Kōrero: Te Hiko Pīata Tama-i-hikoia

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Hiko Piata Tama-i-hikoia

?–1881

Nō Rākaiwhakairi, nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he rangatira

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara and Mita Carter,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Te Hiko Pīata Tama-i-hikoia tētahi tino rangatira o Te Wairarapa mai i te tau 1840 ki 1880. Kāhore e mōhiotia ana tana wāhi whānau, me te tau i whānau ai ia. I Te Ngāpuke pea (ko Te Waitapu taua wāhi i nāianei e tata atu ana ki Tuhitarata) i ngā tau tekau mai i te 1790 pea. Ko ana tino hapū ko Rākaiwhakairi, ko Ngāti Kahukura-awhitia me Ngāti Rangitāwhanga; ko tōna iwi ake ko Ngāti Kahungunu. He tatanga anō hoki ōna ki a Rangitāne, ki a Ngāti Ira, ki a Ngāi Tahu o Te Wairarapa. I heke tonu mai a Te Hiko i a Rākaitekura rāua ko Rangitāwhanga, i a Kahungunu. I whai pānga ai ki ngā whenua i Te Wairarapa ki te tonga.

I tupu ake a Te Hiko pakari noa, i te wā i pakangatia ai ngā iwi o Te Wairarapa e ngā iwi o te tai hauāuru me te marangai, i ngā tau mai i 1820 ki te 1840. Ko te pakanga kino rawa ko te riri i 1826 pea, arā, i te taenga atu o te ope taua a Te Āti Awa, a Ngāti Tama rāua ko Ngāti Mutunga me ētahi o Ngāti Toa rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa. I kaha tonu ngā iwi o Te Wairarapa ki te turaki atu i te hoariri i Pēhikatea (tū tata atu ki Hūpēnui, Greytown) i te tau 1833. Ēngari i whakapae tonu a Pēhi Tūtepākihirangi rāua ko Nuku-pewapewa tērā rātou ka takina anō. Ka nukuhia te iwi ki Nukutaurua i Te Māhia. Ko Te Hiko me tōna whānau ētahi i taua heke.

I te tekau tau mai i 1830 ka whakamanawanui a Nuku-pewapewa ki te hoki ki Te Wairarapa. Kāore ia i puta ēngari i mau i a ia a Te Uamairangi, te wahine a Te Wharepōuri o Te Āti Awa, me tā rāua irāmutu a Te Kakapi. He wā tōna ka tono a Te Wharepōuri kia whakahokia mai tana tamāhine. Ko te utu i tohea ko te whakahoki i ngā whenua o Te Wairarapa ki ōna iwi anō. I te taunga o ngā whakarite ka hokihoki a Te Hiko mā, me ngā hapū o Te Wairarapa ki te kāinga. Nō te tau 1842 rā anō ka tutuki te hokinga.

I taua wā kua moe a Te Hiko i tana wahine i a Mihi Mete. Tokorua ā rāua tamariki kua pakeke ngātahi. Ko te tama ko Wī Tāmehana Te Hiko i noho hei kaiako mā te mihinare, mā Te Koreneho (William Colenso) i waenganui i te tekau tau mai i 1840. Ko Ani Te Hiko, te tamāhine, i moe i a Wī Hūtana. Ko Te Hiko te rangatira i whakamau atu ai a Rākaiwhakairi me Ngāti Rangitāwhanga.

E hoki mai ana te iwi o Te Wairarapa, e tau mai ana hoki te iwi Pākehā ki te kimi kāinga ki te mahi pāmu hipi. Nō waenganui i te tekau tau mai i 1840 ka rīhi whenua a Te Hiko ki a Angus McMaster tētahi o ngā Pākehā tuatahi i tae mai ki taua rohe. Tekau mā tahi ngā rangi e haere ana rāua mā raro, mai i Pōneke (Wellington), kātahi anō ka tae atu. Ka noho a McMaster rāua ko tana wahine ko Mary ki Tuhitarata i raro i te maru o Te Hiko. Ka kīia ko 'Te Pākehā a Te Hiko.' He wā anō ka tautohetohe rāua mō ō rāua take ki te whenua. Heoi i pūmau tonu tā rāua noho me ā rāua whānau. Nā Te Hiko ētahi o ngā īngoa mō ngā uri o McMaster. Ko te tama ko Hugh i karangahia ko Tuhitarata. Ka tatū te noho a te whānau a McMaster ki tō rātou kāinga, ka hanga a Te Hiko i tana pā ki kō tata atu ki Te Waitapu. Koia rā tana kāinga ā mate noa ia.

