Kōrero: Pana-kareao, Nōpera

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Pana-kareao, Nopera

?–1856

Nō Te Rarawa; he kaihautū, he kaikauwhau i te Rongopai, he āteha

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

He kaihautū whai mana a Pana-kareao, nō te hapū o Te Pātū, he wehenga tēnei nō Te Rarawa. I te wā o tana whānautanga, kua hou kē tana pāpā, a Te Kaka, ki roto i ngā pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi. Nō te pananga i Ōruru, e tata ana ki Mangonui, kātahi ka rere whaka ki Te Rēinga. I a ia e haere ana mā te ngāherehere, ka powhiwhi ia i te kareao; heoi, ka puta ia. Nō muri mai, i waimarie ia i te punanga i Manawatawhi (Three Kings Islands). Hei whakamaharatanga i tana rerenga, ka tapaina e Te Kaka tana tama, ko Pana-kareao (arā, he mea tīkape e te kareao). He wā, e kārangarangatia ana ia e ana iwi, ko Tūwhare; ēngari, ko te īngoa i mōhiotia ia e te Pākehā, ko Noble, ko Nōpera rānei. Ko Ngākuku anō pea tētahi o ōna īngoa.

Kāore e mōhiotia ana te rā whānau o Pana-kareao; ko te īngoa o tōna whaea kei te ngaro. I mua atu o ngā tekau tau o 1830, e ora tonu ana tana pāpā, kua tīmata kē ia ki te ārahi i a Te Pātū me Te Rārawa. Ahakoa te kāinga tupu o Te Pātū nō Te Hokianga, i whai mana rātau ki ngā whenua o Kaitāia, o Rangaunu, o Takahue me Ōruru; he whenua ēnei i riro mai i te wā anō o Te Kaka, i a Te Aupōuri me Ngāti Kurī. Ko ngā mōrehu o Te Aupōuri me Ngāti Kurī, he maha tonu i noho i raro i te mana o Te Rārawa. Nō te takiwā pea ki te tau 1825, nō te rironga i a Pana-kareao te mana o tana pāpā, ka inoi mai a Te Aupōuri o Kapowairua (Spirits Bay), kia takahia atu e ia ngā tikanga o tō rātou kaiārahi. Ka tūrerengia e Pana-kareao te kaiārahi pōhēhē rā me ana apataki. Nā ēnei toanga ōna, ka eke ōna mana ki runga i Te Aupōuri me Ngāti Kurī. Ēngari, he wāhanga anō o Te Aupōuri kāore i whakaae ki a ia.

Nō te marama o Noema 1832, ka haere a Te Wiremu (William Williams), a W. G. Puckey me ētahi atu o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society), ki te tirotiro menā ka taea te whakawhānui i ā rātou mahi. Ka tūpono tonu ki a Pana-kareao, i tana kāinga i Rangaunu, i te 30 o Noema. Ka haere ia i tō rātou taha ki te whakataki i tana pāpā i a Te Kaka i Kaitāia. Nō muri i te tono a Pana-kareao māna e whakatahe te awa o Awanui, me tana whakaatu atu anō i tētahi whenua pai hei nōhanga mō ngā mihinare, ka tau te whakaaro kia whakatūria te mīhana hou ki Kaitāia. Nā tēnei mahi a Pana-kareao ka noho whakamīere a Pāpāhia me ērā o ngā kaihautū o Te Rarawa. Ko tā rātou wawata hoki kia tū tana mīhana ki Whāngāpē. Ki Waru rānei.

