Kōrero: Tūtaki, Robert Pānapa

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tutaki, Robert Panapa

1887/1888?–1957

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he kaikuti hipi, he kaiuniana

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e John E. Martin,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

E rua atu ngā īngoa mō Robert Pānapa Tūtaki e mōhiotia ana, arā, ko Tūtaki Pānapa Stewart me Robert Tūtaki Pānapa. Nō te tau 1887, 1888 rānei ia i whānau ai, hei tama mā Arapera Te Ngaaero rāua ko tana tāne, ko Pānapa Tuari (Stewart). Inā kē atu anō te tokomaha o ngā tamariki a ngā tokorua nei. I whānau a 'Bob' Tūtaki ki Ruahāpia kāinga, kei mōwaho mai o te tāone o Heretaunga (Hastings). Ko Ngāi Toroiwaho te hapū o ōna mātua. He hapū hikahika karanga rua, ngātahi mai i a Ngāti Kahungunu me Rangitāne. Ka mutu nei tana kura, ka haere a ia ki te Tari Poutāpeta me te Waea (Post and Telegraph Department) mahi ai hei ākonga, ēngari kāre i roa kua whai i tana pāpā ki te kutikuti hipi. Tere tonu tana eke ki te taumata o tērā mahi. Nō te otinga o te 330 hipi i a ia te kuti i te rā kotahi, ka whakawhiwhia a ia ki tētahi mētara parāhi e te kamupune nā rātou nei i hanga te mīhini kutikuti hipi, arā, te Wolseley.

He minita reimana te pāpā o Tūtaki nō te Hāhi Mihinare, ā, kaha ana tōna awe ki runga i tāna tama. I whakahaerea rawatia e Pānapa Tuari he karakia i ngā wūruheti i te pō, me tana kaha anō kia matatika tonu te hanga noho a ngā tāne me ngā wāhine Māori o ana rōpū kuti hipi. He pērā anō te āhua o Tūtaki i tana pāpā, ka noho nei ia hei pāhi mahi i ngā wūruheti. Tau rawa ki te 18 tōna pakeke, ka eke ia ki te taumata o te karangatanga 'ringer', arā, ko ia te tangata kaha tere rawa atu ki te kuti hipi. Tekau mā waru tonu ōna tau, ka whakauru atu ia ki te uniana e whakatinanatia ana i taua wā, arā, te Uniana Katikati o Pōneke (Wellington Shearers' Union). Mai i taua wā tōna nohonga hei mema pūmau, kaiwhakahaere hoki mō te uniana. Nō te tau 1915, i riro ai te uniana kuti hipi hei wāhanga mō te Uniana Mahi Pāmu (New Zealand Agricultural and Pastoral Workers' Union), ā, nō te tau 1919 ka hurihia te īngoa ki te Kotahitanga o ngā Tāngata Mahi o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Workers' Union).

Ko te mahi tuatahi a Tūtaki mā te uniana ko tērā o te tū hei waha kōrero mō ngā kaimahi o ngā wūruheti me te kohi i ngā utunga uniana o ōna hoa kaimahi. I te tau 1908 i roto ia i ngā whakariterite para i te huarahi, i whakawhiwhia ai ngā tāngata kutikuti hipi o Pōneke kia £1 te utu mō ia 100 hipi e oti ana te kuti. Koinei te wā tuatahi i utua ai tēnei utu. Kāre e kore i te hui nui a ia a ngā Māori kaikuti hipi i Oketopa o 1909. He mea totohe nā rātou i reira kia whai kanohi rātou i roto i te uniana. Ko te tukunga iho ko te whakaīngoatanga i a ia hei Māori tuatahi hei kaiwhakahaere mō te taha Māori. Nō muri mai i tūpato ai te uniana ki te whakauru atu i ngā take e pā ana ki te Māori. Ko 1916 te tau i tino kaha ai te whawhai a Tūtaki kia kore rawa ngā māpu kaikuti Māori e whakaae kia taka paku iho i te 25 hereni te utu mō ia 100 hipi e kutia ana.

Nō te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi, i taea ai e te uniana kuti hipi te whakarahi ake ngā utu e utua ana. E kumukumu ana te āhua o te ao ohanga i te wā i mutu ai te Pakanga Tuatahi, ā, nō taua wā tonu i whakamātau ai ngā kaipāmu hipi o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay) kia pakaru i a rātou te Kotahitanga o ngā Tāngata Mahi o Niu Tīreni. I te tau 1920 ka hoatu e rātou he moni hei tuarā i te rōpū Māori kutikuti hipi o Mataara (Mataara Māori Shearers' Association), i whati mai nei rātou i te Kotahitanga. I whakaae te rōpū hou nei kia whakahekea iho ā rātou utu, ā, tokowhā nei ō rātou kaiwhakahaere e huri haere ana i te rohe e whakamātau ana ki te poapoa mai i ngā mema Māori o te Kotahitanga o ngā Tāngata Mahi, ki te hoatu hoki i ngā ratonga hauora kore utu ki ngā mema o te uniana.

