Kōrero: Te Heuheu Tūkino VI, Hoani

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Heuheu Tukino VI, Hoani

1897–1944

Nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa; he ariki, he tumuaki poari kaitiaki

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

Ko Hoani Te Heuheu Tūkino – ko Hoani Te Rerehau, ko John Heuheu rānei ētehi o ōna īngoa – te mea pōtiki o ngā tamariki tokorima a Tūreiti Te Heuheu Tūkino V o Ngāti Tūwharetoa rāua ko tana wahine, ko Te Rerehau Kahotea (ko Mere Te Iwa Te Rerehau tētehi anō o ōna īngoa). Ko te hapū tūturu o te whānau o Te Heuheu ko Ngāti Tūrumakina, e noho mai rā i Waihī me Tokaanu i te taitonga o te moana o Taupōnui-a-Tia (Taupō). He pākanga anō hoki o Hoani ki ētehi atu o ngā hapū o taua rohe, ā, kei te taha hoki ki tōna whaea tōna pānga ki ngā hapū o te raki, tae noa ki ngā iwi o Ngāti Maniapoto rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa.

I whānau a Hoani ki Waihī i te 25 o Oketopa i te tau 1897. He tino pononga ōna mātua nā te mīhana Katorika; ko te āhua nei i kuraina a Hoani ki te kura tuatahi o ngā none. Kāore i te takoto he kōrero mehemea i haere ia ki te kura tuarua, i aha rānei, ēngari nō muri iho i kīia he āta pai noa nei tōna reo Pākehā ahakoa āna reta katoa i tuhia ki te reo Māori.

I a ia e taiohi ana, i pau ōna rā i raro i te ātārangi o tōna matua, ko ia rā hoki tētehi o ngā tino tāngata rongonui o te ao Māori me te ao tōrangapū o taua wā. Ko te tikanga, ko te tuakana o Hoani, ko Hepi Kahotea kē hei taua i a Tūreiti, ēngari nā te urutā rewharewha o te tau 1918 ka mate a Hepi. Nō te matenga o Tūreiti i Hune o te tau 1921, ka riro tana taitara me tōna mana i a Hoani, ahakoa e rua tekau mā toru noa ōna tau. Nō te 24 o Tīhema o te tau 1922 ka moe rāua ko Raukawa Maniapoto, hei tamāhine mā Te Maniapoto rāua ko Wakahuia o Taupō. I te whare karakia Katorika i Waihī te mārenatanga. Tokoono ā rāua tamariki.

Hohoro tonu te ākina atu o Hoani hei kaihautū i ngā kaupapa taumaha e hōrapa ana ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. I te wā o tōna matua, he mea whakatatū he kirimina e tukua atu nei ki te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro (Tongariro Timber Company), te mana ki te tope rākau i runga i te nuinga o ngā whenua whakatipu rākau mai i Taupō tae atu ki Taumarunui. E ai ki te whakataunga, ka riro mā te kamupene rā e hanga he ara tereina, utu hoki i tētehi tiringa rahi tonu nei ki te hunga nō rātau te whenua. Nō muri i whakangohea ai te kirimina e ngā rōpū e rua nei. Tahi rā, whakaritea ana e te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro he kirimina i waenganui i a rātau ko te Kamupene Pouaka o Egmont (Egmont Box Company), kia whai moni ai hoki tērā hei utu mō te ara tereina. I roto hoki i tēnei o ngā kirimina te mana anō ki te whakatakaroa i te utu i ngā tiringa ki te hunga o Ngāti Tūwharetoa nō rātau te whenua. Nā te ture rawa i whakamana ngā whakahounga o te kirimina, he mea tautoko e Tūreiti i te tau 1919. Auau tonu te tōmuri o taua kamupene ki te utu i ngā moni; ēngari, ahakoa kōhikihiko nei tā rātou utuutu, i ngā tau atu ki 1926 inā kē te rahi o ngā tiringa i utua atu ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Ka taka ki te tau 1929, kua nama nui kē taua kamupene ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Nā te heke o te moni e puta ana hei tiringa me te raru haere tonu o ngā kamupene e rua rā, i tohe ai a Ngāti Tūwharetoa kia whakakorea ngā kirimina, me te whakahoki mai anō hoki i ngā whenua ki ngā kaiwhai pānga. Nā te rerekē o ngā utu e puta ake ana ki a Hoani mā, ka nama rātau ki ngā toa hokohoko mō ā rātau mea e hiahiatia ana, kīhai rā i taea te whiwhi i te mahi pāmu.

