Kōrero: Te Rangiotū, Hoani Meihana

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Rangiotu, Hoani Meihana

?–1898

Nō Rangitāne; he rangatira, he tangata hūmārie, whakaaio

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Mason Durie,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Taketake ake tēnei tangata a Te Rangiotū, nō Rangitāne, nō Ngāti Rangitepaia. Ko ana mātua ko Pohoi Te Rangiotū rāua ko Rīria Rangipōtango. Nō ērā wā i mua tata o te tau 1820 ia i whānau ai. I muri tata tonu ka tae mai te Pākehā me āna whakahaere, me āna tikanga tauhou i hurirapa ai te noho a te iwi.

E whia kē ngā whakapaparanga o tana iwi o Rangitāne i noho ki Te Manawatū, atu i te awa ki ngā paemaunga o Tararua. Nō ērā wā i ngā tau 1820, ka urutomo mai te hunga nō te Waikato o Ngāti Toa, o Ngāti Raukawa, o Ngāti Kauwhata. Ka pakangahia ō rātou whenua. Ehara, ka whakaheke mai anō ētahi o taua hunga, ka taukumekume te noho a ngā iwi. E waru tekau tau rātou e ātutetute ana ki a rātou. Ahakoa anō, ū tonu a Te Rangiotū ki tana iwi. I whakaakona ia ki ngā āhuatanga katoa o Rangitāne, ōna kōrero, ōna whakapapa, ōna tikanga.

I whakauru atu anō hoki ia ki ngā mahi Karaitiana. Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1840, kua iriirihia ia e ngā mihingare ki te īngoa Hoani Meihana. Ko tērā īngoa nō te minita i Pūtiki, i Whanganui e mahi ana i tērā wā, nō John Mason. Ka haere te wā, ka whakaritea e Te Harawira (Octavius Hadfield), ko Te Rangiotū hei kaipānui i te Rongopai, hei whakahaere i ngā karakia. E rima tekau ngā tau i noho ai ia hei kaiwhakaako mō te Hāhi i waenga i ōna iwi o Ngāti Apa, o Ngāti Kauwhata, me Rangitāne. Whakatū rawahia he whare karakia rahi tonu, ko Te Ahu-ā-Tūranga, ki Puketōtara. Heoi, i wera i te ahi. Ko te pere anake i toe mai, e tū tonu mai rā i te marae o Rangiotū.

Na, i aua wā anō rā, e pakanga ana ētahi o rātou, e karakia ana, e wānanga ana tēnei tangata hūmārie. Kua hokona ki te kāwanatanga te nuinga o ō rātou whenua mai i Tararua ki te tahamoana. Heoi, whakapau tonu ia i tana kaha ki te kimi ora mō tana iwi, ki te whakatikatika i ngā take e pā ana ki ō rātou whenua, ki ā rātou tikanga anō hoki. Kua mātau rawa atu ia ki te tuhituhi, ki te pānui pukapuka. I ngā tau 1852–53, ka karangatia e ia ngā rangatira me ngā pakeke e 60 rātou kia huihui mai ki Puketōtara, e tata rā ki Rangiotū. Ko te take i hui ai kia kōrerotia, kia wānangahia, kia kohikohia ngā kōrero a te iwi, me ō rātou whakapapa. Koia tonu te kaituhi i aua kōrero, e tohungia nei aua pukapuka hei taonga mā ngā uri whakaheke. Ko ētahi o ana whakapapa i tāia e Hōne Waiti (John White) ki tana pukapuka o ngā kōrero a ngā Māori o mua.

Taka rawa iho ki ngā tau 1867–68, ka tahuri ia ki te whakatū kāinga hou mō rātou ki Ōroua Piriti, i te pūruatanga o ngā awa o Ōroua, o Te Manawatū. Ka hangaia he whare karakia, rite tonu ki te wharepuni, ka tapaina ko Te Rangimārie, nō te mea kua mahea te noho a Rangitāne rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa. Ki ētahi, ko 'Te Maungārongo o Ngāti Raukawa me ngā iwi o Te Manawatū me Rangitīkei.' Kei reira tonu ngā uri e karakia ana, ia marama, ia marama.

Ahakoa e 40 tau nuku atu te toheriri ki ōna takiwā, i whai kē a ia kia mau te rongo. Ā, haere ake, mahi ai a Hoani ki te whakapai i te noho o ngā iwi o Rangitāne, o Ngāti Raukawa me Ngāti Kauwhata. Tika tonu tērā īngoa mōna ko te 'Kaiwhakaaio'.

