Kōrero: Taiapa, Pineāmine

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Taiapa, Pineamine

1901–1972

Nō Ngāti Porou; he tohunga whakairo, he tangata mahi pāmu, he āpiha whakanohonoho, he kaituhi, he tangata whakapapa

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998, and updated in June, 2015.

I whānau a Pineāmine Taiapa i te 6 o Hune o te tau 1901 ki Tikitiki i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Nō te hapū o Te Whānau-a-Hinerupe o Ngāti Porou tōna kōkā a Maraea Te Iritawa rāua ko tōna pāpā, ko Tāmati Taiapa. Tērā noa atu hoki i a Te Whānau-a-Te Aotaihi me Te Whānau-a-Umuariki ngā hononga o tōna whaea. I te whānautanga o Pine, te mea tuarima o ngā tamariki tekau mā whā, riro ana ia hai tamaiti whāngai mā tana matua kēkē, matua takakau, he kōingo nōna ki tētahi tamaiti hai whāngai māna ki ana kōrero tuku iho. Nō muri a Pine i kī ai, e mōhio ana ia ki ngā whakapapa, 10,000 kē te nui o ngā īngoa tīpuna. Nō te matenga o tōna matua kēkē i hoki atu ai a Pine ki ōna mātua. I tino akona a Pine ki ngā mōhiotanga Pākehā, ā, nō te tau 1917 i tae atu ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute, toa ai ki reira ki te tākaro mekemeke me te tākaro whutupaoro. Tino tau kē nei a Pine ki te kōrero Māori, ki te kōrero Pākehā hoki.

I te mutunga o tana kura he mahi pāmu te mahi a Pine i runga i ngā whenua o tōna whānau i Tikitiki, ā, he kaimahi mau tīni hoki ia mā tētahi kairūri; haere tonu te mahi tākaro whutupaoro a Pine. Nō te tau 1921 i uru atu ia ki te tīma o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay) me te tīma anō o Te Tai Rāwhiti i te tau 1922, 1923 hoki; i ēnei tau he kaiāpiti ia mō te tino tīma whutupaoro Māori (Māori All Blacks) i taka haere atu rā ki Ahitereiria. Ahakoa tana whiwhi i te mātauranga kāore a Pine i tino mōhio he aha he mahi māna tae noa ki te wā i whakairotia te whare karakia Māori i Tikitiki, he whakamaharatanga rā mō te Pakanga Tuatahi, nō te tau 1924 pea rā i tīmata ai te mahi. I tae ake te koroua whakairo nei a Hōne Ngātoto ki te mahi i te whare, ā, i te kāinga o te whānau tonu o Pine mā ia e noho ana. He mea whakarite tonu ko Pine hai tonotono mā taua koroua, mahi kapu tī atu hoki māna. Nā te mea he takahi tikanga te tono tonu atu kia akona ia ki te whakairo, e ono marama kē te roa o Pine e tiro noa atu ana, ka tūpono tana mau i te whao. Ahakoa i rīriri iho, nāwai rā tukua atu ana a Pine ki te taha o te koroheke rā mahi ai.