Kīhai i roa kua whakaae a Tūtaki ki te tono a te kaiwhakahaere o te Kotahitanga o ngā Tāngata Mahi kia huri atu ki te āwhina i a ia. Arā a Tūtaki i te wūruheti a Keepa Winiata, te perehitini o te rōpū o Mataara, e kuti hipi ana. I whakaae katoa te nuinga o te rōpū kutikuti hipi i te wūruheti kia rēhitatia rātou, ēngari, ko ngā tamāhine anake a te kaiahu whenua kīhai i whakaae kia rēhitatia e ia. Mō ngā wā kuti hipi o ngā tau e rua o muri mai, nāna i tāpoi Te Matau-a-Māui ki te ārai atu i te awe o te rōpū o Mataara. E hia mano tini māero kē nei i haerea e ia mā runga i tōna motopaika. I te mutunga iho kua pau te kaha o tana mīhini. Hoatu ana he mea hou māna e te Kotahitanga, ēngari kīhai i whakaaetia tāna i tono rā, he motokā, he Ford. I whai painga ngā mahi a Tūtaki ki te whakahauhau i ngā mema Māori kia noho tonu ki te Kotahitanga o ngā Tāngata Mahi o Niu Tīreni. Na, ko te āhua nei, i memeha haere te kaha o te rōpū kuti hipi o Mataara, ā, nō muri mai i te tau 1921, i ngaro atu ai ki te kore hāhā.

I te wā tonu o te tau kutikuti ka whakarērea e Tūtaki tana mahi kuti hipi kia haere ki te mahi mā te uniana. Ko 1921 te tau i pōtitia a ia hei māngai mō te rohe, ā, hei āpiha kaiwhakarite mō ngā āhua e pā ana ki te wā o te kuti hipi. Tata ana ki te whā tekau tau i a ia ēnei tūnga e mau ana. I tū anō hoki ia hei mema mō te kaunihera whakahaere o te uniana me tōna komiti whakahaere mō ngā tau e hia kē nei te roa. Ko Puketapu (Fernhill) te kāinga noho o Tūtaki. E tūtata ana taua wāhi nei ki te tāone o Heretaunga. Nā te mea koinei tōna kāinga noho i ngangahau ai tana uru atu ki te kawe i ngā mahi o te Kura o Puketapu me te komiti kāinga, ā, ko ia anō hoki tētahi o ngā kaiwhakahaere o Te Matau-a-Māui mō te Kaunihera o Tamatea (Tamatea Māori Council).

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1920, ka whakatūria e Tūtaki me ērā atu o ngā kaiwhakarite ētahi hui nui i ngā pā o ia takiwā i mua i te wā o te kuti hipi, kia mau piri ai ngā Māori o te wā kāinga ki a rātou. Nā te mea he tino hē rawa atu te nuinga o ngā wāhi noho o ngā kaikuti hipi Māori, i ngangahau ai a Tūtaki ki te whakapai ake i te āhuatanga noho o aua wāhi. He nui tonu ngā kaiahu whenua o taua wā nei kīhai i mahara ki te hoatu i tētahi wāhi moe tōtika, i hoatu rānei kia rawaka te kai.

I te pakaritanga haeretanga mai o te kaupapa Rātana i waenganui o te tekau tau atu i 1920, whakahokia ana e Tūtaki ā rātou kōrero ārai, wero huna i te uniana. Ko te kī a T. W. Rātana, ka taea e tana kaupapa te tiaki ngā hiahiatanga katoa o te Māori, ā, kāre he kiko ki te Māori ki te whakauru atu ki tētahi uniana. Ēngari ko te whakapono tonu o Tūtaki, arā, he maha kē noa atu ngā kūaha e whakatuwheratia mai ana e te Kotahitanga o ngā Tāngata Mahi me te Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa (New Zealand Labour Party) hei whakapai ake i ngā āhuatanga o te Māori. I te tau 1928 he ruarua noa iho te hunga e tautoko ana i te Rōpū Reipa. Koia tēnei te tau i tū ai a Tūtaki hei kaiwhakauru mō te Rōpū Reipa ki te tūru o te rohe pōti Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ko Tā Āpirana Ngata tana hoa tauwhāinga, te kaipupuri o te tūru i taua wā. I tētahi hui Māori i tū ki Puketapu, ka whaikōrerotia rātou e te tumuaki o te Rōpū Reipa, e Te Hōrana (Harry Holland). Ahakoa te whakahē a Tūtaki i a Rātana ka whai tonu ia kia tautokona a ia e Rātana i te wā o te pōtitanga, ēngari i whakapaua kētia e tērā ōna kaha ki te tautāwhi i tāna tangata ake. I tū a Tūtaki hei kaiwhakauru i raro i te īngoa T. P. Stewart, heoi anō, nō te tatautanga i ngā pōti, riro ana i a Ngata te tāhuna, i a Pita Moko, te kaiwhakauru Rātana, te tūranga tuarua, ā, i muri rawa atu ko Tūtaki i te tūranga tuatoru.