Kāore anō ngā whakaaro mō te mīhana hou kia tinana noa, ka tae mai a Tītore Tākiri ki Rangaunu. He whanaunga nō Pana-kareao, he kaihautū hoki nō Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Ka whakakīkī ia i tētahi wāhanga nui o Te Rarawa me Te Aupōuri, i raro i a Pāpāhia me ētahi atu rangatira, kia tūhono atu ki tana ope taua. E haere ana taua waitaua ki Tauranga ki te ngaki i te mate o te tohunga rā o Te Haramiti. I tua atu, he ngaki anō i te mate o Hengi o Ngāti Rēhia, rātou ko ana tama. Ko Te Haramiti i mate i te tau 1830, ko Hengi me ana tama i mate i te tau 1831. Ahakoa i whakaaro iho ngā mihinare ka haere anō a Pana-kareao, kore rawa ia i whakakorikori. I tukuna kē e ia tētahi karere kōrero ki ngā mihinare, ki te whakamōhio atu, kei te tatari ia kia tae mai rātou. Nō waenganui o te tau 1833, ka tatū te utu mō te whakawātea i ngā rākau i te awa kia rere pai ai ngā waka, mō te hanga rori e tae ai ki te tūnga i whakaarohia hei tūnga mō te mīhana, me te hanga whare raupō e toru. Ka whakataungia anō hoki te utu mō te whenua. Kua kitea kē, i te tīmatanga anō rā, ko te manaaki a Pana-kareao i ngā mihinare, he apo tikanga kē mōna. Ēngari rā, e titiro kē ana ia ki tētahi tika mō tana iwi. Nō te tau o muri mai, nō te rironga mai o ētahi taonga hokohoko hei utu mō te whenua, ka whiua e ia mā tana iwi; tere tonu rātou ki te tohatoha haere.

Kāore i roa, ka huri a Pana-kareao ki te kaupapa Karaitiana. Nō te 20 o Noema 1836, ka iriirihia rāua ko tana wahine, a Ereanora (Eleanor), i Kaitāia. I te tau 1837, ka tonoa e ia he karere ki Pēwhairangi, me te moni kōura, hei hoko i tētahi pukapuka o te Kawenata Hou mōna. Kātahi ka hurihuri haere rāua ko tana pukapuka, i ngā kāinga o tana rohe tae atu ki Muriwhenua, moe atu ai i runga i te huarahi; wiki atu e ngaro ana. Whakamihi rawa atu a Puckey ki a ia mō tana takahuri i ētahi o ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau, ki te kaupapa Karaitiana. He mea kaingākau nā Pana-kareao ana mihinare. Nō te haeretanga o te kōrero, kei te nukuhia ki te wāhi kē a Puckey rāua ko Joseph Mathews, ka tuhituhi ia ki te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare i Ingarangi, ki te inoi atu kia waihotia rāua. He nui ngā āhuatanga o te ao Pākehā i pārekareka katoa ia; i whakaae rāua ko tōna hoa wahine ki ngā kākahu Pākehā, ki ngā kāinga Pākehā me ngā taputapu o roto. Ahakoa ōna kāwai rangatira, i pukumahi rawa atu a Ereanora ki te tunu parāoa, ki te taka kai, me te whāngai i te tangata pērā i tā te Pākehā me ōna tikanga.

Nā te kaha hihiko o Pana-kareao ki ngā taonga a tauiwi, kātahi ka pai rawa atu te Pākehā ki a ia. I tautoko ia i a Te Pūhipi (James Busby), te Rehirenete o Peretānia; ko ia hoki tētahi o ngā hunga haina i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni, i te tau 1835. Nō te taenga o Wiremu Hopihona (William Hobson), te rūtene kāwana, ki Kaitāia i Āperire 1840 ki te whakaū i te Tiriti o Waitangi, e pōhiri atu ana a Pana-kareao. Heoi anō, i whakatumekengia te ope manuhiri e ngā toa o Te Rarawa, i tā rātou haka. I kitea paitia a Pana-kareao, nā tana roa me te nui o te tupu. Ko ōna kaka i taua rā, he kahu huruhuru; kātahi ka whakamaungia he huruhuru huia ki te māhunga.

I whakapono a Pana-kareao ki ngā whakaaro o ngā Pākehā, i runga i ngā kōrero i hōmai ki a ia, e ngā mihinare. Nō te hui i te 28 o Āperire 1840, i noho ia mō muri kōrero ai. I whakamahara rawa ia i a rātou, ki ōna kāwai rangatira, me tana kī, kei te hiahia ia kia whakaae atu rātou ki a Hopihona. Nō konei ia i hamumu ake ai, i tana kōrero nui whakaharahara: 'Mā wai hei whakahē i te Kāwana, ko te ata o te whenua ka riro i a ia; ko te whenua ake, ka toitū.' Hei kōrero whakarite kau, ko ia i kī, me waiho te kāwana hei kaiārahi mō te waka o Niu Tīreni.

