Kōrero: Stewart, Albert Oliphant

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Stewart, Albert Oliphant

1884–1958

Nō Ngāti Awa, nō Te Whānau-a-Apanui; he kaiārahi, he karaka ture, he kaiwhakamārama reo, he kaitōrangapū ā­-rohe, he kaiwhakaemi reiti

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Bradford Haami,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

I whānau a Albert Oliphant Stewart (Tuati) i Whakatāne i te 16 o Hūrae i te tau 1884. Arā atu ōna īngoa kārangaranga, ko Te Tāwhero tētahi, ko Arapeta tētahi. Ko ia te tama a Tiare (Charles) Edward Oliphant Stewart, he tangata mahi pāmu, rāua ko tana wahine, ko Lily Agnes Te Tāwero (Tāwhero rānei), ko Awhiāhua Hetaraka hei īngoa anō mōna. I ahu mai te tātai o Tiare i a Ngāti Pūkeko o Ngāti Awa me Ngāti Mahuta o Waikato. Ko te taha Māori tērā. Kātahi ka hanumi ki ngā tātai o ōna whakahekenga o Kōterani, ko tana taha Pākehā tērā. Ko Lily i tātaia mai i a Ngāti Pūkeko me Te Whānau-a-Rūtāia o Te Whānau-a-Apanui. E whā tau te pakeke o Arapeta, ka mate a Lily. Moe kē atu a Tiare he wahine kē i te tau 1892, ā, nō konei ka riro a Arapeta hei tamaiti whāngai mā Hira Hōtene, rangatira o Ngāti Hokopū, rāua ko tana wahine, ko Te Waipūnohu. E taitama tonu ana, ka noho ia i te taha o ngā momo rangatira pērā i a Hira, i a Te Hurinui Apanui, i a Merito Hetaraka me Te Keepa Tawhio, ka pū te huarahi mō Arapeta.

I te kura Māori o Te Poroporo a Arapeta e kuraina ana, kātahi ka whiwhi ia i tētahi karahipi, ka haere ki Tīpene (St Stephen's Native Boys' School) i Panēra (Parnell) i Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland). E rua ngā tau ki reira, ka haere ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute i te tau 1899. Pēnei tonu a Arapeta i te nui o ngā tamariki i te kura he pōhara nei ngā mātua. Nā konā, i noho tonu ia i te kura i ngā hararei, rumaki kai ai, whakangau tahi ai rātau ko ōna hoa.

Ka puta nei ia i ana whakamātautau hei whakauru i a ia ki te whare wānanga, ka mahi mai ia hei karaka ture i tētahi tari ture i Tūranga (Gisborne). Nō te takanga ki te 14 o Hepetema 1907 ka moea e ia a Adeline Celia McKay. Ka hua ka tini te whenua i tō rāua moenga, tekau mā tahi rawa ā rāua tamariki. Nō Ngāti Pūkeko me Ngāti Mahuta te pāpā o Adeline. Ko te māmā i heke iho i a Te Apatū-o-te-rangi, he ariki nō Te Māhia. I tipu ake a Arapeta hei Katorika, ā, he Mihingare a Adeline, ēngari nō tō rāua moenga, riro kē ana a Adeline hei Katorika.

Nō tōna whiwhinga i tana raihana hei kaiwhakamārama reo i te tau 1908, ka tīmata tana hoki putuputu ki Whakatāne ki te āwhina i ngā take a Ngāti Awa. Ka taka mai ki te tau 1914 ka mahue a Tūranga, ka tūturu te noho ki Whakatāne. I mua tata atu o te hokinga, i mea atu a Āpirana Ngata he mahi tāna mā Arapeta kei Pōneke (Wellington), ēngari nā tōna tūturu ki ngā kaupapa e pā ana ki tōna whānau me tōna iwi, kāore i tutuki te tono a Āpirana.

E kōrerotia ana ko Arapeta te kaiwhakamāori, whakapākehā i te whakawākanga o Rua Kēnana i Ākarana (Auckland) i te tau 1916. Nō te tau o muri mai ka uru ia ki ngā mahi tōrangapū ā-rohe hei mema mō te kaunihera takiwā tāone o Whakatāne (Whakatāne Borough Council), ā, tae noa ki te tau 1919 noho ake ia i tēnei tūranga. I te tau 1923 ka noho ia hei māngai Māori ki te poari wahapū o Whakatāne (Whakatāne Harbour Board), tae noa ki te tau 1931.

