Kōrero: Tamarau, Takurua

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Tamarau, Takurua

1871/1872?–1958

Nō Tūhoe; he rangatira, he kaikuti hipi, he tangata mahi pāmu, he poutikanga nō te Hāhi Ringatū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Wharehuia Milroy,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998, and updated in February, 2011.

I whānau a Takurua Tamarau, i mōhiotia nei i ētahi wā ko Takurua Mākarini, i te tau 1871, 1872 rānei i Kohimarama, takiwā ki te rohe o Ruatāhuna, i muri paku tonu mai i te whakataunga o te riri i waenganui o te iwi o Tūhoe me ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga. Ko ia te tama a Tamarau Waiari, arā, a Te Mākarini Te Wharehuia, a Te Mākarini Kaikino rānei, he ariki nui tonu nō te iwi o Tūhoe i te wāhanga tuarua mai o tērā rau tau, me tana wahine tuatoru, me Roka. Ko ōna tātai whakapapa i heke mai i a Ngāti Koura me Ngāi Te Riu i te taha o tōna matua, ā, he pānga anō ōna ki a Ngāti Hinekura me Te Urewera i te taha ki tōna whaea. E rua ngā tuāhine o Takurua, ā, tokoono atu anō hoki ērā o ōna tāina, tuākana mai i ērā o ngā wāhine a Te Mākarini. E tamariki tonu ana a Tamarau ka tohungia ia hai whakakapi i te tūranga o tōna matua ā tōna wā. I tukuna ia kia whakatipuria mā ōna pāpara o ngā tātai mātāmua, i Tātāhoata marae ki Ruatāhuna me ngā marae o Ōtenuku me Te Tōtara i Rūātoki. I a ia e tai ana, ka whāngaia ia ki ngā kōrero o ngā take nunui, huhua hoki o te iwi o Tūhoe mā roto mai o te noho ki te whakarongo i ngā whaikōrero me ngā whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro i ngā huihuinga a ōna pori.

Ko te take nui rawa atu o taua wā ki a Tūhoe ko te whenua; i te tau 1898 ka whakatūria te Kōmihana o Te Urewera (Urewera Commission) hai wawae i ngā whenua e taka ana i raro i te tikanga o te Rāhui Māori o te Takiwā o Te Urewera (Urewera District Native Reserve) me te āta whiriwhiri hoki i ngā taitara whenua. Āpiti atu ki tēnei ko te whakaaro whakatakoto rori haere i roto i te rohe pōtae o Tūhoe. Ko Takurua tētahi o ngā kaiāwhina o tōna matua hai whakahaere i ngā mahi rūri, arā, mātua whakatau ai i ngā whakahē o roto mai i te iwi me te whakahau hoki i ērā wehenga e tautoko ana i te whakaaro me hanga he rori. Ahakoa te paiheretia o Takurua e te tikanga Māori nā te mea i te ora tonu tōna matua, i āhei tonu ia ki te noho mataara atu me pēwhea te whakahaere i ngā take nui a ōna pakeke i ā rātau hui.

I te wā kua tae atu nei ōna tau ki te rua tekau, ka haere a Takurua i te taha o ētahi atu o ngā taitāhae o Tūhoe ki Te Tai Rāwhiti ki te mahi kutikuti hipi, ā, i taua wā ka tākaro rakapī ia mō te karapu o Ūawa (Tolaga Bay Club). Ka mate tana matua i te takiwā o te 1904 ka hoki mai a Takurua ki Rūātoki noho tūturu ai, he miraka kau te mahi.

Nō muri o te matenga o Tamarau Waiari, i wetea atu ai ngā tikanga a tōna iwi e paihere nei i a Takurua ki te mau i ngā mahi a te iwi. I whakaūngia tōna tūranga rangatira i a ia e hari atu ana i tētahi ope o Tūhoe ki te huihuinga a te Kauhanganui (te pāremata o te Kīngitanga) i tū ki Maungākawa i te rohe o Waikato i te tau 1908. E ai ki ngā meneti o taua hui, ko Takurua rātau ko ōna hoa – ko Āpihai Hauraki, ko Te Ihi Hāwiki, ko Tuhitaare Hēmi – ngā kanohi o rātau i kawe i ngā take whenua me ngā nawe a Tūhoe ki reira hai kōrerorero, hai whakatakoto atu hoki ki te aroaro o te kāwanatanga.