E mahara tonu ana a Āpirana Ngata ki te uauatanga o te kite tangata hai whakairo i te whare karakia i Tikitiki, ā, nō te tau 1926 i whakahaerea e ia te poari mō ngā mahi toi Māori (Board of Māori Arts). Āta whakatūria ana anō hoki te Kura Whakairo o Rotorua (School of Māori Arts) i te tau 1927, ā, ko Pine Taiapa tonu hoki tētahi o ngā tauira tuatahi. I whakatenetene tonu nei te kaiwhakaako o Pine a Rotohiko Haupapa, he whao waruwaru noa nei tāna, ki te whāki atu i ngā muna whakairo a Te Arawa ki ngā kaiako o Ngāti Porou. I te tirohanga a Ngata i ngā mahi whakairo i Rotorua e kore rawa e kitea e ia te hanga rere o te whakairo pērā i te mahi a ngā tohunga whakairo i te whare nui o Porourangi, he mea whakatū rā ki Waiomatatini i te tau 1888. Tere noa te mau i a Pine ngā mōhiotanga katoa i akona ai e Rotohiko, ēngari ki tōna whakaaro he mea tonu i te ngaro. Te hia kitea e ia he aha rā, he moemoeā tonu te mahi a Pine, arā, e piki ana ia i tētahi maunga kimi tonu ai i te mea ngaro nei i waenganui i ngā tauira whakairo o onamata rā. Nō muri ka mōhio ia ko ngā āhuatanga e pā kē ana ki te mahi a te toki kapukapu tāna e rapu nei. Whakahaua ana a Pine e Ngata i te tau 1929 ki te kimi haere i tētahi tohunga mau toki, ā, tonoa ana ia ki ngā hapū maha o Te Tai Rāwhiti, kimi ai i ngā mōrehu koroua mōhio, kia whakamahia ai ki te whakaako ki te mahi toi whakairo, kua tata kē nei te ngaro. Ahakoa kimi noa nei ia, korekore rawa i kitea e ia he tangata, āpānoa meinga a ia kia haere kia kite i a Eramiha Kapua o Te Arawa, i Te Teko rā e noho ana i taua wā. I te whakaaetanga a Ngata, nō te 30 o Hānuere 1930 i tae a Pine kia kite i a Eramiha, ā, whakawherea ana ia e Pine kia haere ki Rotorua ki reira tohutohu ai i ngā ākonga ki ngā tikanga o te mau toki.

Maringi noa mai ana ngā tautōhito o Pine kua mōhio nei ia ki te hahau. Tere ana te oti pai i a ia te tārai te rākau, pū ana te hanga rere o te mahi, i mua he mea whao kē te nui o te mahi. Ahakoa i mau tonu te whakamahi a Pine i te whao mō ana whakairo mokamoka, hau ana te rongo o te pai o te kahu whakaoti a Pine i ana whakairo. He wā anō i tīmata ai te whakairo a Pine i te rima karaka i te ata, ā, tuaki pō rawa ka mutu ai; potopoto noa nei te wā i tāoki ia. Mai i te tau 1927 ki 1940 e 64 ngā whare i whakairotia e Pine, tae atu ki te whare nui rā, ki Te Hono ki Rarotonga (he mea tapa anō ko Te Au ki Tonga) i te kokorutanga i Tokomaru; mai i te tau 1928 ki 1933 i mahia ngā whakairo mō taua whare rā i Rotorua, he mea whakatuwhera i te tau 1934. Ko te taina anō o Pine, ko Hōne i te whakairo i te whare nei. E ai ki a Pine, o ngā whare katoa nāna i whakairo ko Whitirēia i Whāngārā te mea tino rawe; nō te tau 1939 i oti ai. Nā te mea ko te puna wairua tonu ki tōna iwi o Ngāti Porou a Whitirēia, i tino aronuitia e Pine te whare nei.

Mai i te tau 1934, i mahi taratahitahi ai a Pine i te whare mō te rau tau i Waitangi. I te tuatahi i riro nā Hērora Hamutana (Harold Hamilton) te mahi nei i hautū ēngari i tōna matenga ka taka mai ki a Pine te whakahaere, ā, i raro i a ia i oti atu te nuinga o ngā whakairo. Tērā noa atu hoki ngā whare i mahia e Pine. Ko te wawata tonu o Ngata, kia kapi katoa te motu i te mahi whakaohoho ake anō i te whakairo. Ka wātea mai ana he moni mō tētahi whare tonoa ana e ia a Pine me ōna hoa mahi hai tīmata i te whakairo. Pau ana ngā moni o te iwi kāinga nuku atu ana a Pine me tana rōpū he wāhi kē, ā, kia kōputu rawa anō he moni mō tētahi wāhanga atu, kātahi anō rātau ka hoki atu.