I taua wā anō, e araara ake ana te pātai a ngā Pākehā hī taraute – o Aotearoa nei me ō tāwāhi – pukuriri kē nei, he aha tēnei mana ki te tono utu a te iwi o Hoani mā, mō te mana o te tangata ki te haere ki te hī taraute. I ngā awa o Tongariro me Waitahanui tonu, inā kē te nui o te moni e utua ana ki ngā hapū me ngā tāngata nō rātau ngā whenua, me ka whakawhiti nei te hunga mahi taraute i aua whenua rā. Nō te tau 1924, tae noa ki te wā i tīmata ai ngā whiriwhiri a te Karauna rāua ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa, i aukatitia te hoko o ngā poraka whenua e awhi ana i te moana me ngā taha o ngā tino awa hī taraute ki tētehi atu i tua atu i te Karauna. Ko te whānau o Te Heuheu rātau ko ngā whanaunga tata nei, ko te whānau Grace, ngā whānau tokorua i whai pānga nui ki ngā whenua, ā, riro ana te tono a Hoani nā te kaihāpai i tuku atu kia unuhia te aukati i ōna whenua i Tauranga–Taupō.

Ko te tikanga me tīmata kē ngā kōrerorero mō ngā mana hī ika i Pēpuere o te tau 1925. Kātahi te mutunga mai o te tau tino uaua mō Hoani ko tēnei; tū ana ngā hui totohe a ngā hapū o te raki o Taupō i Tapuaeharuru me Mōkai; e ai ki te whakapae a ngā hapū tūturu o reira kua oti kē te whakatatū he kirimina i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me ngā iwi o Waihī–Tokaanu, kua riro nei i a rātau anake ngā painga. Ko tētehi take anō i whakatakariri ai rātau i hokona atu e Hoani me ērā atu anō o rātau o Waihī te mana hī ika o Tongariro ki a Robert Jones, te tangata nāna nei te toa i torotoro ai a Hoani. Ka takoto te petihana e whakahau ana kia whakaritea he waha kōrero mō ngā hapū o te raki ki ngā hui e pā ana ki te moana o Taupō, ā, me te tū anō hoki o te hui ki Taupō, kaua ki Tokaanu.

Mau tonu te kaikiri tae noa ki te rā o te hui ka tū nei ki te marae o Hoani i te 21 o Āperira i te tau 1926. Ka takoto te tono a te kāwanatanga kia tukua atu te mana o te moana o Taupō ki te Karauna hei rāhui, hei painga mō te katoa. Kāti, ko te whakahokinga a te Karauna hei painga mō te iwi o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, me tuku atu he pūtea moni, arā, £3,000 ia tau, me te whakatū anō hoki i tētehi poari kaitiaki mō Tūwharetoa hei whakahaere i te tahua rā. I kō atu i tēnā, me ka neke atu te moni ā-tau i te £3,000 e puta ake ana i ngā raihana me ngā whaina hī ika, he wāhanga hāwhe me riro i te poari kaitiaki. Ia tau hoki tukua ake ai e te Tari Taiwhenua (Department of Internal Affairs) ētehi raihana kore utu hei tuku atu ki ngā tāngata nā te poari kaitiaki i whakaīngoa. Ko te wāhi ki te Tari Taiwhenua, ka riro mā rātau te mana ki te tuku i ngā pukapuka whakaaetanga, tae atu ki te whakahaere i te mahi whakatū i ngā hōpuni hī ika, raihana hoki i ngā kaiwhakatere rōnihi. Ka whai wāhi te marea ki te taha moana, taha awa rānei o te rohe o Taupō, kotahi tīni (22 iāri) te whānui huri noa. Mā te poari hoki e tohu ngā wāhi rāhui o ō rātau whenua, kāore e wātea ana ki a wai noa. (Ahakoa te ngana tonu o Hoani, kāore anō kia kāhititia aua rāhui i te tau 1932.)