I Oketopa o te tau 1918 i Ōmāhu, he takiwā e pātata atu rā ki te tāone o Heretaunga (Hastings), ka tohua a Takurua rāua ko Erueti Peene (Pītara, Biddle rānei) hai māngai mō te rohe o Mātaatua i tētahi hui a te komiti whakahaere mō te Tahua Hōia Māori (Māori Soldiers' Fund). I tētahi hui o muri mai o te tau 1919, ka kīia he 'whetū hou' te tangata nei a Takurua. I te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1921, ka whakatūria ia hai tiamana mō te komiti marae o Ōtenuku, ā, mau tonu ia ki taua tūranga tae noa ki te tau 1925. I te tau 1941 ka whakahokia atu anō ia ki taua tūranga. Mai i te tau 1924 i tū ia i ētahi wā hai mema mō te Kaunihera o Mātaatua (Mātaatua Māori Council) tae noa ki te wā i whakakorea te kaunihera i te tau 1952. E toru tekau tau tōna roa e noho ana hai tiamana mō te komiti o te Kura Māori o Rūātoki, ā, i taua wā anō, ko ia te kaiwhakaruruhau mō te karapu rakapī o Rūātoki. Nō muri mai o te tau 1945, ka uru atu ia hai mema mō te Komiti Whakahaere ā-Iwi o Te Urewera ki Te Hauāuru (Western Tūhoe Tribal Executive), ā, mai i te tau 1947 ki te tau 1953 ko ia te tiamana o te Komiti ā-Iwi o Ōtenuku (Ōtenuku Tribal Committee). I te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ko ia te tiamana o te peka ki Rūātoki mō ngā Mahi Māori mō te Whawhai (Māori War Effort Organisation) me te komiti o Rūātoki mō ngā take o te whawhai (Rūātoki Patriotic Committee). I roto i ēnei tau katoa, hōrapa ana tōna mana ki te katoa o ngā rohe o te iwi o Tūhoe.

I te tekau tau atu i 1920, ka riro ko Takurua tētahi o ngā tino kaiwhakahau i te whakatōpūtanga o ngā whenua tūturu Māori tae atu ki ngā whenua i raro i te Karauna i roto i te rohe pōtae o Tūhoe, ā, nō konā ka piri tahi ia ki a Āpirana Ngata. I te tau 1929, ka taka te rohe pōtae o Tūhoe ki raro i te kaupapa ahu whenua a Ngata, ka tohua ko Takurua tētahi o ngā mema o tana komiti tohutohu i ngā whakahaere o aua momo mahi. Nō te tau 1933 i oti te whakatōpū o ngā taitara o ngā whenua i Rūātoki.

I te wā anō hoki o te tekau tau atu i 1920, i kōkiritia e Takurua ngā auhi o te rohe o Tūhoe ki ō rātau whenua. Ko tōna tino āwangawanga, i tangohia ngā whenua hai utu mō te hanga i ngā rori, kāore anō kia oti noa te mahi, kāore anō rānei ētahi kia tīmataria. Ko te whakataunga a te Kōmihana Raupatu mō ngā Whenua Māori (Native Land Confiscation Commission) i te tau 1927, kāore nei i eke ki ngā hiahia o te iwi o Tūhoe. Ahakoa anō, i noho tonu a Takurua hai pou whakahaere mō te komiti raupatu o Tūhoe tae noa anō ki ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau atu i 1950. I te tau 1957, ka whakataua e te kāwanatanga kia utua a Tūhoe mō ngā whenua i tangohia hai mahi rori, ā, he mea whakamana hoki ki te ture i te tau 1958. Riro ana ko te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūhoe (Tūhoe Māori Trust Board) – i nāianei e mōhiotia ana ko te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūhoe–Waikaremoana (Tūhoe–Waikaremoana Māori Trust Board) – he mea whakatū tonu rā hai whakahaere i ngā moni kāpeneheihana. I tēnei wā kua heke haere tōna mana, ā, kāore ia i kōwhiria kia tū hai mema ki te poari.

