakairo o ngā iwi matua katoa.

Rahua tonutia ana a Te Wīata e ētehi uaua nei. I te rironga o te mahi nei i a ia e 30 tau kē te mutunga atu o tana mahi whakairo tūturu nei, ā, me he whakairo wāna i taua wā, he tuhi whakairo, pāpaku noa te kari a te whao. Ēngari i nāianei, e hōhonu ana te tapahi a te whao i te rākau, kua māmā, kua pai noa ki a ia te hanga mai i te tekoteko o Māui, e iwa putu te roa, he toa whakataetae kē nei tana hanga mai i te tinana, me tana hanga mārō mai anō hoki i ngā kikopuku. I a ia i tāwāhi e waiata ana, tuhia ake ana e ia ōna whakaaro hou i runga i ngā hīti whakatakanga, ki muri kē rānei i ngā whakatitonga puoru; pōkaikaha noa ana ia i ngā wā uruhina ai te tautauā, inarā, i te wā i a ia e ngaro atu ana kua rerekē nei tana whakaaro anō mō te āhua o ētehi o aua tekoteko rā.

Nō te tau 1966 i ūhia ai a Te Wīata ki te tohu MBE. I te tau 1968 i hoki mai ia ki Pōneke ki te hui whakataurima a Te Wīata (Te Wīata Festival), e waru wiki te roa, ka tutuki nei i a ia te mahi whakaari, kōnohete, ōpera hoki. Ko Awatea te īngoa o te whakaari a Bruce Mason i takina mai e ia, he mea tuhi tonu rā mōna te tūranga matua. Whakamaumahara ana tana whakakitenga mai, nāna i whakatangata mai te āhua o tētehi rangatira kāpō korokoroua nei. Hohoko ana tana whakaatu i te rangatira nei, ki ngā whakatangitangi takitahi, whai ake hoki i tana whakatangata anō i a Osmin i te ōpera nei a Mozart, i Il seraglio. E rua hoki ngā puka whakaemi nāna anō hoki i whakakōpae, ā, ko tētehi nei ko te tino whiti whakaari mā te takitahi noa nei, ko Māui’s farewell te īngoa.

I te tau 1970 ko ia anō te kaiwhakakite i te ōpera, i a Boris Gudanov me te ōpera hoki a Verdi, me Don Carlos i te whare roera mō te ōpera. Nō taua tau anō hoki i tukua atu ai e te rōpū kaitiaki mō te mahi whakangahau Māori o Aotearoa (New Zealand Māori Theatre Trust) me te Kaporeihana o te Reo Irirangi o Aotearoa (New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation) he rōpū whakakite, toru tekau mā rima te nui, ki Osaka i Hapana kia whakakau ake ai i te whakaaturanga nei, i Green are the islands. Nā te hīroki o te mahi a te kaitiaki o te whare tapere me ngā kaiwhakahaere o Ahitereiria toe mai ana ko Rūhia, ko Budapest me Ātene anake ngā wāhi i tae atu ai rātou, inarā, ko te tikanga kē he huri haere kē tā rātou i te ao.

I te hokinga atu o Te Wīata ki Rānana, tonoa mai ana ia hei whakakapi i te whakatūnga nei o Johann Strauss Pakeke i te ōpera nei, i The great waltz. Kāti, ia rā, ia rā, mau tonu tana mahi i te pouihi. I te wenewenetanga mō te āhua o te whakatū i te pouihi rā, riro ana i tā Te Wīata, te tata tonu o te tū wātea katoa ai o te pouihi. Ina koa tonu, i tīmata ai tana māuiui, ā, whakataua ana he mate pukupuku nō tana repe taiaki huka tana mate. Kāti rā, nō te 26 o Hune i te tau 1971 i hemo ai a Te Wīata.

I te matenga o Te Wīata ka oti te pouihi rā, hāunga ia te ihu waka kotahi. Whakaritea ana e ngā kātipa o te tari kāwanatanga kia whakahokia atu te pouihi ki Aotearoa hei mahi mai mā tētehi kaiwhakairo. E ai ki te kōrero a taua kaiwhakairo nei he mahi rakuraku noa tēnei nā te tangata, e mahara ana ia he mōhio nōna ki te whakairo. Ahakoa, riro mai ana i a Beryl Te Wīata te kī taurangi a te Pirimia, a Te Horioka (Keith Holyoake), me ko te whakarite me whakaoti te mahi nei, kāti me tono tonu atu ko Piri Poutapu hei whakaoti. Taro rawa ake i oti te pouihi nei i ngā tama tokorua a Te Wīata, he mea whakaoti rā i raro i te whakahaere a Piri Poutapu.

Kāore i tarea te tūpāpāku o Te Wīata te whakahoki mai ki Aotearoa tāpuke ai; hāunga koa kei te urupā o te Whare Karakia o Rangiātea i Ōtaki ana pungarehu e takoto ana. I tētehi hui karakia whakamaharatanga i te Whare Karakia o St Martin-in-the-Fields i te marae o Trafalgar i rongo ai te whakaminenga i tētehi huihuinga waiata Māori rahi tonu nei, whāia ake i muri i rangona anō hoki e rātou ētehi o ngā mema o te kamupene o te whare roera mō te ōpera me ērā anō hoki o ngā kaiwhakaatu o te ōpera nei, o The great waltz. Nō muri i tōna matenga atu i whakakorea ai e ngā kaiwēteri o te Whare Karakia o Rangiātea te whakatū i tētehi waharoa kawanga, nō te tau 1958 i whakatauiratia ai e Te Wīata. Ko te kaupapa o te tauira nei ko tētehi whakaaro o te Māori mō te hanganga o te ao, ā, riro kē ana te waharoa nei i te marae o Tūrangawaewae.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Beryl Te Wiata. 'Te Wīata, Īnia Mōrehu Tauhia Wātene Iarahi Waihuihia - Te Wiata, Inia Morehu Tauhia Watene Iarahi Waihurihia', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5t12/te-wiata-inia-morehu-tauhia-watene-iarahi-waihurihia (accessed 22 October 2019)