Kōrero: Taiapa, Hōne Te Kāuru

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Taiapa, Hone Te Kauru

1911–1979

Nō Ngāti Porou; he tohunga whakairo

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

I whānau a Hōne Te Kāuru Taiapa – ko John Taiapa tētahi o ōna īngoa e tino mōhiotia whānuitia ana – i Tikitiki i te 10 o Ākuhata i te tau 1911. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tamariki tekau mā whā a Tāmati Taiapa rāua ko Maraea Te Iritawa o Te Whānau-a-Hinerupe me ētahi atu hapū o Ngāti Porou e pānga tata ana ki a rātau. Ko te āhua nei kāore a ia i haere ki te kura. Ko tana mahi tuatahi he tope puihi.

Ko te tuakana o Hōne, ko Pine, kua tīmata kē tana mahi whakairo i te tau 1925, ā, nō te tau 1930 kua puta kē tōna rongo ki te whakairo i te Kura Whakairo (School of Māori Arts) i Rotorua. Ka tae ki te pokapūtanga o te wā o te korekore i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1930, ka uru māori noa atu a Hōne ki te Kura Whakairo hei mau ā-ringa mō tana tuakana, ina kāore hoki he mahi i tua atu. Nō muri iho ka mana tana mahi ki reira, herengi ruarua noa tana utu ia wiki. Kāore i roa, kua tohunga tonu ia ki ngā mahi kapukapu, ki te whakairo hoki.

He tangata mārire, tūpuhi noa te hanga o Hōne, ā, anā kē atu te ngangahau me te kaha whakaputa whakaaro o tōna tuakana, kua hipa kē atu tōna rongo i tērā o tōna taina. Ahakoa anō, mau tonu te mahi whakataetae i waenganui i a rāua, me te whakapae anō a tini huhua, he pai ake te taina i te tuakana ki te whakakōrero i te rākau. Arā ko tā Pine he tuhi haehae rā i ana tauira ki runga i te rākau hai whai mā te whao, hāunga tā Hōne he whakairo noa tāna i te waihanga me te āhua o te tipuna ka kite nei ia i te rākau. Nō muri rawa nei, kātahi anō ia ka tuhituhi tauira ki runga i te rākau, hai āwhina i ana ākonga. Hāunga tēnā, kore rawa ia i whakamahi tauira, i whakatakoto mahere, i mea tuhituhi rānei. Noho ana rāua ko tōna tuakana hai mūrau mā te tini.

Ka mahi tahi a Hōne rāua ko tōna tuakana – ko Hōne te tauira, ko Pine te tohunga – ki te mahi i ngā whakairo mō Te Hono ki Rarotonga, he whare nui kai te kokoru o Tokomaru. I waenganui i ngā tau 1934 ki 1937, i mahi rāua i te whare rūnanga – he whare i hangaia hai whakanui i te rau tau o te Tiriti o Waitangi – i te taha tonu o te Whare Tiriti i Waitangi. Arā atu anō hoki ā rāua mahi i tua atu i tēnei whare i roto i ēnei tau. Ko tētahi mate o rāua, he kūare ki ngā tauira whakairo o Ngā Puhi; hai whakawaia i a rāua ki ngā momo whakairo o Te Tai Tokerau, pau ana i a rāua te wā e whakairo tauira iti ana i te whare pupuri taonga o Ākarana (Auckland War Memorial Museum). I a ia e mahi ana i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands), ka tūtaki a Hōne ki tana wahine; moea ana e ia te wahine nei a Mereiro Hōri Keretene (Cherrington) i te 7 o Mei o te tau 1935, i Mōtatau. Ka puta nei ā rāua tamariki, tokowhā ngā mea wāhine, tokotoru ngā mea tāne.

