Ruakura Research Centre
In 1901 a state experimental farm was established at Ruakura, and from 1912 it incorporated a farmer training school. Research was carried out first on poultry, bees, fruits and crops, and then on dairying.
After the farm’s closure, the Department of Agriculture opened a research station in 1939. It gained an international reputation for work on animal nutrition and genetics, dairying and milking methods, cattle breeding and pasture research. Ruakura ran farmer education programmes and an annual Farmers’ Week, influencing the expansion of dairying between the 1940s and 1960s. Since 1992 Ruakura has been part of AgResearch, a Crown research institute.
Rukuhia and Whatawhata research stations
A government soil-fertility research station was set up at Rukuhia in 1946, and a hill-country research station at Whatawhata in 1949. Operating until 1967, the Rukuhia station developed drainage systems and fertilisers for Waikato peat lands. Whatawhata carried out animal breeding, soil fertility and agroforestry research to increase the productivity of North Island hill country farming. It is now owned by the Waikato-Tainui tribes and leased by AgResearch.
Te Kauwhata Viticultural Research Station
In 1892 the state Waerenga Experimental Station was established at Te Kauwhata. It trialled exotic and fruit trees, then carried out horticultural research, focusing on viticulture from 1901. In 1965, as Te Kauwhata Viticultural Research Station, it came under the control of Ruakura. It closed in 1992.
Livestock Improvement Corporation
The Livestock Improvement Corporation (LIC) traces its origins to 1909, when farmers’ groups began systematic herd testing. In 1951 the New Zealand Dairy Board opened a commercial artificial insemination centre at Newstead, east of Hamilton. This grew to include dairy improvement and national data management centres. In 1988 it became the Livestock Improvement Corporation. A user-owned cooperative since 2001, LIC provides services to the dairy, beef and deer industries.
Waikato Innovation Park
Waikato’s reputation for scientific research inspired the establishment of Waikato Innovation Park by the Waikato Institute of Technology (Wintec), the University of Waikato and AgResearch in 2004. The park, strategically located adjacent to Ruakura, brings together around 50 agritech and biotech businesses.
Shows and field days
Local agricultural and pastoral (A & P) associations were formed around the region, and the first Waikato A & P show took place at Cambridge in 1877. Shows alternated between Hamilton and Cambridge until 1892, when Hamilton’s Claudelands showgrounds became the venue. The shows promoted Waikato agriculture and business, and featured fairground entertainment.
In 1907 the Winter Show Association initiated a winter show, which shifted from central Hamilton to Claudelands in the 1960s.
From 1969 the New Zealand National Fieldays Association aimed to showcase the best of local and international agricultural innovations. By the 21st century Fieldays, held annually in June at Mystery Creek, near Hamilton airport, was the largest such event in the southern hemisphere. In 2014 Fieldays attracted 120,000 New Zealand and international visitors.
Hamilton’s enduring reputation as a ‘cow town’ was based on the services it provided to farmers from the surrounding district. The long main thoroughfare, Victoria St, was lined with banks and shops including stock and station agents and farm-machinery outlets. It was a magnet for farmers when they came to town with money in their pockets. Other places such as Morrinsville and Te Awamutu also developed as ‘cow towns’.
Farming service industries
Manufacturing businesses connected with farming developed. A. M. Bisley and Company made agricultural machinery from the 1930s. Truscotts (NZ), an Australian company operating in Hamilton from 1953, designed a stainless-steel milk tanker. Gallagher Engineering, which started in the late 1940s and became a company in 1963, pioneered the electric fence. Later, as Gallagher Group, it started companies producing animal-management and business-security systems, fuel pumps and plastics.
After the Second World War Ossie James founded James Aviation at Rukuhia. A subsidiary, Aero Engine Services, began building aeroplanes – the Airtourer and the Airtrainer – in the 1960s. Meanwhile, another offshoot, Air Parts (NZ), gained world rights to manufacture Fletcher topdressing aircraft. The two firms merged in 1972 as New Zealand Aerospace Industries. In 1982 the company was taken over by Pacific Aerospace Corporation and developed the Cresco topdressing aircraft, later modified for skydiving. In the 2010s Pacific Aerospace was a member of the Waikato Aviation Cluster, around 30 local aviation businesses aiming to make Waikato the Australasian centre for aviation manufacturing, maintenance and pilot training.