I tohutohua e Kapua ana ākonga me waiho noa e rātau te taha tapu o te mahi whakairo. He mataku nōna ka kino kē atu te mate me he kūare noa nei nō te tangata ki ngā kupu tika me te hōhonu atu o te āhua o ngā pure. Pai kē atu te whakaririka noa. Māmā noa ana te take nei ki a Pine me ana tauira, kāore noa he mate o te tapu ki a ia: ki tā Pine hoki kāore he raruraru ki a ia ki te ako i te wahine ki te whakairo. Heoti, i te wā ka oti i a Pine te whakairo te whare, whakamaungia atu ana e ia he whao ki muri i te tukutuku kia kotahi tonu ai te mauri o te taputapu me te mauri o ngā whakairo, nā te whao rā i oti ai. He mōhio tonu nō Pine he mea tapu ana whakairo ki te nuinga o te tangata, ā, me e tūpono ana he raruraru ka waihotia e ia mā te wehi o te tapu aua whakairo e tiaki. I te mahinga o te whare, o Raukawa i Ōtaki i te tekau tau atu i 1930 ka oti i a Pine te whakairo te āhua o te tipuna wahine nei, o Parengāope hai pare, ka whakamaungia atu e ia ki runga ake i te kūaha. I te pōwhiritanga i a Kīngi Korokī ki te whakatuwhera i te whare, rere ana te whakatūpato a ngā pakeke o Tainui, e kore rātou e whakaae mā raro i te puapua o taua tipuna wahine rā e tomokia ai e Korokī te whare nei. Kore rawa a Pine i whakaae māna e tango mai te pare, waiho kētia ana e ia mā te iwi kāinga e whakawhara. Riro ana ko Ngata ki te whakarite i te take nei, ā, i te mutunga tutuki pai ana.

He tohutohu tonu te mahi a Pine i te iwi kāinga ki ngā pūkenga o ō rātau tīpuna. Kia noho ai te whare rau tau i Waitangi hei tauira mō ngā iwi katoa, tekau mā whā ngā pou whakairo i waihangatia ki te āhua o ngā whakairo o ngā rohe huri noa i te motu. Nā Pine i whakatauira ngā tukutuku o roto o Raukawa me ērā atu o ngā whare nā ngā mauāringa o te kāinga i mahi i raro i tana whakahaere. Akona ana e ia ana ākonga ki ngā īngoa me ngā kōrero o ngā tukutuku, e whakaatu nei i tētahi āhua o te noho o te hunga kāinga, noho kē rānei o te iwi. Nā runga i ēnei kōrero e hāngai ana ki te titiro a te Māori i te ao, i kore ai i whakaaetia e Pine te mahi whakapaipai.

Me e pā iho ana he āhuatanga hou, rangirua tonu nei ngā whakaaro o Pine. I a ia me tētahi rōpū o Te Whakatōhea e mahi ana i ngā kōwhaiwhai i te whare nui i te marae o Taihoa i Te Wairoa, he whakatikatika, he whakamau atu hoki i te tekoteko o Ōtāne ki runga ki te tuanui o te whare tētahi o ngā mahi. E hia tekau tau kē te tekoteko nei e takoto ana i roto i te tairo, i muri i tētahi whare karakia o reira. Haria mai ana e Pine te tekoteko nei hai whakahuene mai mā tētahi o ngā tama tāne; hākiki ana te tama nei i tana kitenga kua tapahia kētia e ngā mihinare Karaitiana te ure o te tipuna nei. Kore kau a Pine i whakaae ki te tono a te tama nei me tārai anō he ure, kātahi ka whakahoki atu ai. Ki te kōrero a Pine, kia kore ai e ngaro te hara te take me waiho pērā tonu.

Ahakoa i whai tonu a Pine i ngā whakairo o ngā whare nui me ngā whakairo tonu hoki o namata rā hai tauira māna, ka kitea tonutia te mahue paku i a ia o tēnei momo whakairo, whai kē ana ia i te āhua o te ao tūroa mō ana pakoko. He tangata hangarau tonu nei a Pine, ā, raru noa ana i a ia te tangata whenua me ngā tikanga tuku iho. Ko tētahi o ana tino whakairo ko te tipuna nei ko Paikea me tana tohorā (mā runga nei ia i haere mai ai ki Aotearoa) kei Whāngārā; ko te mate hoki, whakamau kētia ana e ia he hiku tāmure ki te tohorā.

