Kōrero: Ngata, Paratene

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Ngata, Paratene

1849?–1924

he rangatira, he hōia, he āteha, he tangata hokohoko, he kaipāmu

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Steven Oliver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau a Paratene Ngata i te marama o Hepetema 1849 pea, ki Ahikouka e pā tata ana ki Waiomatatini i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ko tōna matua ko Wiremu Karaka Te Ito nō Reporua. Ko tōna whaea ko Hera Te Ihi, ko Ruataupare tētahi o ana īngoa. Nō ngā hapū o Te Whānau-a-Te Ao, o Ngāti Rangi, o Te Whānau-a-Kuruai a Paratene. Ko wēnei hapū e toru nō Ngāti Porou. Nā Rāpata Wahawaha rāua ko Hārata Te Ihi a Paratene i whakatipu. He taina a Hārata Te Ihi ki a Hera. I moe a Paratene i a Kāterina Naki. Tokorua ā rāua tamariki. Ko Āpirana Turupa te mea rongonui rawa o rāua. Ko Hōne Te Ihi te mātāmua a Paratene ēngari nā rāua kē ko Hārata Pōkiha.

I kuraina a Paratene ki te kura a Te Wiremu (William Williams) i Waerenga-a-Hika i Tūranga (Gisborne) ēngari he pākaha mai nō te Pai Mārire ka katia te kura i te tau 1865. I haere hoki a Paratene i te taha o Rāpata ki ngā pakanga i Te Tai Rāwhiti ki te whawhai ki ngā Hauhau. Nō Hune o te tau 1869 ka whakauru a Paratene ki ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū (Armed Constabulary) o Ngāti Porou, te ngohi Nama 9. Ko rātou ko Te Hatiwira Te Houkāmau me Peneāmine Tūhaka mā, ngā kaihautū o ngā hōia o Ngāti Porou, i haere ki Taranaki ki te whawhai ki a Tītokowaru. I haere mā runga tima ki Whanganui ka tope atu ki Pātea. Rokohanga atu kua mutu kē te riri ki a Tītokowaru, ā, kīhai i whawhai anō. I te hokinga atu o Ngāti Porou ki Te Tai Rāwhiti tērā pea i whawhai tonu ki a Te Kooti.

I muri i ngā pakanga he toa hokohoko tā Paratene i Te Kawakawa (Te Araroa) me te whare noho mō ngā Pākehā haere. Nāna anō te pāparakāuta i Waipiro. Ā, i Waiomatatini ko ia anō i te tiaki i te teihana hipi a Rāpata. Nā te mahi a Ngāti Porou mā ngā Pākehā ka mātau ki te pāmu hipi. Nā ngā moni utu i ā rātau mahi me ngā moni o ngā whenua rīhi i tū ai ngā teihana hipi mahi tahi a Ngāti Porou. I ngā tau 1886 ki te 1891 tinitini ana te tipu o te hipi i ō rātau whenua.

Ko tētahi mahi a Paratene he āteha mā te Kōti Whenua Māori i Ōtorohanga, i Taupō. I uru atu a ia ki ngā whakawākanga o te Rohe Pōtae – he whenua 1,636,000 eka te rahi, e 4,500 ngā tāngata nō rātau ake. Ka rūringia te Rohe Pōtae e te Kōti ka whakamanaia te hunga e whai pānga ana ki taua whenua. I tino whakahē te Kīngitanga he riro nō te mana whenua ki raro i te ture Pākehā. Kīhai i raro i te Kīngi. Ko Ngāti Maniapoto anō tētahi i whakahē ki te wāwāhi o te whenua kia riro i te takitahi. E ai ki a Ngāti Maniapoto, ki ngā iwi, ki ngā hapū kē ngā whenua pupuri ai kia kaua e hokona, kia mau tonu i te iwi te mana. Ēngari kāore i taea e te Kōti te whakamana te tono a Ngāti Maniapoto. Ka takaroa te Kōti nō muri kē mai ka rēhitatia ngā īngoa kua tukuna noa atu. He whakaaronui nō te iwi ki a Paratene rāua ko te tiati, ko Te Mea (William G. Mair), i ū pai ai ngā whakatau. I mua hoki i katikatia ngā mahi a te kāwana i roto i te Rohe Pōtae. Ko te mana motuhake i te Kīngi. Ehara, nō tēnei whakawākaanga a te Kōti ka whakaaengia kia puta te huarahi tereina. Ka wehea ake 635 eka mō tēnei mahi. Ko te āhua nei kua heke haere te mana o te Kīngi. I muri mai o te tau 1870 he maha ngā haerenga o Paratene ki Hauraki, ki Heretaunga, ki Te Wairarapa, ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, ki te whiriwhiri i ngā pānga whenua.

