Kōrero: Maaka, Golan Haberfield

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Maaka, Golan Haberfield

1904–1978

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu, nō Ngāi Tahu; he tākuta

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Bradford Haami,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

I whānau a Golan Haberfield Maaka, ko Te Kōrana tētahi o ōna īngoa, i te 4 o Āperira 1904 i te teihana o Ōruawharo i Takapau, i Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). Nō Ngāi Tahu ki Takapau tōna pāpā a Aritaku Maaka; ko tētahi hapū anō ko Ngāti Hikatoa ki Waimārama, he hapū tērā nō Ngāti Kahungunu. Ki te taha ki tōna ūkaipō, i heke iho a Aritaku i a Te Ori, nāna te hāwini a Tūpia (Tūpaea rānei) i whakamātau ki te kāwhaki mai i te kaipuke o Kāpene Kuki (James Cook), i te Endeavour, i te tau 1769. He kaiwhakamāori a Tūpia nō Tahiti. (Koia nei te take i huaina ai e Kāpene Kuki a Cape Kidnappers hei īngoa mō Te Kauae-o-Māui). Ko te koroua o Aritaku ki te taha o tona pāpā ko Whangataua, he toa whakaharahara nō Ngāi Tahu ki Takapau. Nō tōna taipakeketanga ka whakatūria tōna whare wānanga e ia ki Te Ruamaire, arā, he wāhi i te pae taha tonu o te awa o Manawatū. E ai ki te kōrero, he tauira a Te Mātorohanga rāua ko Maaka Whangataua, arā, te koroua o Te Kōrana, i taua whare wānanga.

Ko te whaea o Te Kōrana ko Ani (Annie) Haberfield, he mokopuna nā William Issac Haberfield, he kaipatu tohorā i tae ake ki Moeraki i te tau 1836, ka moe i a Marian Tete (Teitei rānei), he wahine nō Ngāti Rakiāmoa, nō Ngāti Te Ātawhiua me Ngāi Tūāhuriri, ētahi hapū o Ngāi Tahu ki Te Waipounamu. He irāmutu hoki a Ani nā Tama-i-haranui, te ariki o Ngāi Tahu.

I Takapau, i Waimārama e tipu ake ana a Te Kōrana, ā, i kuraina i te kura Māori tonu o Waimārama. Ko tētahi o ana tino maumaharatanga ko tana kitenga i te unahiroa o Rongomai (Halley's Comet) e topa ana i Waimārama i te tau 1910. Ka mau tōna tūmanako kia kite anō i tēnei unahiroa i mua i tōna matenga, ēngari kāore hoki i tutuki. I tukua a Te Kōrana ki te kura i te tāone o Heretaunga (Hastings), ā, i reira ka kite ōna kaiwhakaako i te koi o tōna hinengaro. Tekau tau tōna pakeke ka haere ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute, ā, tekau mā ono ōna tau kua tū mai hei kaiwhakaako āwhina mō te kura, me te haere tonu o āna nei mahi whai i te mātauranga. Ka tautohe ia ki te tumuaki o te kura, ki a Te Rōtene (Ernest Loten), ā, i muri mai ka neke atu a Te Kōrana Maaka ki te kura tuarua o Tanewaka (Dannevirke High School). I uru ia ki te tīma whutupaoro tuatahi o taua kura, ā, nō te tau 1922 i puta ia i ngā whakamātautau e uru atu ai ki te whare wānanga.

Ka whakauru atu a Te Kōrana ki te kura tākuta o te Whare Wānanga o Ōtākou (University of Otago), ā, i reira ka tuhia e ia tana pepa mō ngā rongoā kaupare i ngā mate i te pā o Rātana. Riro ana nā tōna uri, nā Tūroa Karauria a ia i āwhina, hei māngai hoki tēnei mā Rātana. (I taua wā kāore a T. W. Rātana rāua ko tana apataki i rata ki ngā mahi whakaatu pēnei ki te ao.) I te hōhipera o Ahuriri (Napier) a Te Kōrana e mahi ana i te tekau tau atu i 1930, ā, i te wā o te rū i Te Matau-a-Māui i te tau 1931, ko ia tētahi o ngā tāngata āwhina ā-tākuta i ngā mate, i tua atu i te whakaara puni mō te hunga kua kore kē he whare. I taua tau anō ka haere ia hei tākuta kaiāwhina noho hōhipera i te hōhipera o Pōneke (Wellington), ā, nō te tau o muri mai, nō te tau 1932, ka oti ana mahi ako.