Nō te tau 1940 i haina ai a Pine Taiapa ki te whakauru atu ki te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion). He rūtene tuarua nei tōna tūnga i a ia i te pakanga i Āwherika ki te Raki, ā, atu i Āperira o te tau 1942 i tū ai ia hai rūtene. I te whakangahautanga i a Tianara Freyberg i Kairo (Cairo) i te tau 1941, riro ana nā Pine Taiapa i hautū te kapa haka. Nō te 15 o Tīhema 1941 i taotū ai a Pine, ā, meinga ana ia hai kāpene i Oketopa o te tau 1942. Nō te tau 1943 i hoki mai ai a Pine ki Niu Tīreni.

E toru ngā wāhine i moea ai e Pine. Nō te tau 1941 i mate ai tana wahine tuatahi a Mere Perston o Ngāti Porou, ā, kāore hoki ā rāua tamariki e ora ana. Nō te tau 1949 i mate ai tana wahine tuarua a Mereana Raukete Ngāpō, te tamāhine a Te Urupā Ngāpō o Ngāti Porou, o Marutuahu ki Hauraki hoki, rāua ko Paki Te Rau-o-te-ngutu o Te Whakatōhea. Kīhai hoki wā rāua tamariki i ora. I tana mārena tuatoru i te 1 o Tīhema 1951 i Tūpāroa, moea ana e Pine a Mereaira Te Ruāwai Grace, hai tamāhine mā Te Pua rāua ko Keita Te Moana Grace. Tokotoru ā rāua tamariki, ā, he tamaiti whāngai anō hoki tā rāua. Kotahi anō te tamaiti a Pine, ā, nui noa atu hoki ngā tamariki nāna i whakatipu.

Atu i te tau 1943 i tīmata ai te mahi whakanohonoho a Pine Taiapa i ngā hōia i hoki mai i tāwāhi. Tokorima nei rātau i whakatūria hai āpiha whakanohonoho i te tau 1944; ko Tūranga (Gisborne) tonu te taunga pokapū o te rohe o Pine ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. He rohe rahi tonu nei tō Pine, ā, kīhai ia i rata ki ngā mahi pepa. Ahakoa ngākau whakapuke ana te oti i a ia o te whakarite i ngā moni hai whakatū whare me ērā atu painga anō mō ngā hōia o tōna ake kamupene, kakari kē ana te Tari Whakanohonoho ki te aukati i āna mahi. Ka taka mai nei ki Āperira o te tau 1946, tukua ana ia kia hoki ki tana mahi whakairo.

Nā te nui haere pea o tana mahi ki te tiaki i tana whānau, i mutu ai te mahi whakairo tūturu a Pine i te takiwā o te tau 1951, hoki kē ana ia ki Tikitiki pāmu hipi ai. Kīhai i mahi moni te tangata i te mahi whakairo; i a Pine i te Kura Whakairo o Rotorua e £2 noa te utu a Pine i te wiki. Atu i tērā he utu paku noa anō tāna mai i ētahi whenua rīhi. Hāunga anō, haere tonu te mahi whakairo a Pine, ā, atu i te tau 1946 ki 1971 e 39 ngā whare i oti i a ia te mahi.

Huhua noa ngā whakaatu ko tēnei tonu te wā i tino pū ai tōna mana. He tangata mana nui a Pine ki runga marae; ahakoa ko wai te tangata me he kore mōhio, he kore aha rānei ki te reo Māori, taea noatia e ia te whai kōrero; ngāwari noa ki a ia te kōrero whakawhitiwhiti haere i te reo Māori me te reo Pākehā. He tangata hūmārie, ngākau aroha a Pine, manawanui hoki ki āna tauira. Otirā ko tā rātau karanga īngoa tohu aroha kē mōna ko 'Pine', e rite ki te hua o te paina tā rātau whakahua. He whakarongo tonu a Pine ki ngā kōrero a ngā kaumātua o te marae, ā, riro ana ēnei kōrero hai tohu whakaatu māna i runga i ngā whakairo o ō rātau whare.

