Kōrero: Waiata tawhito

Whārangi 3. Ngā momo waiata

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā tūāhua waiata

Kei runga i tōna tikanga me tōna whakamahi ka raupapatia ngā waiata Māori. E kī ana a Āpirana Ngata, e toru ngā momo waiata mōteatea matua, arā, he pōpō (he oriori rānei), he waiata tangi, he waiata aroha. Tokowhitu atu anō ngā momo whāiti o te waiata tangi, e ai ki a Ngata. Tērā anō hoki ētahi atu momo waiata, pērā i te ruri, i te mata, i te haka me te karakia.

Waiata tangi

Ko ētahi waiata tangi:

  • he tangi nā te tūroro i ōna rūmate
  • he tangi ki te toa, ki te rangatira, ki te iwi rānei i whārona awatea
  • he tangi mō te toa i mate i te kōhuruhe tangi mō te rangatira i mate tara ā-whare
  • he tangi mō te aituā
  • he tangi mō te tamaiti, mō te tāne kua mate, kua riro rānei, mō te tāne moe pūremu rānei
  • he tangi ki te whenua kua māheuheu, mō te iwi kua ngaro ki te pō, mō te takerehāea, mō te paenga tai, mō te kākano ka pirau, mō te kakī popo, mō te māra kua kino.

Ngā momo matua

Arā anō ngā momo waiata o tēnei rārangi, he momo waiata atu anō nā runga i te āhua o tōna whakamahinga.

Hei tauira ko te waiata whaiāipo he whakahiamo i te tau, ā, ko te pātere he wai ka titoa e te wahine hei whakautu i te tāunu. Ko te kaioraora he momo waiata kanga, ā, ko te apakura ka puakina e te pouaru nōna e noho nei i roto i te wharemate.

Ko ētahi atu waiata:

  • he pao
  • he ruri
  • he matakite
  • he mata
  • he waiata whakaaraara
  • he waiata karakia
  • he waiata whakautu tono pākūwhā
  • he waiata mō te moe punarua
  • he waiata nā te tūrehu
  • he waiata whakautu whakapae
  • he waiata wawata.

Ko te waiata aroha me te waiata tangi

He wā kāore e tino mārakerake te rerekē i waenganui i ngā momo, ā, kei ngā kaupapa whakatumeke o te waiata ka kitea pea te rerekētanga. Hei tauira, he ōrite te waiata tangi me te waiata aroha, ā, ko tōna ito he kukume i te ngākau o te tangata ki tā rātou i hiahia ai.

Kāore te waiata aroha i whakanui i te taha pai o te aroha, engari ana ka haku, ka whakaputa kōrero mō ngā manawapā me ngā māharahara ka haere tahi nei me te aroha. Arā, ko ētahi waiata aroha e pā ana ki te tāne kei te pakanga; ki te aroha mō te hoa rangatira; ki te kōingo mō te tau, me te whakarere hoa. Ka titoa anō te waiata aroha mō te tamāhine pākūhā, mō te tamāhine kua tūkinotia e te tāne, mō te whenua, mō te pū. Kāore i ārikarika ngā kaupapa o te waiata aroha.

Oriori

I waihangatia te waiata oriori hei whakatau ake i te tamaiti rangatira. Ehara tēnei i te waiata noa iho, engari he whakahua mō te tamaiti ki ōna whenua, ki ōna tātai kōrero. Ko te oriori o Te Tai Rāwhiti, ko ‘Pō! Pō!’ tērā ka hoki rā anō ki te whitinga mai o te kūmara mai i Hawaiki ki Aotearoa.

He mea whakatō te oriori ki roto ki te tamaiti kia ū ai ki ngā kawenga a te iwi. Ā tōna wā ka whakakī ia i ngā whārua a ōna tīpuna.

Waiata poi

Ka pātuki tahi te rere me te pakō o te poi ki te ia o te waiata, pērā i a ‘Poia atu taku poi’ nā Erenora Taratoa o Ngāti Raukawa. He rite tonu ka āmio whenua ngā waiata poi, ā, ka tākina te kaiwhakarongo e te poi i runga i tētahi haerenga.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins and Arini Loader, 'Waiata tawhito - Ngā momo waiata', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/waiata-tawhito/page-3 (accessed 19 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Rawinia Higgins and Arini Loader, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014