I te tau 1891 ko Paratene i te whakapuaki i ōna whakaaro ki te Kōmihana Pāremata i whakatūria hai titiro i ngā ture whenua a te Māori. E ai ki a ia, ka whakatūria kia tekau ngā kaitiaki mō te whenua o te tokomaha ki tā te Ture Whenua Māori (Native Land Act) o 1873. Pai kē kia whakaritea he āpiha a te kāwana hai tohatoha haere i ngā moni rīhi, i ngā moni hoko whenua rānei. Ki a ia, me whakatū, me whakamana he komiti whakahaere i ngā mahi katoa mō ia poraka. Me āhei anō hoki taua komiti ki te rāhui ki te wāwahi whenua hai mahi pāmu mā te iwi. Kia tōtika kia ū ai ngā mahi me tuku mai e te kāwanatanga tētahi pūtea moni āwhina. Mō te motu katoa ngā painga ka hua mai. Tētahi he tino nui rawa te utu o ngā whakahaerenga i te Kōti. Kīhai i tika kia mamao atu te Kōti i ngā whenua e kōrerotia ana. Ki te ākina ngā Māori ka mahue ngā kāinga ka haere kē ki roto o tauiwi noho ai kia tae ai ki te Kōti. He kōhuru tēnei i te iwi.

I whai anō a Paratene mā te iwi tonu rātau e whakahaere. Ahakoa anō kua tū ngā komiti Māori hai whakaū i te ture i ō rātau rohe, kāore kē ō rātau mana i raro i te ture. Pēraka i a Pāora Tūhaere, i a Horonuku Te Heuheu Tūkino IV mā rā, ko te hiahia o Paratene kia whakamanahia ngā komiti Māori. Mā rātau e whakarite ngā pānga whenua, e whakawā hoki te hunga haututū me ngā mea kōroiroi ki te haere ki te kura. Ka wāwāhi te Kōti i ngā whenua, ka wehewehe te iwi, ka heke te mana o ngā rangatira, o ngā pakeke me ngā komiti hoki. Ka tohe a Paratene ka kore anō e hōmai he mana ki ngā komiti Māori tukuna mā ngā āteha e whakatau ngā whenua kāore he pānga ki a rātau. Me ngā whenua e mārama ana ngā āhuatanga, e mana ana te tohu kai a wai e pupuri ana. Ko ngā take taumaha uaua rānei me tuku mā te Kōti e whakahaere.

I te tau 1894 ka tū a Paratene hai mema Pāremata mō te rohe pōti o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Kīhai ia i toa. Whakahokia ana anō ko Wī Pere te rangatira o Rongowhakaata me Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki. Nō te tau 1904 ka tūturu te noho a Paratene ki Waiomatatini. Ka whai a ia kia whakakaporeihanatia ngā whenua o Ngāti Porou, kia taea ai te mahi. Kia taea ai hoki ngā moni āwhina. Ko Paratene te tiamana o te Komiti o te Kura o Waiomatatini me te Kaunihera Māori o Horouta. I kaha a ia ki te whakatikatika i ngā marae. I pau ōna kaha ki te whakapaipai i ngā marae, ā, he tohunga hoki ki ngā tikanga o tōna iwi. Kaingākau atu a ia kia whiwhi mātauranga te tangata, ēngari ka whakahē i te hunga i puta i te Kāreti o Te Aute he noho kē mai i Tūranga mahi ai. Ka mahue ake te ārahi i te iwi kāinga.

Ko te nuinga o ngā rangatira o Ngāti Porou i huri ki te Hāhi Mihinare. Pērā anō a Paratene. Heoi, ka hapū a Kāterina, ka huri rāua ki ngā tikanga Māori kia whānau pai ai tā rāua tamaiti tuatahi a Āpirana Turupa. Kīhai a Paratene i rata ki wētahi Hāhi atu. Ko te Hāhi o Ihu Karaiti mō Te Hunga Tapu o ngā Rā o Muri Nei, arā, ko te Hāhi Mōmona, tāna i wehi rawa atu ai. I te taenga mai o ā rātau kaikauhau tuatahi ki Waiapu, ka porowhiua ki te awa. Heoi i te tau 1891, tū ana tō rātau whare karakia ki Tikitiki. Pēraka anō ki ngā Ringatū. I karangahia rawa e ia he hui hai whiriwhiri kia whakaaengia rātau ki te whakahaere i ā rātau karakia ki roto o Waiapu.

Kaumātua noa a Paratene ko ia tonu te kaiārahi i tōna iwi. I whakamanawa a ia kia whai oranga te tangata, kia mātau ki ngā mahi tōrangapū, kia whiwhi hoki i te mātauranga. Ko te wairua o ēnei kaupapa i heke iho i a Rāpata Wahawaha ki a Paratene hai waihotanga māna ki tana tama ki a Āpirana, nāna nei a Ngāti Porou i ārahi tae noa ki te pokapūtanga o te tau tau 1900-1999. Nō te 15 o Tīhema 1924, ka mate a Paratene. I tanumia ki tō rātau urupā i te puke ki Pūputa i Waiomatatini.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Ngata, Paratene', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1n7/ngata-paratene (accessed 20 August 2019)