Nō te tau 1937 ka riro mai ana tohu, te MB me te ChB, ā, rēhitatia ana hoki ia hei tākuta. I te tau 1938 ka tukua e ia tana tūranga tākuta kokoti matua i te hōhipera o Ahuriri, ka whakauru ki te tahua āwhina i ngā whenua ki te Rāwhiti Pāmamao (Far East Relief Fund), he kaupapa i hangaia e te rōpū Rīpeka Whero o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Red Cross Society) rāua ko te rōpū waka tūroro o te Kāhui o Hoani (St John Ambulance Association), e taea ai te tono tākuta ki te whenua o Haina e mate mai rā i te karawhiunga o te pakanga.

Nō Hūrae o te tau 1938 i ū ai a Te Kōrana Maaka ki Hong Kong, ā, ka whakatūria ia hei tākuta i Ichang (Yichang), i te taha o te awa nui o Yangtze (Chang Jiang). I a ia e tākuta ana i te hunga i whara, i mate rānei i te pakanga, he wā anō e mahi ana i runga i ngā tima kawe i ngā rākau, i ngā matā a ngā taua nāhinara a Chiang Kai-shek. Ko ētahi o ngā mate o taua wāhi ko te paipai, ko te korara, ko te taipō piwa, ko te eku me te mate kore kai. Ka ako a Te Kōrana i te reo Mandarin, ka ako hoki i ngā tikanga whakaora tūroro a te Hainamana, pērā i te mahi wero ki te ngira. Nō te whakawetinga o ngā Hapanihi kia tomokia a Ichang, koinā te hokinga atu o Te Kōrana ki tana takuahi i Hong Kong. Nā te mea kua motu katoa ngā ara whakawhitiwhiti kōrero, heria kētia atu ana ia ki te uru. I heria atu ia mā runga waka ki te pito whakarunga o te awa o Yangtze ki Chungking (Chongqing), te takuahi o ngā nāhinara. I reira hoatu ana e te hoa wahine o Chiang Kai-shek (Soong Mayling) he pepa hei tautiaki i a ia, i a ia e hoki atu ana ki Hong Kong. Ahakoa te roa o te nuku o te whenua me ngā mate kino hoki i te huarahi, ka tae atu ia ki Hong Kong, ki reira mahi ai i tētahi puni whakaruru. Nō te tīmatanga o te tau 1939, i wehe mai ia mā runga waka, hoki atu ana ki Pōneke.

I te urunga o Niu Tīreni ki te Pakanga Tuarua, ka tono a Te Kōrana Maaka kia uru a ia ki te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion). Haukotia ana tāna i tono ai e te Tari o Te Ora (Health Department) i Noema o te tau 1939, tukua kētia ana ia ki Tāneatua i Te Moana-a-Toi-te-huatahi (Bay of Plenty), hei tākuta whakaora paipai; hōrapa ana hoki te mate pākewakewa ki ngā Māori o taua takiwā. Karangatia ana ia ko te 'Tākuta Mariao' (Pox Doctor), he īngoa tino whakarihariha nei ki a ia. Ka tūtaki ia i Whakatāne ki a Florence Rāmari Oliphant Stewart o Ngāti Awa, ka moe rāua i te 4 o Hānuere i te tau 1941 i Taupō. Kātahi ka tonoa ia ki Te Kawakawa i Te Tai Tokerau ki te āwhina ki te ārai atu i te mate paipai me te mate kohi, mahi ngātahi ai hoki rātou ko ngā nēhi ā-rohe ki te whakapiki ake i te hauora o ngā Māori e taki noho rā i ngā takiwā i waho atu o Te Kawakawa. I a ia i reira ka uru atu ia ki te kaupapa rangahau ā-ira i te Māori toto Māori noa.

Ka taka ki te tau 1943, ka hoki a Te Kōrana Maaka ki Whakatāne. Ko ia tētahi o ngā Māori tuatahi ki te tū hei tākuta ā-whānau, ā, pūmau ana tana noho hei tākuta i Whakatāne mō ngā tau 35. I te tekau tau atu i 1940, uaua ana te taea o te moni tārewa e ngā umanga Māori. He pērā anō te uaua o te hanga whare hou i runga i ngā aukati a te kāwanatanga i te wā o te whawhai. Ko Te Kōrana te papa o ēnei mate, i te kore moni hei whakatū wāhi mahi e taea ai te whakahaere tana umanga tākuta. Mōketetia ana e tana hungarei, e Albert Stewart, tōna ake whare me ōna whenua, kia riro mai ai tētahi whare mō Maaka. Koinei tonu tōna wāhi mahi, arā, ko tōna kāinga tonu i te nama 173 o te tiriti Commerce i Whakatāne. Kore rawa ia i whakamahi i ana tūroro ki te utu, ēngari noho ake ana ko te utu mai a te kāwanatanga tāna e kerēme ana mō ia tūroro i tirohia e ia. Ko te koha tāpiri a ana tūroro ki a ia, he kai, he pounamu wai, ā, hei whakahōnore i a ia, tapaina ana ā rātou tamariki whānau hou ki te īngoa o Maaka. Nā tēnei tikanga, i tapaina a ia ko te 'Tākuta Kāpeti' (Cabbage Doctor), ā, weriweri ana ki a ia tēnei o ōna īngoa. Rua tekau tau a ia e tākuta ana ki ngā tāngata o tana rohe e 50 māero te whānui, huri haere, huri haere. Nō muri mai ka wehewehea te mahi rā i waenganui i ngā tākuta tokorima, kātahi anō ka ihia kia iti ai tana rohe. Ko ia tonu ki te whakarite i ngā penihana toko i te ora, whare atu hoki mō ana tūroro, ā, i tua atu i tēnei ko āna mahi haere hoki mā runga hōiho, mā runga waka rānei, ki te torotoro i ana tūroro e nohonoho wehe atu ana i te ngahere o Te Urewera.

