Kōrero: Pōhio, Horomona

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Pohio, Horomona

1815–1880

Nō Ngāi Tahu; he rangatira, he mihinare, he āteha, he kaitohe whenua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Te Maire Tau,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

He rangatira amorangi a Horomona Pōhio nō Ngāi Tahu. I heke mai i ngā kāwai rangatira kauwhau ariki o Ngāi Tahu, o Ngāti Māmoe me Waitaha. Ko ōna hapū ko Ngāi Taoka, ko Ngāti Huirapa, ko Ngāi Te Ruahikihiki, ko Ngāi Te Rakiāmoa me Ngāi Tūāhuriri. Ko Tohu tōna matua, ko tōna kōkā ko Tutu.

I tōna matenga ka pānuitia i te nūpepa, nō te tau 1815 ka whānau a Pōhio ki Wainono, i Waihao, e tata rā ki Te Waimatemate (Waimate). Ko Iwikau tōna īngoa ake. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tamariki i tonoa ki Murihiku hei wāhi punanga mō rātou i ngā mahi whakawehi a Te Rauparaha me Ngāti Toa. I taua wā hoki e tautohetohe ana a Ngāti Toa ki a Ngāi Tahu o Kaiapoi. I tōna whanaketanga i noho kē mai ia i tana tipuna, i a Te Kahupātītī, i Ruapuke i Te Ara-a-Kiwa (Foveaux Strait). I reira tōna pānga tuatahi ki te whakapono Karaitiana i ngā tau o muri tata mai i 1840. Nō te 18 o Hune 1843, i Waikouaiti, ka iriirihia a ia ko Horomona (Solomon) e te mihinare Wēteriana e Te Wātikena (James Watkin). He wā ka noho ia hei minita i Ruapuke, hei kaiāwhina hoki i ngā mihinare Wēteriana i Waikouaiti, i Moeraki i te rua tekau tau mai i 1840.

Ko Horomona Pōhio tētahi o ngā kaihaina i te kirimina mō te hokonga o Ōtākou (Otago) i te tau 1844. Pērā anō mō te hokonga a Te Keepa (Henry Tacy Kemp) i te tau 1848 me te hokonga o Murihiku i te tau 1853. Ka taka ki te tau 1859, ka whakatūria a Pōhio hei āteha, arā, hei kaiwhakawā mō Te Waimatemate.

I te tekau tau mai i 1860 ka neke ki Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay) noho ai. I tōna hokinga ki Te Waipounamu ka whakauru atu a ia ki te apataki Kaingārara a Hipa Te Maihāroa. Āhua rite tonu tērā whakahaere ki tā Te Ua Haumēne, ki te Pai Mārire. Ko tō rātou kāinga i Te Wai-a-Te Ruatī, i pātata atu ki Arowhenua. Ko Te Maihāroa te tohunga; ko Pōhio te kaingārahu mō te ture tangata, mō ngā tikanga taiao. Ka noho māharahara a Pōhio mō ngā hua ka puta i te hokonga o ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu.

I pānuitia ki ngā kaihaina o te hokonga o Ōtākou 10 paiheneti o ngā whenua i hokona me waiho tika mō Ngāi Tahu. Kāore i tutuki. Ka tahuri rātou ki te whakahē. Koia rā anō te āhua ki te rohe o te hokonga a Te Keepa. Ki te iwi, ko te rohe i hokona ko tēnei: mai i Maungatere (Mt Grey) ki Kaiapoi i te raki; ki Maunga-atua (Maungātua) e tū rā ki te paenga o ngā whenua o Ōtākou ki te tonga; atu i reira ka huri ki te uru ki te take o Ngā Puke-māeroero (Southern Alps). Ka tohe ngā kaitango ko ō Ngā Puke-māeroero tonu kē te paenga ki te uru. Ka tohua kia rahi atu ngā whenua tāpui me ngā mahinga kai mā Ngāi Tahu me ōna whakatipuranga. Tae rawa atu ki te tau 1868 kua hokona ētahi wāhi o te whenua tāpui i Hakataramea i te awa o Waitaki. Kātahi hoki ka katia e ngā kaihoko te whaiwhai weka a ngā Māori i aua whenua. I Murihiku e tautohetia ana anō taua paenga. I te marama o Maehe i te tau 1874, ka tū he hui ki Tuahiwi, he kāinga e pātata atu ana ki Kaiapoi, kia kōrerohia ngā whakamau a Ngāi Tahu. Ko Horomona Pōhio tētahi o ngā kaikōrero aporei i reira.