Kāore i roa, kua kitea tonutia te pōuri koa o Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki ētehi o ngā whakataunga. Ko tētehi o ngā tino kaupapa e ongaonga ana, ko te ngaronga o ngā utu e puta ana ki ngā hapū me te hunga i whai pānga ki ngā whenua i te taha o ngā awa o Tongariro me Waitahanui. Kāore e puta he moni kāpeneheihana ki tēnei hunga i roto i te moni ka utua nei e te Karauna ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. I pōwhiritia a Hoani ki Pōneke (Wellington) hei kōrerorero i ēnei kaupapa, ēngari whakatika atu ana ia, tonoa kētia ana kia tekau mā rua ngā kanohi katoa hei haere, kotahi mō ia hapū nui e noho atu ana i te taha o te moana, ā, me te riro anō hoki mā te kāwanatanga e utu te haere me te noho ki Pōneke. Hui ana a Hoani rātau ko ērā atu o ngā māngai tekau mā tahi me ngā kaikōrero a te kāwanatanga i Pōneke i te 23 o Hūrae. Ka puta te kupu oati a te kāwanatanga ki te whakaara taraipiunara hei whiriwhiri i te nui o te moni kāpeneheihana ki te hunga e noho kau ana i ngā paretai o ngā awa. Nō te 26 o Hūrae i te tau 1926, i hainatia ai e Hoani te kirimina whakamutunga.

Ahakoa rā, haere tonu ngā taunu. Rere ana ngā uiui wero a ētehi, nō hea mai te mana o Hoani ki te haina i te whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka e tuku ana i a Taupō ki te kāwanatanga, arā tonu te tokomaha o Ngāti Tūwharetoa e whakahē ana rā i te tuku. Ahakoa tonu, whakataua ana te ture tuku atu i te mana o Taupō me ngā awa ki te Karauna, me te ture whakatū i te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa (Tūwharetoa Trust Board). I te hui tuatahi a taua poari i te 24 o Noema 1926, ka mutu mai ko Hoani anake te tangata i whakatūria, i pōtitia hoki hei tumuaki. Pēnei tonu te pōti i a ia, ā mate noa.

Ko tana mahi tuatahi mā te poari, he toro haere i ngā hapū o Waitahanui, e tohe nei ki te wehe mai i tō rātau awa i te kirimina, nā te mea koirā anake tō rātau oranga. Whakawherea ana e Hoani kia mutu tā rātau whakamahi i ngā kaihī ika ki te utu moni, ā, kia whakatakotoria ā rātau kerēme kāpeneheihana ka ngaro nei tō rātau mana ki ngā taha me ngā wai o te awa. Ka whakaae tētehi rōia, ko T. W. Lewis te īngoa, kia riro māna e whai atu te katoa o ngā kerēme mō ngā awa, ā, noho ana ko Hoani tētehi o ngā kaioati hei whakarite i tana utu rōia. Kāti, e hia kē nei tō rātau roa e tatari ana ki tētehi hua noa nei i ngā kerēme. Ka mate a Lewis i te tau 1927, ka riro ko te poari hei waha i ngā utu rōia. Nā te takaroa o te utu i te kāpeneheihana i tūmanakohia, ka pōhara kē atu a Hoani rātau ko tōna iwi. I te tau 1936 i te tohe tonu a ia kia pai te whakatau i ngā kerēme mō ngā awa o Taupō.

I Hānuere o te tau 1927 ka puta te mahere whakapau moni a Hoani me tana poari, he wāhanga nei mō te mātauranga, mō te hauora, mō te ahu whenua, tae atu hoki ki ngā marae. He tumuaki rawe a Hoani ki te whakahaere hui, he ngākau mārie tōna, ā, kia kore e kotiti i whai ia kia ū tonu ngā kōrero ki te kaupapa. Me uaua kē ia e kore ai e tae atu ki ngā hui a te poari; mā te pāngia rawatia e te mate, haere kē rānei ki ngā hui kōhukihuki a te Kōti Whenua Māori anake ngā take e kore ai ia e tae. Ko ia hoki te tumuaki o te komiti iti mō te hauora, i a rātau nei te mana hoatu mahi, pana rānei i ngā tākuta, me te whakatau hoki i te taumata o te pūtea āwhina i ngā nēhi o Tokaanu me Taupō. Nō te tau 1928 i mea atu ia ki te kaiwhakahaere o te Wāhanga Whai Hauora Māori (Division of Māori Hygiene), ko ana āpiha kē rānei e haere ki te tirotiro i te rohe katoa, kātahi ka tino hanga pūrongo ai e hāngai ana ki ngā hiahia nui o ngā marae me ngā papakāinga, kia taea ai hoki e te Poari Kaitiaki te whakarārangi te momo whakapau moni.