Ka tīmata te kāwanatanga ki te hokohoko i ngā whenua o Te Wairarapa, kāore a Te Hiko i haina i ngā pukapuka mō te tuku. Kia tūturu rawa te wāhanga ki tana Pākehā. Koia rā hoki te āhua o ngā Māori ki a rātou mōkai Pākehā. Nā reira ka riro mā McMaster e whakahaere ngā whenua 13,000 eka i Tuhitarata, i Matiti, i Mapunatea, i Otiparoro me Oporoa. Ko te nuinga he mea rīhi mai i ngā Māori. Nā tērā whakatau ka puta mai he oranga ki a Te Hiko me tana iwi. Ka wātea rātou ki te whāngai poaka, ki te whakatō rīwai, witi hoki hei hoko ki ngā Pākehā kua tau mai ki Te Wairarapa noho ai. Ahakoa iti te moni rīhi i te tīmatanga, ia tau ia tau ka piki ake. E £300 i te tau 1847, kātahi ka piki ki te £800 i te tau 1850. I te pai o tērā tikanga o te rīhi whenua, ka whakaparahako ngā rangatira ki tā te kāwanatanga i whai ai i te tau 1848, arā, kia hokona atu he whenua mō te 'Canterbury Settlement' hei whakanohonoho i te tini o te Pākehā e whakaeke mai ana ki tēnei motu. Koia rā hoki i tau kē atu ai te kāinga noho ki Te Waipounamu.

Ahakoa rā, i ngā tau 1850 i whai tonu te kāwanatanga ki te hoko whenua i Te Wairarapa. Kia whati ai te āhuatanga o te nohopiri a ngā Māori whai whenua me ngā Pākehā kua pūmau te noho. I tae rawa a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) ki Te Wairarapa ki te kawe i tana kaupapa mō te hoko whenua. Ka waiho atu tana kupu e kore ngā tika o te hunga noho pērā i a McMaster me ō rātou kāinga, me ā rātou whakahaere whenua e whakararua. Ēngari ka manaakitia. Nō te rironga o te poraka whenua i Rangiwhakaoma (Castlepoint) i a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te kōmihana tumuaki hoko whenua, i te tau 1853, ka whati te nohopiri a ngā iwi o Te Wairarapa. Mai i taua wā ka hokohokona ngā whenua o Te Wairarapa.

Ko ngā taitamariki tonu i kaha ki te whakawai i ō rātou pakeke ki te hokohoko i ō rātou whenua. Ka noho kino te iwi. Tautohetohe tonu ngā tamariki ki ngā pakeke. Ko Rāniera Te Iho-o-te-rangi rāua ko Te Mānihera Te Rangi-taka-i-waho me te tama anō hoki a Te Hiko, me Wī Tāmehana ngā autaia totohe nei. Mai anō kāore a Te Hiko i pai ki te hoko. Mā ngā pukapuka hoko e whakaatu. I te tīmatanga ko ngā whenua i a McMaster i Tuhitarata anake, āna i haina ai. Taka rawa iho ki te tau 1876 e whā noa iho ana hainatanga mō te hoko. E waru a tana tama. Tekau mā toru a Rāniera Te Iho. Rua tekau mā ono a Te Mānihera. 'He tamariki wāwāhi tahā.' I te hokonga a Hēmi Te Miha rātou ko Ngairo Takatakapūtea me Rāniera Te Iho mā i te whenua i Tūrakirae, kore rawa a Te Hiko i whāwhā atu. I haere rawa rātou ki Pōneke hoko atu ai. Ka mahi a Te Mākarini kia rata atu a Te Hiko ki te hoko i ngā whenua. Ka whakatakotoria tana kupu ka rāhuitia he whenua mō te hunga ka hoko. Ā, ka whakaputaina hoki he moni hei whakatū hōhipera, whare kura, mira witi.

Ahakoa ērā āhua, ko te mea kē e tino maharatia ai te īngoa o Te Hiko ko tana hokonga i tana mana hī i ngā moana o Te Wairarapa ki te kāwanatanga. He tino taonga aua roto nā te iwi. He maha ngā mea i whai pānga ki ngā roto. Ā, ko ia tonu tētahi o ngā kaitiaki i ngā āhuatanga mō taua taonga. Na, ka taupatupatu ngā whakaaro o ngā Māori, o ngā Pākehā mō tēnei take. Ko te hiahia o te kāwanatanga me whakatuwhera te wahapū kia kore ai te tuawhenua e waipuketia. Ko tā te iwi me waiho noa iho te pukenga kirikiri i te wahapū. Ka waipuke ana hoki mai i Tīhema ki Maehe, kua rere te tuna. Tērā kai rangatira a tērā iwi! He oranga anō hoki nō rātou.