I te tau 1877 ko Horomona Pōhio tētahi o te apataki i ārahina e Te Maihāroa ki te pou kāinga hou mō rātou ki Te Ao Mārama (Ōmārama). Kei ngā tāwhārua tiketike o Waitaki tēnei wāhi. Ko te kaupapa o te pounga he pupuri kia mau te ahikā a Ngāi Tahu ki te tuawhenua o Te Waipounamu. Nā te pahekotanga o Pōhio ki a Te Maihāroa ka noho mōriroriro ia i te tini o ngā rangatira o Ngāi Tahu. E pukuaroha ana ki te tohunga, ēngari e whakahē ana ki āna mahi.

I Oketopa 1878 ka haere a Pōhio rāua ko tana tama, ko Tūwhare, ki te hui tahi me Hōne Hīhana (John Sheehan), te minita mō ngā take Māori. I reira anō hoki a Hōri Kerei Taiaroa, te Mema Māori mō te Tonga i te Whare Pāremata. I pōhiritia rāua i runga anō i te ritenga mō te rangatira, ēngari ko te take whenua a Ngāi Tahu i whakaparahakotia, nā te mea kāore i eke ki tā te ture. Ko tā Hīhana me whakatū he kōmihana hei tirotiro i taua take. Kāore a Pōhio i whakaae, nā te mea e kore hoki e puta te hua tōkeke i te whakawā a te Pākehā. Kei tā Taiaroa kāore he painga e puta mai i ngā whakahē a Te Maihāroa. Ka hoki a Pōhio me tōna ngākau pūkawakawa ki Te Ao Mārama. Ka pakari haere te noho taukumekume i waenga i ngā Pākehā mahi ahu whenua me te apataki a Te Maihāroa. I te hōtoke o te tau 1879 ka puta atu ngā pirihimana mau pū, ka panaia mai a Te Maihāroa mā i te tāwhārua o Waitaki.

Nō te hanepītanga o tēnei mahi tohetohe ka whakamātauria mā te ture Pākehā me ana tikanga tōrangapū e whakatikatika. I ngā tau 1879–1880 he kaiwhakaatu a Pōhio i te aroaro o te Kōmihana Hoko Whenua Māori mō Te Waipounamu (Commission on Middle Island Native Land Purchases), arā te Kōmihana a Smith rāua ko Nairn. I whakatūria tērā Kōmihana hei tirotiro i ngā whakapae a Ngāi Tahu me Ngāti Māamoe he kiko kore ngā kī taurangi a te Karauna. I te whakataunga tuatahi a te Kōmihana e tika ana ngā whakapae a Ngāi Tahu, ka whakakorea te pūtea moni whakahaere i te Kōmihana e te kāwanatanga. Ka hoki a Pōhio ki Te Waimatemate noho ai, ā mate noa i te 12 o Maehe 1880.

Tokowhā ngā wāhine a Horomona Pōhio e mōhiotia ana. Ko Mauhē o Murihiku te wahine tuatahi, ko Wikitōria Kōrako tamāhine a tētahi rangatira o Ngāti Māmoe, o Ngāti Huirapa, te wahine tuarua, tokorua ā rāua tamariki. I te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka moe i a Peti Paihi (i a Pae rānei) o Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa. Tokorua ā rāua tamariki ko Peti. Ko tana wahine tuawhā ko Hera Tau (ko Hira rānei), he tamāhine nā Pāora Tau rangatira o Ngāi Tūāhuriri, o Kaiapoi, rāua ko Te Raki. Tokoono ngā tamariki i puta ki a Horomona rāua ko Hera Tau.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Te Maire Tau. 'Pōhio, Horomona - Pohio, Horomona', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1p16/pohio-horomona (accessed 23 August 2019)