Nā ngā pūtea āwhina a te Poari Kaitiaki ka tīmata te whakahou, te hanga whare whakairo rānei ki ngā marae o Tūwharetoa. Heoi, ka oti tēnā mahi kua puta anō he tono hou me te piki anō hoki o ngā tono hauora me ngā tono mātauranga. Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1930, ehara, mamae ana te Poari Kaitiaki me ngā mema, tae noa ki a Hoani, i te hore kau o te moni. Ka hē kē atu hoki i te matenga o Robert Jones, te tangata nāna te toa, e noho nama nui nei te tokomaha o Tūwharetoa ki a ia. I raro i te ture poari, e taea ana e ngā mema te tono moni atu i te Poari Kaitiaki, ēngari ka heke haere nei ngā tiringa rākau, me te kore e puta ake hoki o ngā kāpeneheihana awa, ka tīmata te nuinga o rātau ki te tono moni iti atu nei i ngā huihui katoa a te poari, ko ō rātau pānga whenua te punga; hāunga tonu kaha kē atu ana te hē.

Nō te hui a te Poari Kaitiaki i Hune o te tau 1930, kātahi anō ka puta te taumaha o te raruraru. Ka kitea hoki £12,000 te nui o te nama ki ngā pānga angiangi o Jones; ko Hoani tonu tētehi o te tokomaha e nama ana. Ka tau te kōrero a te Poari Kaitiaki, i te mea he tokomaha tonu o Tūwharetoa e nama ana ki a Jones, e tika ana kia riro mā te Poari Kaitiaki e utu ā rātau nama. I taua wā anō hoki, kei te nui haere kē ake ngā utu e pā ana ki te pakanga ā-ture ki te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro mō ngā tiringa kāore anō kia utua; £2,000 tonu te nama ki a M. H. Hampson, te rōia o Tūwharetoa. I te 14 o Hune i te tau 1932, ka tono te Poari Kaitiaki ki te Minita Māori, ki a Āpirana Ngata, kia whakaaetia he moni tārewa, £5,000 te nui. Nō te 29 o Oketopa i tae ake ai a Āpirana rāua ko tana hēkeretari tūmataiti, ko Te Raumoa Balneavis, ki Tokaanu ki te whakatikatika i ngā pūtea a te Poari Kaitiaki. Whakaaetia ana he moni tārewa hei whakaea i ngā raruraru whawhati tata. Kātahi ka whakatūria ko Norman Smith, he āpiha nō te Tari Māori i Rotorua, hei kaihaina tuarua i ngā haki katoa a te Poari. I te tau 1932, ka whakaae a Hoani kia iwa paiheneti te heke iho o te pūtea a te Poari Kaitiaki mō ngā tau e toru e heke mai ana, hei āwhina hoki i ngā raruraru ā-moni o te kāwanatanga i ngā tau o te korekore. Otirā, hāunga ēnei taumahatanga, i tino pai ake ngā āhuatanga raruraru ā-moni o te Poari; ka mana nei hoki ngā ture toko i te ora, kātahi hoki ka pai kē atu, i te mea kua kore te Poari Kaitiaki e whakapau moni ki ngā mea o te iwi e pāngia ana e te mate, e te pōhara rānei.

I te nui o āna mahi ārahi i te iwi, ka hē kē atu te taha oranga ōna tonu. Ka kimi mahi nei ia māna – i te tau 1933 hei hēkeretari mā te Poari Kaitiaki, ā, nō muri kē mai ka whai hoki kia noho hei kaitiaki mō ngā mahi ika a Tūwharetoa i Te Roto-a-Ira (Rotoaira) – aukatitia ana ēnei tū mahi māna i runga i te whakaaro he whakaiti kē ērā mahi i tōna rangatiratanga. Ko te whakaaro anō hoki me kite tonu ia i ngā hui katoa a te iwi me te Poari Kaitiaki, puta noa i te motu. Ahakoa i utua ētehi o āna haere e te Poari Kaitiaki, ko ngā koha whakatakoto ki ngā marae nō tōna pūkoro tonu, ā, auau tonu tana kore e whai moni. Ko ia tonu hoki te kanohi o Tūwharetoa ki te tini o ngā hui nui, ā, ko tōna marae te wāhi mō ngā hui ā-iwi a tōna iwi, te marae karanga manuhiri pērā i a Korokī me ērā atu tū rangatira. I te tau 1936 ka taka iho mai ngā mahi a te Kaunihera Māori o Tongariro (Tongariro Māori Council) ki te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa, ka nui kē atu ngā mahi a Hoani ki te tiaki i te āhua o ngā whare kāinga me te hauora o tōna iwi. Nō taua wā pea, ka mahue i a ia a Waihī, haere kē ana ki Tauranga–Taupō noho ai.

