Kōrero: Tīkao, Hōne Taare

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tikao, Hone Taare

1850?–1927

Nō Ngāi Tahu; he rangatira, he tangata mātau, he kaitōrangapū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Tipene O'Regan,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

Nā Teone (Hōne) Taare Tīkao te kōrero ki a Herries Beattie, kaituhi kōrero tawhito, i whānau a ia ki Hakaroa, Horomaka rānei (Banks Peninsula), i te tau 1850. E rua tau tēnei i mua atu i te hokonga a te Karauna i Ngā Pākihi‑whakatekateka-o‑Waitaha (Canterbury) i a Ngāi Tahu; kāore hoki i roa tōna whānautanga ka tae mai ngā tāngata whai Pākehā. E taea ana e Tīkao te whakaheke ōna whakapapa mai i ngā hapū 21 o Ngāi Tahu, ēngari ko Ngāi Tūāhuriri me Ngāti Irakehu ngā hapū e whakahuahua nuitia ana e ia. O ēnei hapū e rua, tūturu iho tōna pūmau ki a Ngāti Irakehu, he hapū i whai pānga hoki ki Te Wairarapa ki te tonga i Te Ika‑a‑Māui.

I mua atu i te whānautanga o Taare, he karawhiutanga a Hakaroa nā ngā pū tiripapā a Ngāti Toa i ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1820; anea ana a Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1830 i te haere whakapoapoatanga o Tama-i-haranui ki runga i te Elizabeth, ka patua atu. Ka mau hereheretia te matua o Taare, a Tāmati Tīkao rāua ko Hōne Tīkao – he teina, he tuakana rānei nō Tāmati. Kawea ana rāua ki Te Ika‑a‑Māui whakarau ai. I te unuhanga i te here i runga i a Hōne, ka haere ia hei hēramana i runga i tētahi kaipuke whai tohorā. Pau te ao i a ia. Nōna hoki tētahi o ngā tohu i utaina ki runga ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, ēngari ko John Love kē tōna īngoa i whakairotia atu ki te Tiriti. Nōna anō hoki tētahi o ngā tohu i taea ai a Waitaha te hoko atu ki te Karauna i te tau 1848. Ko Tāmati tēnei. E hia nei rā ōna tau ki Te Wairau. I reira ka uru atu ki ngā mahi a ngā mīhana, ka mōhio ki te tuhituhi. Te takanga hei Karaitiana ka noho hei kaikauwhau i ngā painga i heria mai e tērā rongopai.

I te kitenga o te huarahi hoki ki te kāinga ki Hakaroa, ka noho a Tāmati ki Wairewa (Lake Forsyth). Ka moe i a Rāhera, ka puta ko Teone Taare Tīkao (ko Hōne Taare Tīkao, ko John Charles Tīkao ētahi o ōna īngoa). Ka whakatūria e Tāmati he wharekura Māori ki Wairewa. Ko Hōne i Wakaroa (Pigeon Bay) e noho ana. Ka pakari a Taare, ka noho ki te āwhina i tōna matua ki te ahu i tō rātou whenua; ka haere hoki hei kaimahi mā ngā tāngata whai Pākehā. Nō te 22 o Hune 1878, ka moe a Taare i tana wahine tuatahi, i a Maraea Tīhau (ko Toitoi tētahi o ngā īngoa), he whanaunga tata ki a ia. Ko te Whare Karakia o Pita i te kāinga o Akaroa te wāhi mārena. Nō konei te rerenga atu o Taare i te kōhanga o ōna mātua, ka haere rāua ko tana wahine ki Wainui noho ai. Ka noho nā, neke atu ana i te 30 tōna pakeke.

I te matenga o Maraea me ā rāua tamariki tokorua o tērā moenga, ka moe anō a Taare i a Martha Hana Toku Horomona (Hannah Solomon‑Score) o Koukourarata (Port Levy), ā, ka noho rāua i runga i ngā whenua o tana wahine. Tekau mā whā rawa ā rāua tamariki, tokoono ngā mea i mate. Nō waenganui i te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka hiki te whānau ki Rāpaki, kia tata ai ngā tamariki ki te kura i whakatūria e Te Koti Te Rato, he mihinare Wēteriana nō Ngāti Kahungunu.

I a Taare e taitama tonu ana, ka tukua e tōna matua kia whakangungua e Koroko rāua ko Tūauau, he pōua tohunga nō Ngāi Tahu. Tekau tau a Taare e akona ana. Nā konei i mōhio whānui ai a Taare ki ngā kōrero o Ngāi Tahu e pā ana ki te whare wānanga me te kete ō a Waitaha. (Nō muri mai ka whakataha a Taare i ngā kōrero tūpuna mō te taha tonga o Ngāi Tahu.)