Mai i tōna taitamarikitanga, ahakoa ngā uaua me ngā taupatupatu i waenganui i tōna matua me Te Kooti, i kaha tonu te mau a Takurua ki ngā kawenata o te Hāhi Ringatū, kore rawa ia i whakaae kia whakamōrea. E ai ki tāna ko ngā taha wairua, ngā tikanga me ngā āhuatanga ā-iwi o Tūhoe e taurite tonu ana ki ērā o te Hāhi Ringatū – me te aha – i te mea ko ia tō rātau ariki nui, māna rawa anō aua āhuatanga e whakaū. Mai i te tau 1928 pau noa te tekau tau, i noho ia hai poutikanga mō te Hāhi. I whakanohoia anō ia hai kaitiaki mō te whenua i Te Wainui kai te takiwā ki Ōhiwa i kōwhiria rā e te kāwanatanga mō ngā whakahaere a te Hāhi Ringatū.

Ahakoa tana pūmau ki tōna Hāhi ake, kore rawa ia i whakahē i ētahi atu Hāhi ka hiahia nei ki te whakauru mai ki te iwi, ā, i tērā, ka whakaaetia e ia te Hāhi Hareruia (Commonwealth Covenant Church) kia hanga i tētahi whare karakia i runga i tōna whenua e pātata atu ana ki te marae o Ōtenuku. I te matenga o Takurua, ka hangaia e taua Hāhi he putanga whakamaharatanga hai tomokanga i te waha o tana marae, otirā, he tohu mō tana aroha. I te memehatanga o te hunga e whai ana i taua Hāhi, whakahokia mai ana te whenua me te whare karakia ki ōna uri.

He maha noa atu ngā taura here i whiria ai e Takurua Tamarau i waenganui i te iwi Pākehā, ngā Minita a te Karauna, ngā āpiha o ngā tari kāwanatanga, ngā peka hoki o aua tari, tae atu ki ngā kaunihera ā-rohe, ngā pirihimana me te hunga e mahi ana i roto i ngā mahi hauora. Katoa ēnei, he tono i a ia hai āwhina i a rātau ki te whakatatū i ngā momo take katoa. Nā tōna mōhio whānui ki ngā tikanga me te hītori o tōna rohe, ka tohua ia hai mema mō te rōpū hītori o Whakatāne me ōna rohe (Whakatāne and District Historical Society). Nāna i tautoko te tuku o ētahi whenua whānui tonu o Tūhoe ki roto i te rohe pāka o Te Urewera (Urewera National Park). Nō te tau 1935, i whakawhiwhia ia ki te Mētera mō te Tiupiri Hiriwa o Kīngi Hōri Te Tuarima (King George V Silver Jubilee Medal), ā, nō te tau 1953, ka tukuna te tohu hōnore MBE ki a ia mō ana mahi mā tōna iwi ake, nuku atu ki te iwi whānui tonu.