I te otinga o ngā mahi i Waitangi i te tau 1937, ki te whakaaro o Hōne kua eke ia ki te taumata tohunga rā ki te whakairo. He nui tonu te wā i mahi tahi haere tonu ai rāua ko tōna tuakana ki te hanga whare huri noa i te motu, ēngari he nui anō hoki te wā he rōpū anō tāna, he rōpū anō tā tōna tuakana. Nō te tau 1937 pea i mahia e rātau ko tana rōpū whakairo – tokorima, tokoono rānei te maha – te whare kai o Mangahānea e pātata atu rā ki Ruatōria. I mahi anō hoki ia i a Tākitimu, te whare nui i Te Wairoa, i whakatuwheratia rā i te tau 1938. Nō ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1930 i te wā pea nei e mahia ana te whare o Arohanui ki te Tangata (i whakairotia mō te ekenga o te rau tau i te tau 1940, ā, nō muri iho he mea whakatū ki Waiwhetū), he wāhi mahi whakairo tonu hoki tō rāua ko tōna tuakana, i te tiriti o Bowen i Pōneke (Wellington). He tūtakitaki tonu tā rāua mahi ki a Āpirana Ngata, kua kaumātuatia te tangata tōrangapū rongonui rā i taua wā. Nō taua wā pea, ka rīria a Hōne e Āpirana he kaha nōna ki te kai waipiro. Pai noa ana a Hōne ki te kohete mai a te koroua rā, oti atu ana i a ia ētahi o ana whakairo tino papai rawa atu.

I waenganui o te tau 1941, ahakoa te nui haere mai o tana whānau, ka whakamātau a Hōne ki te whakauru ki te ope hōia, pērā i a Pine. Tuhia atu ana ia e Āpirana kia tatari. Ko te hiahia o Āpirana kia nui kē ake te hunga taritari o ētahi atu rohe, pērā i Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay), i Ūawa (Tolaga Bay) me Tokomaru, kātahi anō ia ka tahuri ki te whakanui ake i te tira o 'Nāti', arā, o Ngāti Porou ki Waiapu, ki te haere ki te whawhai.

Ko tētahi o ngā whare maha i mahia ai e Hōne ko Ruakapanga i te marae o Hauiti; nō te tau 1944 i oti i a ia ana whakairo. Nō tēnei wā pea i whakahaua ai e Materoa Reedy, te manukura o Te Tai Rāwhiti, kia whakairotia e Hōne rāua ko Pine ētahi whakairo mō tētahi whare e meingia nei ki Waitangirua, e tata tonu ana ki te kāinga o Materoa; ko te kaupapa o taua whare hai whare whakamaumaharatanga ki tana irāmutu, ki a Te Moananui-a-Kiwa Ngārimu, i tohua rā ia ki te Rīpeka Wikitōria. Nā runga i te tono mai a te iwi o Hiruhārama riro kē ana aua whakairo mō Kapohanga, he whare whakamaumaharatanga ki ngā hōia o te rohe i mate atu rā ki tāwāhi, me te whare kai anō hoki o Ngā Tamatoa i Hiruhārama. Ko te tino whare hai tohu i te tohungatanga o Hōne, ko te whare o Te Whānau-a-Te Ehutū, ko Tūkākī, e tū mai rā i Te Kaha, nō te tau 1950 i huakina ai. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1940, i whakairotia ai e Hōne a roto o te whare karakia hou, iti nei o Hukarere. Nā Āpirana te mahere o taua whare karakia. Ko te nuinga o ngā whakairo i mahia mai i Tūranga (Gisborne) e rātau ko ōna hoa whakairo o Te Tai Rāwhiti. He mea hiki te tapu o te whare i te wā e mahia tonutia ana ngā whakairo, kia haere tahi ai te mahi o ngā tukutuku a te rōpū wāhine nei, ko Te Riringa Ngata tō rātau kaiwhakahaere.

I te tau 1951, ka hoki a Pine ki tana pāmu i Tikitiki noho ai. Mau tonu a Hōne ki āna mahi whakairo, ahakoa anō te iti o te moni, te iti hoki o te mahi. Hai whakakapi haere, he kāmura te mahi a Hōne. Tini ana te nui o te tangata nā rāua tahi ko tōna tuakana i ako ki te whakairo. Riro ana ko Āpirana hai āwhina i ngā tohunga whakairo kimi ake i ngā whakapapa o ngā tīpuna e whakairotia ana. Kāti, i muri mai o te tau 1950, ka riro ko Hōne tonu ki te mahi i ngā whakapapa. Ko te puna i ahu mai tōna awe wairua, hoki rā anō ki ngā tauira me ngā āhuatanga o tuawhakarere. I roto i ēnei tauira ka whakaurua atu e ia tōna ake wairua, ka hangaia e ia he tauira hou hai whakamāori i ngā tauira tawhito. Kai roto i te whare o Tākipū te tohu o tana tauira. Kai konei e whakaaturia ana a Wairaka – nāna rā i ora ai a Mātaatua e ai ki a Ngāti Awa – kai tōna ringa e mau mai ana tētahi waka iti nei.