Ahakoa e kīia ana, he mea tuku noa iho e Te Hiko ngā whenua mō te hoko, ākuanei ko te kōrero tika i taua wā nei, kua kaumātua rawa ia, he akiaki mai nō te hunga e hiahia ana ki te hoko. Nā Te Mānihera i werowero kia hokona mai rā anō i te tau 1874. Ki a ia, mā rāua ko Kōmene Piharau e kōrero tētahi taha; ka kī ake a Te Hiko ma rāua ko Hēmi Te Miha tētahi, ka kapi ai te iwi katoa. Ka whakaarohia kua tautoko a Te Hiko me hoko. Kāore ia he take kē anō tāna. Me whakaoti rawa te raruraru mō te hokonga o te whenua i Pukio. Ka mea atu ia ki te kaiwhakahaere a te kāwanatanga, ki a Edward Maunsell, kāhore ana kupu mō te roto kia tatū rā anō te take o Pukio.

I 1876, i tō rāua haerenga ko Hēmi Te Miha ki Pōneke, ka whakatūpato atu ia ki tana hoa kia kaua rāua e whakaae ki te hoko. Nō te huinga o te komiti, ko Te Miha tonu te tuatahi ki te tautoko i te hoko. Tuhia tonu atu tana tohu. Me pēhea hoki e Te Hiko? Me tuku rā.

Kātahi hoki ka tautohengia me pēhea te utu. Ki a Te Mānihera me utu tonu mai ia i taua wā. Ko tā Te Hiko me tuku ki Te Wairarapa ki waenga i te iwi kia kite ai te katoa i ngā painga. Kore tonu atu a Te Mānihera rāua ko Kōmene i haina. I te mea ko Te Hiko te pakeke, kahahanihia 'Ko Te Hoko a Te Hiko'. Ko te utu ki a Te Hiko me te hunga tekau mā ono, e £800, me te penihana mōna e £50 i te tau. Na, nā te mea kāore a ia i whakaae ki te hoko i ana whenua ka whakamutua e te kāwanatanga tana penihana āteha e £50 i raro i te Ture Whakarite Kōti Māori (Native Circuit Courts Act) 1858. Nui atu ngā raruraru i tupu ake ki roto o Te Wairarapa mō 'Te Hoko a Te Hiko'. Ka tahuri tana iwi ki te āki mō tana hokonga. Ahakoa kua koroheke kē ia, kua whakaheke tana tinana, ka haere tonu ngā amuamu.

Kātahi ka pitihanatia e ētahi o ngā rangatira ki te Pāremata. I te tau 1891 ka tohua he Kōmihana Uiui i te take mō ngā tono a te iwi o Te Wairarapa ki ngā roto me ngā whenua e pā tonu atu ana ki aua roto. Ka kī atu a Piripi Te Maari-o-te-rangi, ki tōna mōhio nā te riri kē o Te Hiko ki ngā mahi nanakia a Rāniera Te Iho, i tukuna ai e ia tana mana hī ki te roto. Mai rā anō i te tau 1872 i haere ai te tangata a te kāwanatanga, a Richard Barton, i waenga i te iwi me te whai tikanga haere e riro ai te mana i runga i te wahapū o te roto. Kāhore ia i pā ki a Te Hiko ēngari ki a Rāniera Te Iho rāua ko Piripi Te Maari anake. Kua whakatakariri kē a Te Hiko ki a Rāniera mō te tukunga i ētahi whenua i Tūrakirae. He taitamariki rawa a Rāniera Te Iho mō tērā mahi. He takahi i ana pakeke. Nā ēnei tikanga hoko pea a te tamariki, i whakaae ai a Te Hiko ki te tuku i ana mana hī i te roto.

Mau tonu te amuamu a Te Mānihera mō te utu. I te kaha o tana riri, ka utua atu he wāhanga ki Kaiwaewae (Featherston). I runga i te whakahau a Te Hiko ka whakaōritehia te utu. Ko tētahi ki a Wī Kīngi Tūtepākihirangi. Nā tōna tupuna hoki i tohe kia whakahokia mai e Te Wharepōuri ō rātou whenua. Ko te wāhanga ki a Te Hiko i hoatu ki tana hunaonga ki a Wī Hūtana, hei whakatū mira rākau i Pukio hei oranga mō te iwi whānui.

Kua tino kaumātua rawa a Te Hiko, kua wherūtia. E iwa tekau ōna tau ka mate ia i te l o Hūrae 1881. Ko tana wahine ko Mihi Mete e 75 ōna tau ka mate i te tau 1873. I nehua rāua tahi ki te urupā i Tuhitarata. I reira anō hoki te whānau a McMaster e takoto ana. Nō 1905, ka tukuna e Ani te waka o tana matua, 'Te Herenga Rangatira' ki te whare taonga tuatahi o Aotearoa (Colonial Museum). Koia rā tonu te waka hoehoe o Te Hiko i te awa o Ruamāhanga. Nā T. H. Heberley i whakairo kia rite ki te waka taua. Kei te whare taonga i Ōtautahi (Canterbury Museum) e mātakitakitia ana e te tini e te mano.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara and Mita Carter. 'Te Hiko Pīata Tama-i-hikoia - Te Hiko Piata Tama-i-hikoia', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t33/te-hiko-piata-tama-i-hikoia (accessed 17 October 2019)