E rima ngā moe wāhinetanga a Takurua. I whiriwhiria katoatia ēnei wāhine e tōna iwi mai i ngā hapū o te rohe pōtae o Tūhoe hai paihere i a rātau i roto i te whakaaro kotahi ahakoa ko te āhuatanga pāpori, ko te āhuatanga oha, ko te ritenga tōrangapū rānei. Ko tana wahine tuatahi ko Kiha, te tamāhine a Tūroa Pekatū, he rangatira whakarae nō te hapū o Te Māhurehure; kāore hoki i puta he uri. Moea ana hoki e Takurua a Kumeroa Whakamoe o ngā hapū o Te Whānau Pani o Waikaremoana me Te Urewera o Ruatāhuna me Rūātoki. Tokowhā ā rāua tamāhine, tokotoru ngā tama, otirā, ko ēnei anake ana tamariki. I mate a Kumeroa i te mate urutā rewharewha i te tau 1918. Ko te wahine o muri mai ko Te Hererīpine Peene (Biddle), he wahine rangatira nō roto mai o ngā hapū o Te Māhurehure i Rūātoki me Te Whakatāne ki Te Waimana. Mai i ngā tau tīmatanga o te tekau tau mai i 1920 atu ki tōna matenga i te tau 1940, i piri kau tonu tēnei wahine ki a Takurua i roto i āna mahi, i āna hīkoi. Kātahi ka whakaritea anō he wahine māna, arā, ka whakamoea ia ki a Te Urikore (ko Te Taupoki tētahi o ōna īngoa), he wahine whānui nei tōna mōhio ki ngā tikanga me ngā kōrero tuku iho a Ngāi Tūhoe – me te aha – he wahine ringa rehe ki ngā mahi toi o te raranga me te whatu. I te matenga o Te Urikore, ka whakamoea ia ki a Te Onewhero Tangi Hineariki o te hapū o Te Ūpokorehe o Te Whakatōhea o te rohe o Ōhiwa. Ko tēnei wahine i tangata whenua mai i ngā tikanga, i ngā kōrero, i ngā waiata o tōna ao Māori, e tau nei hoki mō te wahine he tātai rangatira ōna. Ka mate a Takurua, ka mahue mai ko ia me ngā tamariki tokowhā a te kaumātua nei.

I kaha te aronui o Takurua ki tana pōtiki, ki a Hōri (George) Takurua, i akona ai e ia ki ngā āhuatanga katoa o te Hāhi Ringatū. Ko Hōri te tohunga Ringatū mō ngā tamatoa a Tūhoe i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ā, i mate i te pae o te riri i te tau 1944. Hai whakamaharatanga ki ngā uri me ngā whanaunga i hinga i ngā marae o Tūmatauenga, otirā, ki tana tamaiti rawa hoki, ka titoa e Takurua tana waiata tangi 'E Hōri e'. Kai te Hāhi Hareruia e pupuri ana te tuhinga ā-ringa o tēnei waiata.

I mate a Takurua Tamarau i te 17 o Noema 1958 i Rūātoki, ā, e ono rā rawa ia e tīraha mai ana i te takoto rangatira i tōna marae, ā, nehua ake ana ki taua marae. I te mea he mea tāpuke ia ki taua marae, ka tonoa kia rāhuitia taua whenua hai urupā mō te hapū o Ngāti Koura. I titoa e Te Iki Pouwhare, tētahi ika a Whiro anō o Tūhoe, tētahi waiata manawa kapakapa, poroporoaki hoki ki a Takurua, he whakamaumaharatanga hoki ki a ia, ā, i tāia ki roto i Te Ao Hou i te marama o Tīhema 1959. Anei ētahi whiti:

Tamarau Tūketenui, e ara ki runga rā!
Kauhautia rā te kauhau ariki,
Ko Toroa, ko Tūhoepōtiki,
Ka puta rā koe ki te whai-ao, ki te ao-mārama.
Ka ngarue te whenua, ka ngaoko te moana,
Tangi ai ō iwi, e koro, ki a koe.
Ka riro atu nā koe, i ōhou tīpuna,
I a Mate, i a Pirau, i a Ngaro-ki-te-pō,
I a Tūhikitia, i a Tūhāpaina,
Tū-marere-i-runga, Tūmarere-i-raro.
Kai ai te aroha i roto i te tangata,
Kia niwha te tapuae, tahe toto te tapuae, rītoto te tapuae,
Haramai te mate hai kai e-e.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Wharehuia Milroy. 'Tamarau, Takurua', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998, updated February, 2011. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t5/tamarau-takurua (accessed 18 November 2019)