Neke haere ai a Hōne rātau ko tana tira whakairo o Ōhinemutu i runga i ngā pahi, he mea āta tango anō hai hari haere i a rātau me ā rātau wāhine, tamariki atu hoki i te motu. Ko ō rātau wāhi noho ko ngā whare nui, kai atu hoki i ngā marae, ēngari pakupaku noa te moni e wātea ana hai utu i a rātau. I muri mai i hangaia e Hōne he whare mō rātau ko tana whānau e maha tonu mai ana ki Rotorua, ēngari i ngā tekau tau e rua atu i 1930, ka uaua tana kitea ki te kāinga. I te tau 1950, nā Āpirana i whakatakoto he kaupapa utu, kaupapa kānataraka hai whai māna, he mea mau haere tonu e ia ā mate noa. Atu i te tekau tau atu i 1950, pai noa iho te hua o tana nonoi kia noho ia i rō hōtēra (nō muri mai, ki rō mōtēra). He pai atu hoki tēnei i te noho i roto whare nui, he nui rawa ngā pōrahurahu tae atu ki te kore wehenga o tērā tūmomo noho.

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1950, i mahia e ia ngā whakairo i Ōhinemutu mō Tāpeka – he whare nui kai Waihī i Tokaanu, nō te tau 1959 i whakahoutia ai – me ngā whakairo hoki mō te hōro hui o te kura tuarua mō ngā taitama o Rotorua (Rotorua Boys' High School). I te tau 1960 ka whakairotia e ia te whare karakia nui o Hoani te Kaikauwhau (Cathedral Church of St John the Evangelist) i Ahuriri (Napier); nō taua tau anō i whakawhiwhia a ia ki te tohu MBE mō āna mahi toi Māori. He mea whakamahi ia ki te whakairo i te pokapū tikanga ā-iwi Poronihiana o te Hāhi Mōmona (Mormon Polynesian Cultural Centre) i Laie, i te motu o Oahu, i ngā moutere o Hawaii. Ahakoa tēnei kitea ōna i te ao, kāore a ia i rawe ki ēnei whakairo, kāore hoki he hononga atu ki tētahi tipuna, nō reira ki a ia he whakapaipai noa iho ēnei whakairo. I te tau 1966 ka tū ko ia te ahorangi tuatahi ki te Wānanga Toi Whakairo Māori (Māori Arts and Crafts Institute) o Rotorua. I taua wā kua noho kē mai ia me ana tauira ki roto i tētahi whare tino whakarawe kē nei i Te Whakarewarewa mahi ai.

Haere tonu ngā mahi whakairo a Hōne i te tekau tau atu i 1970; ko tana mahi whakamutunga ko te whare nui, ko Mātaatua i Rotorua. I mate ia ki te hōhipera o Rotorua i te 10 o Mei i te tau 1979. E whā ngā rangi i muri mai, ka tanumia ki Ngongotahā. Mahue iho ana ko tana pouaru me ā rāua tamariki tokoono. I a ia e ora ana, ka mahia e ia ngā whakairo ātaahua mō ngā whare nui neke atu i te 44 te nui, me te tini hoki o ētahi atu momo whare. Nā rāua ko tōna tuakana ko Pine i whakatakoto ngā tauira me ngā taumata, ko ia hoki tētahi o ngā manukura whakaora ake i te taonga e whakapaetia ana, he toi ngaro pea pērā anō i te moa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Taiapa, Hōne Te Kāuru - Taiapa, Hone Te Kauru', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t2/taiapa-hone-te-kauru (accessed 17 December 2018)