Kīhai i pērā ōna whanaunga, mau kē ana a Te Peeti Te Aweawe, a Mete Kīngi Te Rangi Paetahi, a Te Rangihiwinui i ngā rākau hou a Tūmatauenga. I te tūnga mai o te riri i Tūwhakatupua i te tau 1868, ka riro nā Te Rangiotū i wawao. Ko tana maunga-ā-ringa, ko tana Paipera Tapu, me ana kupu whakaaio, kupu whakatikatika, tau ana te rangimārie. Ka rohea anō ō rātou whenua. Kia tūturu ai te mau o te rongo, ka waihangahia ngā patu pounamu e toru. Ko Manawaroa mō te rongo i waenganui i a Rangitāne rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa, i tukuna ki a Tāwhiao te Kīngi Māori; ko Tānenui-a-Rangi kei te whare taonga o Te Manawatū e tiaki ana; ko Te Rohe-o-Tūwhakatupua kei ana uri e pupuri ana.

Taka rawa iho ki te tau 1872, kua nohoia e tauiwi a Te Papa-i-ōia, e tū mai rā te tāone nui o Palmerston North i tēnei rā. Arā atu anō ētahi tāone, ēngari ko te nuinga o ngā whenua i riro i ngā Pākehā mahi pāmu. Heoi, mau tonu te noho a Rangitāne ki ngā whenua i puritia e rātou.

Au mahi a te tangata māhaki, mārama te titiro, koi te hinengaro ki te nanao atu ki ngā mea tōtika a tauiwi, me te kawe anō i ngā āhuatanga Māori, ka riro māna e ārahi tana iwi ki te ora, ki te ao mārama. Ka tahuri ia ki te whakahaere i ngā mahi mā tana rahinga, mā Ngāti Rangitepaia, mā Ngāti Hineaute. He tapahi harakeke, he whāngai poaka, he whakatipu rīwai hei hoko ki tā rāua toa ko Thomas Cook i Puketōtara. Whakahau rawa hoki ia i tana iwi kia ako ki te tuhituhi, ki te pānui pukapuka. Ko ia anō hoki te takawaenga kia pai ai te noho a ngā iwi e rua. Nō te tau 1877, ka rīhingia e rātou he whenua i Te Hokowhitu hei tūnga mō te mira kani rākau. Tērā pea i hokona rawa e rātou he hea i roto i taua mira.

I te tau i muri mai, nā rāua ko tana whanaunga ko Te Peeti Te Aweawe i whakahui ngā kaihautū o te iwi ki te whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro mō Te Papa-i-ōia. Ka whakaritea e rātou he āhuatanga e mau ai te wairua Māori. Ka tono rātou ki a Mātene Te Whiwhi o Ngāti Raukawa kia hōmai he īngoa mō te papa whenua i waenganui tonu o taua tāone; ka whakaae te katoa Māori, Pākehā ki tāna i hua ai, ki Te Marae-o-Hine. Ko te tūmanako kia noho tahi ngā iwi e rua i runga i te rangimārie.

Ahakoa anō ēnei whakahaere a Te Rangiotū, mōhio tonu iho ia he painga mō tana iwi ka tū mai mehemea e mahia ana ngā rori, a mehemea e nohoia ana tērā takiwā e te Pākehā. Nā reira, ka tukuna e ia ētahi o ō rātou whenua ki te kāwanatanga, hei aha ake, te kore o tana iwi i whakaae. Ā, he wā anō, ka puritia tonu e ia kia mau ētahi o ngā whenua. Me tana tohe anō kia mau tonu i tana iwi te mana Māori; me te whakapono hoki o tōna ngākau, ka taea tonu e rātou te whakahaere ō rātou oranga. I tino tautokona e ia te Kīngitanga, nā te mea kua mōhio iho ia mā te whakakotahi o te iwi Māori huri noa te motu e āta haere ai te pokea o te whenua e tauiwi.

Nō te 2 o Oketopa 1898 hinga ai a Te Rangiotū. E whitu tekau mā iwa ōna tau ka mate a ia ki Ōroua Piriti. Kei te urupā o Hikatoto e tanu ana. Nō te tau 1910, ka hurihia te īngoa o te Piriti o Ōroua ki a Rangiotū hei whakamaharatanga ki tēnei tangata mō āna mahi papai. Ko tana wahine ko Enereta Te One, nō Ngāti Kauwhata. E toru ā rāua tamāhine. Ko Harikete (Ema) i moe i a Hare Rākena Te Aweawe, kei Rangiotū ngā uri e noho ana. Ko Wharawhara i moe i a Hoani Taipua, kāore he uri. Ko Hurihia i moe i a Robert Te Rama Apakura Durie, ka noho ki ō rātou papatupu i Aorangi, (i waho ake o Feilding). Kei reira tonu ngā uri, he ahu whenua te mahi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mason Durie. 'Te Rangiotū, Hoani Meihana - Te Rangiotu, Hoani Meihana', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t67/te-rangiotu-hoani-meihana (accessed 19 November 2019)