Ka mutu tana kōrero, rere tonu atu ērā o ngā rangatira ki muri i a ia ki te haina i te Tiriti. I āta hainangia anō e Ereanora, i runga i ōna mana ake. Kātahi ka tukuna e Pana-kareao rātou ko tana iwi ki a Hopihona, he rīwai, 12 tana te nui, he kete kūmara, e 8 ngā poaka me ētahi pioke (he mea whakahoki mai). Ka hōmai e ērā, he paraikete, 1½ pēre te nui, me te kāho tupeka. I whakatūpatongia e Pana-kareao a Hopihona rātou ko tana tira, i tō rātou taenga mai, tērā ētahi Māori o Pēwhairangi me Te Hokianga, ko Kawiti tonu tētahi, e ngana ana ki te pana i te kāwana. Kua whakakōrerohia a Ereanora, i a ia i Te Hokianga, me kore e riro a Pana-kareao ki o rātou whakaaro.

Kotahi tau noa iho i muri mai o te hainatanga o te Tiriti, kua hanga pōuri a Pana-kareao ki ngā tikanga a te kāwana. I whakarāpopotongia e Te Teira (Richard Taylor), o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare, ngā whakaaro a Pana-kareao i tana pukapuka: 'i whakaaro kē ia, ka riro ko te ata o te whenua ki te Kuini, ko te whenua ake ka mau ki a ia; nō nāianei, kua mataku ka riro ko te whenua ake ki te Kuini, ko te ata noa iho ka noho ki a rātou.' Te āhua nei, i tīmata mai te pōuri o Pana-kareao i ana tautohetohe ki a Te Aupōuri me Ngā Puhi, mō ngā whenua i hokona e rātou ki te Pākehā. I tua atu i tēnei ko te korahi tonu o tōna mana.

I Hānuere 1840, i hokona e ia ki a Te Teira tētahi whenua 35 māero te roa i Muriwhenua, mō te taonga me te moni hui katoa ai te wāriu ki te £260. E ngana ana a Te Teira ki te apo whenua mōna anō, ki te whakanoho hoki i a Te Aupōuri, i runga i te whenua i panaia rā rātou e Pana-kareao, e tata ana ki te 20 tau i mua atu. E ono tekau pea o Te Aupōuri, i whakanōhia ki Pārengarenga i te tau 1841, ēngari, me te noho kino anō ki a Pana-kareao. Ko te kī a Te Aupōuri ki a Te Teira, kāore a Pana-kareao i āhei ki te hoko i ō rātou whenua. I runga i ngā whakakīkī a Smith, he Pākehā e whai ana i ngā tikanga Māori, ka whakatupungia he kai ki te māra ake a Pana-kareao, hei whakatoi ki a ia. Ahakoa ēnei whakararuraru, ka mea tonu a Te Teira ki te whakatutuki i ōna whakaaro; nōna ka tae ki Kaitāia i te 16 o Pēpuere 1841, i te rā o te whakahononga o Pana-kareao rāua ko Ereanora, i runga i te tikanga a te kaupapa Karaitiana; ka whakaritea e ia a Taitimu o Te Aupōuri hei noho i te rohe o Muriwhenua; ko tana whakahau ki a ia, me kaua rawa he tangata e noho ki reira, mātua me whakaae rā anō, nō Te Teira te whenua.

