Kōrero: Waiata hōu

Whārangi 1. Te takenga mai o te waiata hōu

Ngā whakaahua

Nō te rautau 1800 te panoni haeretanga o te titonga Māori. Kātahi ka rawekehia ngā waiata Pākehā hei kīnaki ki ngā waiata Māori. Ka kitea ngā huringa o te wā i ngā takahuringa o ngā titonga Māori i te rautau 1900. Ka rerekē ngā kaupapa e pā ana ki te iwi, te ao tōrangapū me ngā kaupapa o ia rā.

Ko ētahi titonga he pōhiri, he poroporoaki, he waiata maumahara, he waiata whakanui. Ko ētahi ka kōrero i te aroha me te pouri; ko ētahi ka titoa hei whakangahau i ngā haora o te pō. Ko ngā waiata hahani e pā ana ki te reo Māori me te tino rangatiratanga ka whakauruhia ki ngā haka me ngā waiata.

Ngā ngaringari ā-iwi

Ko ētahi waiata ka noho hei ngaringari mā ētahi iwi. Ko ēnei ngaringari ka whakatō i te wairua teitei mō te iwi. Ko tētahi o ngā momo waiata pēnei ko tō Ngāti Kahungunu ko ‘Rongomaiwahine’, i titoa e Tommy Taurima.

Ngā whakawai o Ūropi me Amerika

I te rautau 1900 ka raweketia ngā rangi o Ūropi me Amerika. I roto i te tuhinga a  Angela Ballara rāua ko Ngātai Huata mō te kaitito o Ngāti Kahungunu mō Paraire Tomoana, ka kōrero rāua mō ngā mōteatea, arā, ‘he iti noa te piki me te heke o ngā rangi, karekau he reo reretahi, ā, he rerekē te taki o ngā mōteatea’. Ka mutu i roto i ngā titonga hōu ‘ka whakaurua ngā kupu kia rite tahi ki te rangi. Ko te nuinga o ngā rangi he rangi Pākehā’.1

Ngā kaitōrangapū Māori

Ki tā Te Rangi Hīroa ko tētahi mahi rawe ki a Apirana Ngata rāua ko Hōne Heke i roto i te pāremata, he whakamāori i ngā waiata rongonui o te wā. Ka whakamahia ngā kīwaha me ngā whakataukī Māori, ā, kāore i whai i ngā kupu Pākehā. Ko tētahi o ngā waiata rongonui ko te whakamāoritanga a Ngata i te waiata Amerikana o ‘Home sweet home’ i kīia ai ko ‘Te kāinga tupu’. Ko ētahi atu o ngā  whakamāoritanga ka kitea i te puka o Souvenir of Maori Congress i whakaputaina e Ngata rāua ko Heke i te tau 1908.

He waiata karihika?

I te tau 1940 ka puta te kōrero a te Kamupene Pāho o Amerika (NBC) i te Āporo Nui kia whakakorehia te kupu ‘piupiu’ i te pāhotanga o te waiata a Alfred Hill, a ‘Waiata poi’. Ahakoa ngā whakamārama atu ki a rātou he kākahu kē te piupiu, ka māharahara tonu ngā āpiha ki te kupu rā.

Te huringa o ngā waiata

Nā Rīpeka Te Paiātehau o Ngāti Porou i tito te waiata whakahē i te ture waipiro a tōna iwi. Ko tētahi atu waiata ahurea i titoa e Kaiārahi Bella, te teina o Mākereti Papakura. He waiata whakawhaiāipo a ‘Pākete Whero’ i mahia hei poi, e kōrero ana mō te aroha i waenganui i tētahi tokorua.

Ko Alfred Hill

I te whakamutunga o te tekau tau 1930 ka haku ake te kaitito me te kaitohu waiata Pākehā a Alfred Hill mō te whakamahi a ngā kaipuoro Māori i ngā puoro o Hawaii (pērā i te ukulele). Nā tōna kaingākau ki te puoro Māori ka hua ake i a ia te tokowhā Māori i te tau 1913 me ‘Waiata poi’, i kawea ai e ngā tira me ngā kapa Māori. I whakapae a Hill karekau he reo waiata whakapakaru tō te Māori, engari he mea ako e te Pākehā ki te Māori. Waihoki tana kī he waiata uma noa iho te wahine Māori, ā, he tino rerekē i tēnei i ngā kaiwaiata Māori o ēnei rā. Ko te koronga o Hill he whakatū i tētahi whakataetae mōteatea ā-motu hei whakapūmau i ngā waiata tūturu Māori.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Angela Ballara. 'Tomoana, Paraire Henare.'Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/3t38/tomoana-paraire-henare (last accessed 21 July 2014). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Piri Sciascia and Paul Meredith, 'Waiata hōu - Te takenga mai o te waiata hōu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/waiata-hou/page-1 (accessed 19 June 2018)

Story by Piri Sciascia and Paul Meredith, published 22 Oct 2014