Nā te noho i te taha o ngā tohunga nei, āpiti atu ki ngā akiaki a ōna mātua kia ako i te reo Pākehā me te tuhituhi, ka pū te koi o te hinengaro o Taare. Ko ia te kaituku kōrero ki a Hēmi Kāwana (James Cowan), ki a J. W. Stack me Herries Beattie; nā te tokotoru nei i tā ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā kōrero tūpuna a Ngāi Tahu. Nā tōna matatau ki te reo Pākehā me tōna ngākau atawhai ki te whakawhitiwhiti mōhio i māmā ai tāna whakapiripiri ki ngā Pākehā rangatira o Waitaha. He putuputu tana kauhau i ngā tikanga Māori; he putuputu hoki tana whakamanuhiri i ngā Pākehā i ōna kāinga i Rāpaki me Koukourarata.

Mai anō i a ia e tamariki ana maumahara tonu ia ki ngā whare whakairo o Hakaroa me ērā anō o Ngāi Tahu haere atu i te pukerae e tū ana, ka whakapaua e ia tōna kaha ki te whakaara whare mō te iwi. Ko ia tētahi o ngā mana i tū ai te whare karakia i Ōnuku, arā, i Te Kāika (The Kaik). Nāna hoki i ārahi ētahi kaupapa hanga whare; ka tū a Tū-te-huarewa whare i Koukourarata me Te Wheke whare i Rāpaki. Me te aha, noho ana ko ia te rangatira o tōna iwi o Rāpaki.

I whāia nuitia ngā rangatira tikanga rua e pūkenga ana ki te whakatakoto kaupapa ki te ao Pākehā, ā, kua kitea ake rā tōna ātārangi i te motu. E taka te wā, mā ōna mātauranga tonu tohu ai i tōna rongo. Nō te tau 1849 i tīmata ai ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu kia whakatikatikaia ngā tinihanga a te Karauna i roto i te hokona o ngā whenua o Te Wai Pounamu. Nō te wā e puta haere ana te rongo o Taare, ka kaha kē atu ngā kerēme. Ko ia tētahi o ngā kaikōrero mō Ngāi Tahu ahakoa tōna taitamariki atu i ētahi o ngā rangatira. Ko ia te poutāhū o te pakanga kia rāhuitia ngā wāhi mahinga kai o Ngāi Tahu. Nō tēnei pakanga ka hua ōna mōhiotanga ki ngā kōrero o te taiao, arā, o te kete ō. Noho tonu ia ki te tuhi i ngā kōrero a ngā pōua e mahi tahi ana i tōna taha, ā, ka riro māna hei tuhi ngā tukunga kōrero ki te Karauna.

Te urunga atu o Ngāi Tahu ki te Kotahitanga ‑ he rōpū whakatū pāremata Māori motuhake ‑ ka riro anō i a Taare te kupu i te hui i Waipatu, i Heretaunga i te tau 1892. I ngā tau 1893, 1894, ka tū ko ia hei tiamana mō te Rūnanga Nui. He māngai kōrero hoki ia mō tētahi wā. He ngāwari tana tū i roto i ngā kōrero a te pāremata, pērā anō hoki tā Hēnare Tomoana me ētahi atu. I a ia te kupu nui i te takanga o Ngāi Tahu ki raro i te Kaunihera Māori i te Takiwā Māori o Mahunui. He wā a ia e noho ana hei tiamana mō taua kaunihera.

Nā te Kotahitanga ka tūtaki a Taare ki ngā rangatira o te wā. He wā roa rātou ko Nēpia Pōhūhū me Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury e kōrero ana; he tauira ēnei nō te mātauranga, he kaituhi hoki i ngā kōrero a ngā tohunga. Nā Te Whatahoro ‑ ko ia te hoa whakawhitiwhiti tikanga Māori o Taare ‑ i tuhi ngā kōrero a Te Mātorohanga. Nā Te Mātorohanga pea, i kaha ai te whai a Taare i ngā kōrero mō Io hei atua runga rawa.

Arā atu ngā kaupapa e kauhautia ana e Taare ki te marae. Nā te tauira o tana moe i āna wāhine ka puta tana kore e pai ki te moemoe tonu iho a te Māori i ōna whanaunga tata. He tikanga Māori hoki tēnei kia kore ai e puta atu ngā whenua. Nā te koi o tōna hinengaro me te nui o ōna mōhiotanga, tae noa ki tōna rika ki te whakamoe i ngā tikanga tawhito ki ngā tikanga o te ao hou, ka noho hei mea mīharo mā te tini. He kōrero tonu tana mahi kia whāia te mātauranga, kia whakaoratia te toi o te Māori. Tōna kaha ki te whakapiki i te toi o tōna iwi o Ngāi Tahu. He tangata kura māhorahora, kāore e aro atu ki ngā ngutungutu ririki a te rūnanga, a te hapū rānei. Otirā, he pae whakariaki e rere iho ai ōna wai hei inumanga mā ngā whakatipuranga, e inu tonu nei, e inu tonu nei.

Nō te tau 1924, ka moe a Hana. Nā te mate rāua ko Taare i wehe, nā te mate anō i hono i te moenga o Taare i te 11 o Hune i te tau 1927, i Rāpaki. Mahue iho tā rāua pā harakeke, tokorima ngā wāhine, tokotoru ngā tāne.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Tipene O'Regan. 'Tīkao, Hōne Taare - Tikao, Hone Taare', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t43/tikao-hone-taare (accessed 8 December 2019)