He tangata kaha a Arapeta ki te whawhai i ngā kaupapa i manawawera ai ia. Tautohe ana rāua ko Pīhopa J. M. Liston i a ia e neke ana i ngā karakia atu i te whare karakia whakairo, i Te Whare-o-Toroa i Wairaka, ki Piripai, e rua māero te tawhiti atu. Ko tā Arapeta tohe he tawhiti rawa atu a Piripai i te nohoanga kāinga o ngā Māori, ko te tokomaha he taipakeke, ā, kāore he waka hei kawe i a rātau ki Piripai. Otirā, ko tana pakanga nui i te tau 1917 ko te aukati i te hiahia o te kaunihera tāone (Borough Council) me te rūnanga tauhokohoko (Chamber of Commerce) ki te whakapapatahi i a Pōhaturoa, he toka kei te puku tonu o te tāone o Whakatāne e tū ana. Ko te hiahia kia mahia ngā kongakonga kōhatu o te toka nei mō ngā rori, hei whakakī hoki i ngā papa paru tai o Whakatāne. He toka tapu a Pōhaturoa nō Ngāti Awa, he tūāhu tuku iho mō ngā karakia mō te whakawhānau tamariki, mō te mate, mō te pakanga, mō te tā moko me ētahi atu tikanga whai hua ki a Ngāti Awa. Ko ngā karaka e tipu ana i tōna take i hua ake i ngā kākano i heria mai i runga o Mātaatua waka. I reira hoki i hainatia e Ngāti Awa te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kāore he painga o te tohe a Arapeta kia kaua e raweketia a Pōhaturoa. Ka whakaaraaratia ngā rangatira o te rohe, ka karapotia a Pōhaturoa, tūtū mai ana te hunga nei i ō rātau kākahu Māori. Nā Tiaki Rēwiri te kupu whakatakoto i te kerēme a te Māori mō Pōhaturoa. Nō Arapeta tētahi o ngā moko i tāia ki runga i te petihana a Tawa (Gilbert Mair) ki te Pāremata mō Pōhaturoa. Nāwai rā ka mau te iro o te kaunihera. Mai i tērā rā ki nāianei ka noho a Pōhaturoa hei wāhi huihuinga mō ngā take nui o Whakatāne.

I ngā tau o muri mai, ka whakaarahia anō e Arapeta ngā rangatira mō tētahi kaupapa pērā anō te rite. E meinga ana kia nekehia te kāinga Māori, arā a Te Whare-o-Toroa mai i Wairaka ki te tonga o Whakatāne. He repo te wāhi nei. I a ia i runga i te poari wahapū, ka puta tana tohe kia whakamutua te whakapāhūhū i ngā toka tapu o te rohe, he mahi moni te take. Ahakoa tōna kaha, turakina ana a Irākewa, ngaro atu hoki tētahi wāhanga o Te Toka a Taiaho, arā, te punga nei o Mātaatua.

Pakanga ana hoki a Arapeta ki te pupuri i te tikanga o te Māori ki ana kai tuku iho, ki te hī ika, ki te kohi kai moana, ki te aukati atu hoki i ngā pēhanga mai a te Pākehā, pēhanga hoki a te ture. Nanao tonu iho ki tana pūnoti pau ana i a ia te £2,000 hei utu māna i tana whawhai i te kōti kia whakahokia mai ngā whenua o Ngāti Awa i raupatutia e te Karauna. E hia tau nei i muri mai i tana matenga, kātahi anō ka hoki mai ngā whenua o Ngāti Awa.

He mema hoki a Arapeta nō te Kaunihera o Mātaatua (Mātaatua Māori Council), ā, pōtitia ana hoki hei heamana mō te komiti ā-iwi o Ngāti Awa. I ngā rua tekau tau atu i 1940, ko ia te tangata kohi haere i ngā reiti mō ngā whenua o te rohe. Ko ia hoki i te pupuri i ngā pukapuka mō te huhua o ngā tāngata nō rātau te whenua, whakatūpato tonu i te hunga nei ki te utu i ā rātau reiti. Ka uaua ana ki te hunga whai pānga, kua riro māna tonu e utu ngā reiti kia mau tonu i te Māori ōna whenua.