I te tau 1937, ka tīmata anō te mōreareatia o te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro. I taua wā kua oti kē te hanga o tētehi kirimina hou i waenganui i te Kamupene Pouaka o Egmont me te Poari Takiwā Whenua Māori o Aotea (Aotea District Māori Land Board), ko te Poari Takiwā nei te māngai mō te hunga whai pānga. Nō te 13 o Hune 1935 ka tau te kōrero kia utua te Kamupene Pouaka e te Poari Takiwā Whenua, £23,500 te nui, hei utu atu i ngā kerēme katoa e puta ana i te whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka i waenganui i te Poari Takiwā Whenua me te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro. Nō Tīhema o te tau 1935 i utua ai tēnei moni. Karawhiua ana te Poari Takiwā Whenua e Hoani ki te ture, ko te whakahoehoetanga te take. Kua oti kē a Hoani rātau ko tōna Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa te tohutohu, ko ngā nama katoa ki te Kamupene Pouaka o Egmont, ka riro mā te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro e utu, ehara kē mā ngā Māori nō rātau te whenua. Hinga ana te kaupapa nei i te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court), ā, ka kōkiritia kia riro mā ngā moni a te Poari Kaitiaki e kawe te kaupapa ki te Kōti Pīra (Court of Appeal), aukatitia ana tēnei e te Minita Māori. Ka rere te pīra a te Poari Kaitiaki i te whakatau a te Minita Māori; ka kī te Poari nei e heri ana a Hoani i tana take ki te Kōti i runga i tōna mana, i tō te tino rangatira o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ā, mehemea kua hara hoehoe te Karauna, e rua kē ēnei hara i tōna katinga i a Tūwharetoa ki te whakamahi i ngā moni a te Poari Kaitiaki ki te kōkiri i te kaupapa nei ki te Kōti Pīra. Heoi rā, hinga ana anō te kaupapa nei i te Kōti Pīra.

Tū ana ngā hui whakahē i Waihī i te tau 1938, ā, i Hānuere o te tau 1939, i tū hoki te hui nui a te motu ki reira. Kua tīmata te huri a Hoani me te tokomaha ki te whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei pākai riri mō rātau. Ko tā Hoani e whakamātau kē ana ki te whakatakoto, kei te tauwhāinga kē ki te Tiriti te ture e pā ana ki ngā whenua rākau, ā, me ka pērā, kei te manakore te ture. Heria ana e M. H. Hampson tēnei take ki te aroaro o te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kīngi (Privy Council) i te tau 1940. Mamae ana te whakatau a te Kaunihera i te mea e ai ki a rātau, kāore e taea e ngā kōti te whakamana i raro i tētehi tiriti tuku mana; me mātua whakatakoto rawa mai aua tikanga i roto i ngā ture o te whenua.

Koinei te take kōkiri nui whakamutunga a Hoani Te Heuheu Tūkino. Whakahaua ana e ia te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa, ko ia nei tō rātau heamana, kia āta tūpato te whakapau i ngā moni i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. Ko tāna hoki, me mau tonu he pūtea moni hei whakanohonoho i ngā mōrehu o Tūwharetoa ka hoki mai nei i te mura o te ahi. I te tau 1942 ka rutua ia e te matekohi, ā, i te tau 1943, i te marama o Mei, ka whakaaro te Poari Kaitiaki ki te wehe mai i tētehi pūtea ā-tau māna, kia āhei ai ia ki te whakaoti i āna mahi ā-iwi, hei utu hoki i ngā tākuta mātanga ki te tiaki i a ia. Nō Noema o te tau 1943, i oti te whakatau tētehi utu ā-marama māna. I pōtitia anō ia hei tumuaki mō te Poari i te 26 o Hānuere o te tau 1944, ahakoa tana kore i tae ki te hui i te māuiui. Nō te 27 o Āperira ka hinga ia, mahue mai ana ko tana hoa wahine me ā rāua tamariki tokorima. I tanumia ia ki Waihī i te 2 o Mei i te tau 1944. Ka whakawahia tana tama mātāmua, a Hepi Hoani, ki tōna kahu waero, he mea whakaīngoa nei ko Te Heuheu Tūkino VII.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Heuheu Tūkino VI, Hoani - Te Heuheu Tukino VI, Hoani', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t8/te-heuheu-tukino-vi-hoani (accessed 21 April 2019)