E raruraru ana ki a Te Aupōuri me te raruraru hoki ki a Ngā Puhi. Ko te mana o te whārua o Ōruru, nō Pana-kareao; he kore whenua nō ana whanaunga o Ngā Puhi, kātahi ka whakanōhia ētahi o rātou ki reira, i raro i tō rātou kaihautū, i a Pororua. Nō ngā tau o muri mai, ka panaia a Pororua rātou ko tana iwi e Te Rarawa; ēngari panapanaia rawatia, ka hokihoki tonu mai. He wā, kātahi ka whakaae kia noho. Nō te kaha haere o te tono a te Pākehā ki tētahi whenua mōna, ka poka noa a Pororua rātou ko tana iwi, ki te hoko i ngā whenua i Ōruru me Mangonui. Ko tā rātou kī, i ahu mai ō rātou take i ngā pakanga i Whangaroa, i toa ai a Ngā Puhi. I whakatakariri rātou i te hokonga o Pana-kareao, i tētahi whenua nui, ki a S. H. Ford; ka puritia te wāhi nui o te moni ki a ia anō. Ka whakamōhiotia e Pana-kareao ōna take ki a Hopihona, ā, ka riro mai te £100 me te hōiho; i pērā anō te tono a Pororua, koirā anō hoki te utu i hōmai ki a ia.

Ahakoa i mate a ia i te ongaonga, ka whakaae a Pana-kareao kia tukuna te kōmihana hoko whenua, a Kānara E. L. Godfrey, kia whakawāwāhia ngā whenua, kia kaua hoki e whakapōreareangia. Kua hiahia kē ia, kia tau te āio; kite rawa ake, kua patupatua ana poaka i Ōruru e te iwi o Pororua, hei werowero i a ia. Ka hangaia he pā ki reira, ka pērā anō te iwi o Pana-kareao. Nō te tau 1843, ka taki pakanga; kātahi ka mate rawa atu te iwi o Pana-kareao. Ka huihui mai ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau, kātahi ka tōia atu te hunga whakataetae rā i te whenua, e tautohetohengia ana. Ahakoa ngā whakaaro o Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams), e kore a Pana-kareao e whakaae kia wāwāhia te whenua. Nō ngā tau o muri mai, ka ngana tonu a Pana-kareao, ki te kōrero i ōna take; mate rawa ake, kāore anō kia tutuki noa.

I te pakanga i Te Tai Tokerau i ngā tau 1845–46, i tautoko a Pana-kareao rātou ko tana iwi, i te Pākehā. Kua noho mōhio kē a Kāwana Pitiroi (Robert FitzRoy), nā te āwhina a Hōne Heke i a Pororua i Ōruru i te tau 1843, i kaha hiahia ai a Pana-kareao ki te hono atu ki a Tāmati Wāka Nene, me ērā hoa whawhai o te Pākehā, i Ōmāpere, i Āperire me Mei i te 1845. Nō te pakanga i Ruapekapeka i te marama o Hānuere 1846, ka whawhai takitahitia e Pana-kareao rātou ko Nene mā, tētahi ope nui o Kawiti, i taki rere mai i te pā. I noho kūpapa a Pāpāhia o Whāngāpē, me ētahi atu anō o ngā rangatira o Te Rarawa. Ko te hunga i whai i a Pana-kareao, e 14 anake.

Hei āhua whakamihi ki a Pana-kareao, mō ana manaaki i te kāwana, ka whakatūria ia hei āteha i te tau 1851; ka hoatu hei mahi māna, ko te whakawāwā i ngā raruraru i waenganui i ngā iwi. I hoki ia ki Ōruru noho ai, mō tētahi wā poto; ēngari, i pā pōuri ngā mihinare ki a ia, mō tana aponga i ana wāhine e rua, e taitamariki tonu ana. Kāore i roa, ka hoki anō ki a Ereanora, ki tana wahine i kai ngākaunui ia. Kāore i mōhiotia menā i whai tamariki rawa ia. Mau tonu ai tōna mana, ā mate noa. Nō te tīmatanga o te tau 1856, ka pāngia ia i te mate; he mate kohi pea. Nō te pō o te 12–13 Āperire 1856, ka mate i Ōruru. He mea nehu ki te urupā o ngā mihinare, i Kaitāia, i te taha tonu o tana wahine o Ereanora, me tana pāpā a Te Kaka.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Pana-kareao, Nōpera - Pana-kareao, Nopera', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1p3/pana-kareao-nopera (accessed 22 July 2019)