Nā tōna tohunga ki te whakairo i te kupu ahakoa i tēhea o ngā reo, Pākehā, Māori rānei, nui ana tāna tautoko i tōna rohe. Ka tū ngā rangatira o Ngāti Hokopū o Ngāti Awa ki te kōrero i runga i te marae, ko ia te kaiwhakapākehā. Riro ana ko ia i te kōrero, i te whakahaere rānei, i ngā hui nui i tū ki Whakatāne pērā i te hui whakanui i te rau tau o te tau 1940, me te hui pōhiri i te hokinga mai o ngā hōia mōrehu o te rohe i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.

He tangata i ngākaunui a Arapeta ki ngā mahi hākinakina. Nāna i whakatū, i whakahaere ētahi o ngā karapu tākaro i te rohe o Whakatāne. He kaha hoki ia ki te akiaki kia mahi tahi te Māori me te Pākehā, ā, puta ana te whakahē mai a tētahi taha, a tētahi taha. Ko ia te kaiwhakaara me te perehitini o te rōpū purei tēnehi o Mātaatua (Mātaatua Lawn Tennis Association), he mema mō ake tonu atu, he kairangi hoki nō te karapu hoehoe o Whakatāne (Whakatāne Rowing Club), he kāpene nō te karapu korowha o Mokoroa (Mokoroa Golf Club), he mema hoki nō te ope o Whakatāne nā rātau i whakaara te papa korowha tuatahi ki Apanui. He toa ia ki tēnei tākaro, ko te tohu o tōna pai tōtahi noa ana tana tohurehe. Mō te taha ki te whutupaoro, kāore he tangata pōrangi atu i a Arapeta ki tēnei tākaro, ā, ka tae ki te whakarite ko wai e uru ana ki ngā tīma Māori, rapua mai ana ōna whakaaro. Nō te tau 1908 i pōtitia ko ia te perehitini tuatahi o te uniana whutupaoro o Whakatāne, ā, riro ana anō i a ia te tūranga nei i te tau 1938. I ngā tau tuatahi o te tekau tau atu i 1940, ka noho ko ia hei māngai mō te poari tohutohu Māori ki te uniana whutupaoro o Te Moana-a-Toi (Bay of Plenty Rugby Football Union). I taua wā anō ko ia tonu te kairangi o te karapu whutupaoro whakakotahitanga o Whakatāne (Whakatāne United Rugby Football Club).

I te tau 1927, ka uru a Arapeta ki te pikitia a Rudall Hayward, arā, ki Te Kooti trail, paku iti noa tana utu; inarā, ko te wāhi ki a ia ko Te Rangihīroa, ko ia nei te rūtene a Te Kooti. I te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua, ko tā rāua mahi ko tana wahine he whakahaere mahi ōpera, mahi whakaari Māori, hei mahi moni hei āwhina i ngā mahi tautoko i te whawhai. E hia kē anō hoki ngā hāora i pau i a rāua ki te whakamaroke īnanga me te pipi hei tuku ki ngā hōia i tāwāhi, tuhi reta whakahauhau atu hoki ki tēnā, ki tēnā o ngā hōia o te rohe ā-iwi. Tokoono ā rāua tama i te pakanga e whawhai ana, ā, tokorua hoki i hinga i te mura o te ahi.

Ko tētahi mea nui anō ki a Arapeta ko te pupuri tonu i ngā mōhiotanga o te Māori. He mema ia nō te rōpū hītori o Whakatāne me ōna rohe (Whakatāne and District Historical Society), nāna hoki ētahi o ngā tuhituhi mō ngā kōrero huhua o nehe a Ngāti Awa me te rohe o Mātaatua. Nāna anō hoki ētahi o ngā kōrero kei ngā tuhinga pērā i a Tūwharetoa, i tuhia ai e John Te Herekiekie Grace. I mate a Arapeta Tuati i te 3 o Āperira i te tau 1958 ki Whakatāne. Ka mahue iho i a ia tana hoa wahine me ā rāua tama tokorima, tamāhine tokowhā hoki. I te marae o Wairaka e takoto ana te tūpāpaku, ā, nehua ana hoki i te urupā o Hillcrest i Whakatāne.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Bradford Haami. 'Stewart, Albert Oliphant', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4s47/stewart-albert-oliphant (accessed 27 May 2019)