He tangata kauwhau, ako pakeke anō hoki te mahi a Pine. Ko Ōmarumutu, ko Tikitiki, ko Wharekahika (Hicks Bay) ko Tauranga tae atu ki te Whare Wānanga o Te Ūpoko o te Ika o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Victoria University of Wellington) ētahi o ngā wāhi i akona e ia te tukutuku me te whakairo. Whakamahia ana e ia te hunga i oti i a ia te ako i tētahi wāhi, hai tīmata i te mahi i wāhi kē, ā, nā konā ka kaha haere kē atu te mōhio. He tangata whai mana anō hoki a Pine i ngā mahi pāmu: otirā he mea whakaaro nāna i tū ai he peka mō te karapu mō ngā taitama ahu whenua (Young Farmers' Club) i Hepetema o te tau 1954. He Māori katoa ngā mema.

He mea whāwhā anō hoki e Pine te mahi tuhituhi, ā, nō te tau 1958 i tāia e ia ki Te Ao Hou te kōrero, 'Te takenga mai o te tipu kūmara ki Aotearoa' ('How the kūmara came to New Zealand'); i te tau i muri mai ka riro i a ia te tohu tuatahi a Te Ao Hou mō āna kōrero tuku iho i huaina rā, 'Haere mā te tuaraki kōrua e manaaki'. E mau ai ā rāua tohutohu ko Eramiha Kapua ki te pukapuka, nō te tau 1960 me te tau 1961 i tāia e Pine ētahi kōrero nui ko 'Kōrero ... [mō] te toki kapukapu' ('The art of adzing') te īngoa. I tuhia hoki e ia ētahi pukapuka, he mea tā nei wētahi, e whakaatu ana i te hoahoatanga me ngā tuakiri o ngā whakairo o ētahi o ngā whare nāna tonu i hoahoa, nāna tonu i mahi. I oti hoki i a ia he maramataka, me te whakatakoto tika o tana mahi mai i ana pukapuka whakapapa. Riro ana ko te whare pukapuka a Alexander Turnbull (Alexander Turnbull Library) te wāhi tiaki mai i tētahi tauira o aua pukapuka whakapapa rā.

I te tekau tau atu i 1960 e haere tonu ana te mahi whakairo me te kauwhau tonu hoki a Pine. I te tau 1966 ka riro nāna i tuku te wānanga toi Māori tuatahi i whakaurua atu ki te hui puoro ā-tau a te Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council of New Zealand i Wairoa (Ardmore) i Manukau. E whitu tekau ngā tau o Pine i tōna matenga atu ki Tikitiki i te 9 o Pēpuere 1972. Mahue mai ana ko tana hoa wahine me ā rāua tamariki. Nuku atu i te 3,000 ngā tāngata i tae mai ki te tangi ki a ia i te marae o Rāhui. He mea tāpuke tonu a Pine ki Tikitiki i te 11 o Pēpuere i te tau 1972.

Kitea tonutia ana ngā whakamaharatanga mō te toa o Pine Taiapa ki te whakairo i ngā marae neke atu i te 100 te nui puta noa i te motu. Pērā anō hoki ngā tohu whakamaharatanga ki i a ia kei ngā tari maha, kei te Kāreti o Te Aute me te kura tuarua Māori ā-rohe o Tikitiki (Tikitiki Māori District High School). E ai ki te whakaaro o ētahi, kore rawa he tangata i rite ki a Pine Taiapa mō te marea o ngā whakairo me te tohunga hoki ki tana mahi; ko tana taina anake, ko Hōne te tangata i rite ki a ia mō te kaha nui o ngā whakairo. O te rau tau rua tekau, ko Āpirana Ngata anake te tangata i kaha kē atu te whakaara ake i ngā painga ahurewa o te iwi Māori. He kaiwhakaako, kaiakiaki tino pai anō hoki a Pine. Nāna i ara ake anō, i mau pū tonu ai te maha o ngā mahi toi Māori, ā, nō reira me mihi tonu ki a ia ka tika.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Taiapa, Pineāmine - Taiapa, Pineamine', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998, updated June, 2015. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t3/taiapa-pineamine (accessed 22 October 2018)