I te wā o te whakahekenga, ngaro noa ana te īngoa o Tūtaki i ngā mauhanga a te uniana, pērā i te maha noa o te tangata i te hinganga o ngā uniana, ka tahuri tētahi wāhi nui tonu o ōna mema ki te whai i ngā mahi whakaora. Nō te tau 1936, kua tū anō ia hei māngai, hei kaiwhakarite hoki mō te uniana, ā, ko ia tētahi i reira e āwhina ana ki te whakaara ake anō i te uniana. Tau rawa atu ki 1937, kua noho ko Tūtaki te kaiwhakarite o Te Matau-a-Māui mō te Kaunihera Tohutohu Māori o te Rōpū Reipa. Nā Tūtaki te kerēme ko ia anake te māngai Māori i tae ki te hui mahi o te motu (National Industrial Conference) i taua tau, arā, te hui nāna nei i hanga te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa (New Zealand Federation of Labour). Ko 1938 te tau i whakahaeretia ai e Tūtaki tētahi hui nui ki te pā o Mōteo hei whakanui i a Aata Kuki (Arthur Cook), te hēkeretari kaha nei tōna mana uniana.

I te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua, ka whakatūria a Tūtaki hei āpiha taritari ope Māori (rūtene tuarua) mō te rohe o Te Matau-a-Māui. He tāpiringa atu tēnei ki āna mahi mā te uniana. He ngangahau anō hoki tana whai wāhi atu ki te kaupapa whakarato kaimahi kuti hipi hei tautoko i a rātou kei te mura o te ahi. Mō ēnei tū mahi āna, ka whakawhiwhia a ia ki te tohu whakahōnore MBE i te tau 1949.

Nāwai, nāwai rā, ka takahia e Tūtaki te mana o te kotahitanga o ngā uniana nā runga i tana here i a ia ki te Rōpū Reipa. Ko 1947 te tau i puta whakaaro kore i a ia ētahi kōrero noa e ātete ana i te riri o ngā kaiuta poti ki te kāwanatanga Reipa. Ko tōna whakaaro – e ai ki ngā pūrongo a ngā nūpepa – ka āwhinatia te kāwanatanga e ngā Māori o Te Matau-a-Māui me Te Tai Rāwhiti ki te takahi i te porotū, ā, mā rātou ngā mahi i runga i ngā wāpu e mahi. Nā taua pūrongo nei i whakahohoro tana makeretanga mai i tōna tūranga āpiha o te uniana. I tino kohetetia a ia i te hui ā-tau o muri mai, ēngari he mea whakahoki atu tana mematanga i runga i te wairua manawa pā.

He pouaru a Tūtaki i te wā i moea ai e ia i Ōmāhu i te 2 o Mei o te tau 1950 tētahi pouaru ko Tāniko Tāhau Hānara te īngoa, ko tētahi anō o ōna īngoa ko Tāniko Pāora. Kei te ngaro ngā mokamoka o ngā mārenatanga o Tūtaki o mua atu. Ko te whakaaro i whānau ake he tama i a rāua ko tētahi o ōna hoa wahine o mua atu.

Mō te roanga ake o te wā i a Tūtaki i roto i te uniana, i mau tonu i a ia tana tūnga ā mate noa. I taua wā nei ko ia te mema tino pakeke rawa atu, me te mema ngangahau e mahi tonu ana mā te uniana. Nā te pānga ōna e te mate i kore ai a Tūtaki i tae ki te hui ā-tau o 1956. Taka atu ki 1957, ka tū anō ia. Ehara! Kātahi te mea rerekē! Kīhai ia i pōtitia hei māngai. He mea whakamahi anō ia mō tētahi wā poto i te wā o te kuti hipi, ēngari nā tana māuiui tonu i kore ai a ia i kaha ki te hoki ki te mahi ā te wā kuti hipi e heke iho ana. I mua o te takanga o taua wā, ka mate mai ia ki Heretaunga i te 27 o Hepetema 1957, ā, i tāpuketia ki Ōmāhu. Ko te tōmuatanga o tēnei tau anō te wā i hinga ai tana hoa wāhine.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John E. Martin. 'Tūtaki, Robert Pānapa - Tutaki, Robert Panapa', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3t46/tutaki-robert-panapa (accessed 17 October 2019)