I te tīmatanga o te mahi tākuta a Te Kōrana Maaka, kore nei te maha o te Pākehā (me ētahi Māori tonu) i whakapono ka taea tēnei tūmomo mahi e te Māori, ka taea rānei te whakarere ngā mahi tohunga Māori e rātou kia whakamahia ai te tikanga whakaora tūroro a te Pākehā. Heoi anō, ka roa te wā, ehara, kua rerekē te whakaaro. Kāore hoki a Te Kōrana i mau pono ki ngā rongoā a te Pākehā anake; he wā anō kua huri ia ki ngā rongoā Māori nā ngā kaumātua o Tūhoe a ia i ako. Kua tae ki ngā mate mākutu huhua, tonoa ana e ia aua tūroro ki ngā tohunga Māori, ki tana mōhio ka taea e rātou te whakaora. Noho ake ana ia hei tohunga tino mōhio mō te tiro me te whakatau i te mate o te tūroro, hei tohunga atu hoki mō ngā mate e pā ana ki te kiri.

Nā te āhua o tana mahi, kāore i toe mai he wā ki a ia ake me tōna whānau. Tokotoru ā rāua tamāhine ko Florence, ā, ko te tuawhā, he tāne, mate kōhungahunga ana. Pākatokato ana te mamae ki a Te Kōrana. He tangata rahi nei tōna tinana, pū tahi ai te aroha me te mataku o ana tūroro i a ia. I tua atu i tēnā he tangata ūpoko mārō a Te Kōrana, he tino kaha nei ōna whakaaro, ā, he wā ka pōuriuri, he wā anō ka taikaha, ā, he tangata kaha hoki ki te inu. Matea nuitia ana e ia te motokā; ka kaha ake te tere, ka pai kē atu ki a ia, ā, mōhiotia ana tana tino kino ki te taraiwa. I tua atu i tēnā ko ōna atua anō ko te whutupaoro tae atu ki te kōrero pukapuka, arā, ruku iho ana me uaua kē ka puea ake anō. He tangata whakaemi whakapapa a Te Kōrana, ā, i te mutunga atu, ka noho hei tino tohunga mō ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori whānui me ngā kōrero tonu a Mātaatua. Nā tāna mahi tākuta i whai wāhi ia ki ngā taipakeke o te rohe i pērā rawa ai tōna mōhio. I te tekau tau atu i 1960, e rua tau a ia e noho ana hei māngai Māori mō te kaunihera o te motu mō te ako pakeke (National Council of Adult Education), ēngari nā te nui o ngā mahi a tana umanga, tuku iho ana ia i taua tūranga. I tuhia e ia he pepa e werowero ana i te whakaaro mō te oranga o te Māori, hei pānui mā te hui a ngā Rangatahi Māori (Young Māori Leaders' Conference) i te tau 1959.

I mau tonu a Te Kōrana ki tana mahi, kore rawa i mutu. Ahakoa tana whakaiti i ana hāora mahi i te tau 1976, i kitekite tonu a ia i ana tūroro, tae noa ki ngā rā i mua tata tonu i tōna matenga i Whakatāne i te 17 o Mei i te tau 1978; ka mahue ake rā ko tana wahine ko Florence. I te marae o Wairaka i Whakatāne tōna tangihanga, ā, i Ōhope e tāpuketia ana. I te nehutanga i a ia ka kīia, ka hoatu e ētahi kaumātua tokorua ā rāua moni whakamutunga ki a Florence me te kī anō, mai i te hemonga nei o Te Kōrana Maaka, e haere ana rāua ki te ngahere, ki reira tatari ai rāua kia mate. E hia nei ngā rā i muri mai i tōna matenga, i huakina ōkawatia ai te whare haumanu o Rūātoki hei whakanui i āna mahi āwhina i ngā tāngata o reira. Ko te īngoa o taua whare ko te whare hauora o Maaka (Maaka Clinic).

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Bradford Haami. 'Maaka, Golan Haberfield', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4m1/maaka-golan-haberfield (accessed 21 February 2019)